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Full text of "PURANA"

\ 




Vol. XIV, No. 1 ] 



[ Jan. 1972 




PURAN 



[ Half-yearly Bulletin of the Purana-DepaiWent 



With tht financial assistance from the Ministry of Education, 
Gostrnmmt of India 

VASANTA PANCAMI NUMBER 




ALL-INDIA KASHIRAJ TRUST 
FORT RAMNAGAR, VARANAS1 , 



Annual Subs. Inland Rs. 18 



Foreign 1.5 



eft 



EDITORIAL BOARD 

Padtna-BUushau Pandita-raja Sri Rajesvara ^astrl Dravipa; 
Principal, Sanga-Veda-Vidyalaya, Varanasi. 

Padmu-Bhushan DC. V. Rttghavan, M. A., Ph. D. ; 
Rtd. Professor and Head of the Sanskrit Dept., 
Madras University, Madras. 

Dr. L-udwik Sternbacb, LL. D., Prof, of Indology, 
University of Paris, Paris (Sorbonne) 

Shri Anand Swarup Gupta, M. A., Shastri ; Asstt. Director, 
Purana-Dept., All-India Kasbiraj Trust. (ISditor+n-Cliargt) 



Authors are responsible for their views, which, do not 
bind tbe Kditors and the Trust. 




Vol. XIV., No. I ] 



Contents 



[ Eulogy of GSyatri by NSrayana ] 
(with notes by &l A, S. Gupta) 

The ^rlparvatiya Andhras in the PurS^ias 



By Dr. S. Sankaranarayanan; Mysore. 
Fragments of Tvasta's Silpa-Sastra 



?wr: 

By Dr. Klrit Mankodi ; American 
Academi of Varanasi, Ramnagar 



[ Jan. 21, 1972 



Pages 



1-10 



11-22 



23-29 



A Rejoinder to the comments of Prof. V, V. Despande 
on "Divinity of the King and the Right of the 
Revolution" 



The Holy places of East India as depicted in the 
Skanda-Purana [^^nrfr 

By Dr. Umafcant Thakur; Darjeeljng. 



^akhasof the Atharvaveda 
By Dr. Ganga Sagar Rai; 
All-India Kashiraj Trust 



Book-Reviews [ 

By Sri Anand Stvarup Gupta ; 
All- India Kashiraj Trust 



?rraT: 




30-39 



4-0-57 



58-69 



70-76 



9 Activities of the All India Kashira] Tiust 



ffi] Npa Maftya-Purftfa] 

(continued from Vol. X, 2) 179-199 

Edited by Or, I 



Garu<ja-Par&i)a-A Study-Appendices 1 6 1-206 



swrrrsfa 
?t f 



; PURS^TA [VOL. xiv, 



ff 

sr^s 
'^ ff 



la, 1972] ia 



i 139; ii 



.(Devi.Bhag,XII,5.2-28) 



NOTE ON THE GAYATRl-STOTRA 

The word 'giiyatrl' is generally used for the Gayatri-mantra 
(Rg. III. 62.10; etc.) composed in the well-known Vedic metre 
Gftyaln. This JRk or the mantra is addressed to God Savitr, and 
it is, therefore, also called as Sftvitrl. The presiding (or the abki- 
manim female deity of this mantra is also called Gayatri, conceived 
as the goddess who protects her worshippers and reciters (cf, ''TTzprf 
5fTCSr R*T^iunft msifflT I" Vyasa as quoted in the Vlramitrodaya, 
Ahnika-prakaba, p. 291). The worship of Gayatri in the form of 
meditation on her divine form and the japa or repeated recitation 
of the Gdjtatri-mantra has been enjoined to be performed at the time 
of the sandkya (i.e. the juncture of the three divisions of the day _ 
morning, noon and evening; and hence Goddess Gayatri is also 
called as Sand/iyd,; cf. 



ft 

i ^ 5rf^^^^^^5^r n 

(KQrma-P., Cr. Edn,, II. 18. 25-26) 

In the Erst verse of the Gayatrl-stotra given here from the 
Devi-BhSgavata Goddess Gayatri is addressed as Sandhy* ( ( 4^ % 
?1^S^% ? ). Goddess Gayatri as Sandhya has three different forms 
corresponding to the three sandhya-s (morning, noon and evening) 
which are respectively known as Gtyatrl, Snvitrl and Sarasoatl 
Gayatri is to be meditated in the morning sandhjU as a young R irl 
(bUls.) of red complexion (for she is i elated to the rising sun)- she 
being of the red complexion, is, therefore, conceived as BrUhm or 
the Uli (Energy) of Brahma. Savitrl at the noon is to be medi- 
tated on a full-grown youthful maiden (jauwastta) of bright 
white colour (for sheas related to the sun at its height)- and on 
account of her bright white complexion she is to be conceived as 
Rand* or the Sakti of the Rudra-form of the Sun-god The 
Sarasvatl-form of Sandhya in the evening is to be meditated 'on as 
an old lady W ddk$ of the dark complexion (for she is related to 
the Httmg sun and the evening darkness); and being of the dark 
complexion she is to be conceived as the 3akti of the Visnu-form 
of the Sun-god, (&. 3.4), 



JAN., 1972] NOTE ON THE GXYATRI-STOTRA. 5 

Again, Ggyatri as BrShml is to be meditated on as riding on 
the Swan and reciting the Rgveda, SSvitrl as Raudrl is to be 
meditated on as riding on the Ox and as reciting the Yajurveda, 
Sarasvati is to be meditated on as riding on the Garuda and 
reciting the Samaveda. GSyatrl, the morning-form of Sandhya, 
resides on the Earth (as the Sun is then touching the horizon), 
SSvitrl the mid-day-form of Sandhya, resides in the atmospheric 
regions and Sarasvati, the evening-form of Sandhya, strolls in all 
the worlds and also on the earth. (Sis. 5-6). 

In the present stotra of the DevI-Bh. it seems that the SSvitrl- 
form (at the mid-day) has been conceived as the Vaisnavl Sakti 
and the Sarasvati-form (in the evening) as the Raudrl Sakti (cf. 
ls. 3-4). But the order seems to be reversed here either on 
account of the exigency of the metre or to some tradition different 
from that generally followed by other authorities Cf. 



a in 



(q. in Smrti-candrikaj Ah. K,, p. 355), 

Gobhila, as q. in the Smrti-candrika (ib., p. 374) and in the 
Vlra-mitrodaya (Ah.-Pr., p. 290), also says : 



^rar wwif 



i" 



Also c/. Gayatrl-nirnaya as quoted in these two Nibandhas 
after just the above quotations from Gobhila 

3l3i =3 ftfe Ijzj^f sq^fj ^ ^WJPl I 



s xi v, NO. i 



3*1? H 



Thus, these three forms of SandhyS or GSyatrl may be repre- 
sented as follows : 



VySsa, as q, in the Smrti-candrikS (ib,, p. 354) gives the 
following etymologies of these three forms: 



(i 

The etymology of SandhyS (Gayatri) is also given here as: 



The sun is the prime source of all the energy. It is the soul 
fe isniverse, The -whole universe springs from the sun, it is 



JAN., 1972] NOTE ON THE GXYATRI-STOTRA 1 

preserved and nourished by the sun and is merged in the sun at 
the time of its dissolution: 



03 sten is 



ft ^r^R^ff^^lt 3^T n ^ 

(Brahma- P.,, An. edn , Adh. 31) 

The Sun-god, the presiding or the abhimaninl deity of the sun 
is, therefore, identified with the Trinity, the three gods Brahma, 
MaheSvara and Vi^nu ; cf, "<&$i SK^q g ^^ g irl^l HTqTf'f^g- 
^" 3 f^ 1 ! t ^^T^^ll" (q. above from the Smrti-candrikm); and 
' cqTfo'Jvfni^f f^g^ i*3*ti s^rnfcr: I" (Mbh. Van a- P. , 3. 60). The 
Sun is also conceived as 'qzftfi^'; cf. 



(Br.-P. 32. 15) 



SI II 

(Vis.-P. TL 11. 11) 



ff ^"f 555^58? 



(q. in Acara-bhusana, p. 7J 
Also, 



(Kurma-P v I, 14.16). 



[VOL. xiv, NO. l 

Hence, GSyatri conceived as BrahmSni, RudrSni and Vaisnavl 
6akti reciting, in her three forms, the three Vedas is, in fact, the 
akti of the Sun-god. This Sakti of the sun-god is manifested in 
her material form as the all-pervading solar energy, And Goddess 
Gayatri as identified with the solar energy which is the source of 
all light and heatj is worshipped through the G3,yatrl-mantra. 

Gayatri in her three forms has her abode in the Brahma-loka 
(as Brahml), Rudra-loka (as Raudrl) and Visnu-loka (as Vaisnavi). 
She is the great Maya or the creative Sakti conferring innumerable 
boons on her worshippers; she is the source of pleasure for the 
seven-sages; she has risen from the hands and eyes of God iva 
and Goddess Siva and also has been produced from their tears and 
sweats (the symbolical significance of this conception is not 
clear!): (Sis. 7-8). She is also Goddess Durga., the source of 
happiness and bestower of bhoga (wor)dy enjoyments) and moksa 
(liberation from worldly bondage), in her ten forms, viz. sftw, 
3t5r stKBL ^f^Fft etc. as mentioned in 51s. 9-10. She resides in the 
three worlds in her other three forms; viz. in the world of mortals 
as Bhagitathl, in the nether world (Patala) as Bhogamtl and in the 
celestial world as Triloka-vahirii. (SI. 11). 

Goddess Gayatri is thus identified here with all the important 
Deities of Puranic pantheon on the divine plane. The pantheism 
is further developed by dwelling upon her cosmic form. She is the 
world-sustaining Dharilrl (Earth) in the Bhur-loka (world of 
mortals), the Vfyu-sakti in the Bhuvar-loka (the Middle or the 
Atmospheric Region), the TejasZrh-Nidhi (i.e. the sun) in the Svar- 
loka (celestial Region), the MahU-siddhi (great accomplishment) in 
the Mahar-loka, the Jana (birth) in the Jana-loka, the Tapasvinl 
(performing austerities) in the Tapas-Ioka and the Satya-vnk 
(truthful speech) in the Satya-loka. She is Kamala. (Lakshml) in 
the Vis^u-loka, Gfyatri in the Brahma-loka and Gawl occupying 
half of the body of Kara (iva) in the Rudra-loka. (^ls. 12-14). 

She is the Origin (Prakrti) of the creation, and also tha Prakfti 
(Pradhana, the Primordial Matter) from which the Ahani (Aharhkzra. 
or the cosmic ego) and the Afahat (the cosmic Mind-principle) 
have sprung. She is also the unmodified Prakfti in her sa-mynvastha 
(equipoised., balanced and undisturbed state). She is the Sabala 
(immanent?) Brahman, She is the pars, (transcendent) and the ' 
aparn (immanent) paramU (supreme) 6akti. She is the " IcchV.-sqkti 



JAN., 1972] NOTE ON THE GSYATRI-STOTRA 9 

(will-power), Kriyn-sakti (Power of action) and the Jnana-saktL 
(Power of knowledge), and also the bestower of all these three 
sakti-s. (cf. also Karma- P., I. 11.36 for the three dakti-s}. 

(&s. 15-16). 

The stuti now comes to the level of our physical world. 
Gayatrl is here identified with the principal sacred rivers Gariga, 
Yamuna, Vipaia, Sarasvati etc. mentioned in the three ls. 17- 
19ab, as well as with the principal nad^s or the nerves spread out 
in the human body, which are mentioned in the Yoga treatises 
and are sometimes conceived as the counterpart of some of these 
sacred rivers of BhSrata-varsa. All the nftdi-s mentioned here are 
included in the principal fourteen nadl-s enumerated and described 
in the Sandilya and other Yoga-Upanisads ; cf. 



"351 



(^anclilya-Upanisad 1,9) 

Gayatrl is then identified with the various forms of the subtle 
nerve-forces or sakti-s residing in the nerve-plexuses (called cakra-s 
cf, the Varahopanisad 5.53 '\5mmrfe f^ ^f^^TR^Tf^^ |"). 
These forms are named here as the Prana-sakti residing in the lotus- 
like heart or in the An5,hata-cakra s the svapna-nayika residing in the 
throat or in the Viiuddhi-cakta, the Sadndha.ro. residing in the 
palate, the Bindu-malinl residing in the Bindu semen or the 
mind (the sakti residing in the MulcLdhcLra is also called Bindu j 
cf. Yoga^ikhopanisad. Adhs. 3, 5), the Kundall-Sakti in the Main- 
dhnra, the Vyapinl at the root of the hair of the head; Gayatrl 
resides in the middle of the Sikha or tuft of the hair, she also resides 
in the sikh&gra (root or extremity? of the sikhci; SahasrZra*cakra) 
where she is known as the Uanonmartt (a stage in the Toga where 
the mind ceases to work and all mental modifications are anni- 
hilated: at this stage the great joga-JakX is generated which is also 
called Manonmanl ; "Tf^'^t ^R^ *lfrewt f^Tcrr^" Yoga^ikho- 
panisad 6. 3). 

This cosmic conception of Goddess GSyatrl culminates in the 
last sloka (24) of this ptotra 



10 pFHURi^A [VOL, XIV, NO, 1 

"What is the use of saying so much ! Whatever is there on 
this earth and in the rest of the universe that all is Tk, great 
Goddess ; Sri, SandhyS ! we bow to 7k" 

Then follows the fUa-mti of this riofra in the four llokas 

(25-28), In the Vedic and (he Pursue literature a $kl^ni is 
generally appended to primary topics and slolm to indicate their 
great importance, The importance of the GBjwfrwfofrd is amply 
justified by the fruits mentioned as resulting from the daily reciting 
of this Afrfl with faith and concentration at the time of the three 
M BAji3j. And the ftufra-JTaw (or the ftrfijfl-lf aw) imeans what 
he says, 

-ANANDSWARUP GUPTA 



THE SRlPARVATIYA ANDHRAS OF THE PUR ANAS 

BY 

S. SAMKARANAYANAN 



far scrn 




It is well known to the students of the ancient Indian history 
that the Puranas supply a list of ruling families that arose to power 
on the decline of the imperial Andhras i.e. the SatavShanas, The 
Purajjas call these families as those of the servants of the Ssta- 
vShanas. Among them come first the rl P arvatTya Andhras. The 
relevant Puranic passage runs as follows: 



12 g^TCflj; PURAlvlA [VOL. XIV, NO. 1 



etc> 



The passage that gives the respective reign periods of those 
families reads : 



ti etc - 

Jas. Burgess was probably the fust modern scholar to com- 
ment upon the above passages. He held that the Andhras who are 
called the bhztyas, or servants, of the Andhras, i.e. the Satavahanas, 
in the text may be a petty dynasty either at the modem Srlsailarn 
in the Kurnool district, or across the Krsna" at Candragupta- 
pa^nam in the vicinity. 1 Prof Rapson went a step further and 
suggested that the above servants of the Andhras were perhaps the 
Cutu SStakar:ais. 2 This view, however, has been rejected subse- 
quently by scholars like Hirananda Sastri and others* on the 
ground that the Iksvaku inscriptions associate what is called 
Sriparvata with the Iksvaku capital Vijayapuri in the Nag&rjuna- 
ko$4 a valley. Following this contention^ it is now generally held 
that the whole of the Nallamalai range was known by the general 
name Sriparvata and that it was the Iksvakus and not the Cutus 
who are referred to in the above passages. 4 It is also stressed that 
no dynasty other than the Iksvakus could have ruled in the region 
after the Satavahanas and that to this Snparvata of the Iksvakus 
of the NagSrjunakoijda valley, the Tantrika Nagarjuna of the 
seventh century should have retired as stated by the Tibetan 
writer Taranatha, and as indicated by the nearby Jaggayyapeta 
inscription of Candraprabha the spiritual grandson of that Tantrika 
teacher. 5 _________ 

1. Arch. Sum. S. India,, Vol. 1, (1887) p. 7, f. n. 

2. Catalogue of the Coins oj Andhra Dy. etc. (London, 1908), pp. Ixix, ' 
Ixxxiii 11, 212. 

3. See e. g. Hirananda Sastri, Arch. Sura, India Am. Rep., 1926-27, 
pp. 185-86,- Jayaawal, Joarti. Bihar & Orissa Res. Soc., Vol. XIX 
(1933), p. 171 etc. 

4. See e. g. K.. Gopalachari, Early Hist. Andhra Country (Madras, 1941) 
p. 396; The Age of Imperial Unity (Ed. R. G. Majumdar etc., Bombay, 
1951>, p. 224, A Goaiprtheraive Hist. Ind. (Ed. K, A. N. Sastri, Orient 
Longmans, 1957) p. 333. 

5. See c. g. K, Gopalachari, op. cit, p. 126, etc. 



JAN., 1972] THE SRIPARVATIYA ANDHRAS OF THE PURA~^AS 13 

Thus the choice of the scholars lies in between the Cutus and 
the IksvSkus in explaining the above passage. In the present 
paper it is proposed to see which of these two families have a better 
claim to be referred to in the given PurSnic verses, It will be 
seen in the sequel that the evidence of the Nagarjunakonela and 
Jaggayyapeta inscriptions and the arguments based on them are 
not strong enough to go against what Burgess and Rapson had 
suggested. On the other hand there are reasons amplifying the 
validity of their contention 

(i) The Cutukula coins from the Anantapur district 1 and 
from the southern part of the former Hyderabad State 3 indeed go 
to prove that the Gutus held sway in and around the Srlsailam 
or the Srlparvata area and that they could have been rightly 
referred to as Sriparvitiyas It may get further support from the 
fact that the Sri^ailam region was known in the medieval times by 
the name Kannadu Kama- vis aja which were evidently the contract- 
ed forms of Satakarni~nadu and Satakarni-visaya. It is likely that 
they were nothing but the S0.tavahani-ha.ra of the MySkadoni inscrip- 
tion of Pulumavi and Satavahani-ratta of the Hirahadagalli 
plates. 8 But the Cutus, like their masters, viz. the SatavShanaSj 
are known to have borne the title or surname Sstakarni. Hence 
Satakarninadu may denote the land of the Cutu Satakarnis as well. 

(ii) The present Srisailam is famous for its temple of the 
goddess BhramarSmba, who is stated to be one of the 18 Saktis.* 
In the Lalilopakhyo-na section of the Brahmandapurana, the hill is 
included in the list of 50 Snplthas of the goddess Lalita. 5 The 
Matsyapurana describes it as a seat of the mother goddess M&dhavi. 6 
The Agnipu.ro.na goes to say that it is a siddhiksetra where gods Siva 
and Farvati are always present. 7 The Ka'h&sarits&gara contains 

1. . Rapson, op. cit., p. Ixxxi. 

2. Ep. Ind. Vol. XXXV,' pp. 69 if. The clear legend on these coins is 
AdaKasuiapatisa Bharadajiputasa Sagamana-Gutukulasa meaning "[this is 
the cain) of Sagancuna of the Cutu family who is the son of a 
Bharadvaji and ia a great commander of armies." 

3. See Joarr. Andh. Hist. Res Soc., Vol. X, p. 89. B.C. Sircar Succes- 
sors of the SalavUhanas [Calcutta 1933] p. 402. 

4. U. C. Sircar Studies in Geography of Ancient and Med, India [Delhi, 
I960] p. 87. 

5. Ch. 44, verse 98- 

6. Ch. 13, verse 31. 

7. Gh. 113, verse 6-7. 



1* s?rar*i; PURX^A [VOL. xiv, NO. i 

a story of a KSshmirian, performing penance in this place and 
receiving boons from the gods. 1 In the romance Vasavadattn> its 
celebrated author Vasubandhu, perhaps earlier than Bana-bhatta, 3 
describes Sriparvata as an abode of god Mallikarjuna. 3 It is 
well-known that the presiding deity of the Sri^ailam temple is the 
god Mallikarjuna. All these tend to prove, beyond reasonable 
doubt, that the popular and conventional meaning (^jq) in which 
the expression brlparvata was known to the Paurftnikas and other 
writers of ancient India was "the Srisailam hills" of today, It 
is also very likely that it was only to this place, and not the 
SrTparvata of the inscription from Nagarjunakonda which has no 
such claim to be a centre of the worship of the Mother Goddess 
that might have been chosen by the said tfrntrika teacher NSg3rjuna 
also for his success (siddhi) in the worship of the Mother Goddess 
TaraV 1 The presence of his grand-disciple's inscription in 
Jaggayyapeta does not go against the above conclusion as both 
the place are not far removed from one another. 

(iii) Among the NagSrjunakonda inscriptions in which one 
Sriparvata is known to have been associated with the Iksvaku 
capital Vijayapuri, the majority would seem to locate the hill to 
the east of that city as Prof. Vogel had correctly held. fi Again the 
AbhTra king Vasusena's inscription recently discovered in Nagar- 
junakonda itself refers to the act of beautifying or painting of 
the enclosure wall or rampart of the Parvata (q^Nf^T ^ STRiK: 
ferftcr:) 8 evidently the same Srlparvata of the other NSgSrjunkoijda 
records. It is obvious, therefore, that the Patvata or Srlparvata of 
the area is not a range of hills, but a hill small enough to have an 

1. Lambaka 12, Taranga, 6, verse 105. 

2. See the Classical Age [Ed. R.C. Majumdar ete,] [Bombay, 1962] p. 316. 

3. Cf . ^q^r ^5f 'ETfeff cRf^T^nT: in the ^w^ [Srirangam, 



1906], p. 100. 

4. See also N- Dutt, Ind. Hist. Qjurt., Vol. VII (1931), p. 639. 

5. Ep. Ind. Vol. XX S pp, 9, 23 and 36. These records do not perhaps 
locate the city on. the hill as some would think. (Of. Ep, Ind., Vol. 
XXXV, pp. 8 etc. 

6. See Ep. Ind. Vol. XXXIV, p. 203 teKt line 4. It may be noted that 
this inscription is found in the north-east corner of the Nagdrjuna- 
koncja valley (ibid. p. 197) and that the records, aa pointed out 
above, loeate Srlparvata to the eaht of Vijayapuri, 



JAN.,, 1972] THE SRIPARVATIYA ANDHRAS OF THE PURA"MAS 15 

enclosure, 1 It would also appear that the term Srlparvata of the 
said inscriptions is not used in the traditional or conventional sense 
OsI^) but only in the etymological sense OrtfrsfiT^) "sacred or holy- 
hill. " In a way., it can be compared to the term tirumalal (tradi- 
tionally meaning ''Tirupati hills" in the Ghitoor District /and an 
exact Tamil translation of the Sanskrit Srlparvata) of the Tamil 
inscriptions of the southern most districts of the Tamil country 
where it is used only in the etymological sense only i. e . f< a sacred 
or holy hill." 8 

At the same time^ we may have to take &rlparoata of the 
Puranas in the traditional or conventional sense only j. e, ''the 
rlsailam hills." 3 For that expression was known to Jhe Pauranikag 
and poets in the conventional sense only as we heve seen earlier. 
Moreover the word Srlparvatlya of the passage denotes as we shall 
see subsequently a warrior people and it is well known that in the 
case of the names of warrior clans or tribes^ which also denote 
their native country, the meaning is generally conventional and 
not etymological. 1 

(iv) According to the NSgarjunkonda inscription of the Abblra 
Vasuseija, mentioned above, a mountain Called Sedagiri is 
situated in the NSgarjunakorida valley. This Secjagiri, must be 
identical with the Setagiri which is included by the Nasik inscrip- 
tion, in the list of territories over which GautamTputra ri Satakarni 
claims 10 be ruling. The latter is mentioned along with the 
Sahya, Siritana, Malaya, Mahendra etc., in that record.* 5 Therefore 
this Sedagiri., like the Sahya etc., must be a range of hills, as has 
been rightly pointed out by scholars. 6 The hill-range in the 
N3,gSrjunakojj.da area contains white stones, now known as "Palnad 



1. Of. K. Gopalachari, op. cit., p. 125, f. n. 

2. While translating the Ramanathapuram (N. Arcot district) inscrip- 
tion, Dr. Hultzsch has correctly rendered Tirumalai as "holy 
mountain". See Ep. Ind. Vol. VI, p. 332. 

3. Cf. the ny-aya 



4. Monier-Williams, Skt. Eng. Diet. (1899) s. v, ru'jha. 

5. Ep. Ind. Vol. VIII, pp. 60 ff. text line 3. 

6. Ep. Ind. Vol. XXXIV, p. 200. The Setagiri remained unidentified 

for along time. See Rapson, op. cit. p. xxxv. Buhler'a identifica- 
tion of it with a Svetagiri in the Goromandal Coaat (Arch. Sura. W, 
Ind, Vol. IV, p. 108, f. n.^ may not hold good now, 



16 ^rcr* PURAiiiA [VOL. xiv, NO. l 

Marble" and therefore deserves to be called Sedagiri or Setagiri 
(Skt. Svetagiri, "white mountain") 

Now, if one assumes that the whole of the Nallamalai range 
was called Sriparvata during the period under question, then it 
would hardly be possible to think of the Sedagiri range in the area 
as different from the Srfparvata (i. e. the Nallamalai range). 

Therefore, it seems that the range of the Nallamalais in the 
Palnad area in the east was known by the name Seda (Seta) giri, 
while the western wing of that range in the ^ailam area went by 
the name Srfparvata. 

The above view seems to receive further support from the 
above Nasik inscription itself in the following way : In that 
inscription, the list of Gautamlputra's territories includes, as we 
have just now seen, both Siritana and Setagirij thus showing that 
they are different from one another, Siritana has been identified 
with the ris"ailam = 6riparvata by R. G. Bhandarkar 1 and Buhler. 2 
If it is so, s then it would establish that the Srlparvata and the 
Seda (or l;a) giri the latter in the Nagarjunakonda area were 
taken to be different, though they respectively represented the 
western and eastern wings of the Nallamalais. ThuSj it would 
appear that the Iksvakus if they have to be called after the place 
of their rise were to be referred to as Sedagiriyas (bvetagirlyas) 
and not rlparvatJyas. 

(v) The expression Srlparvatlya in the PurSJjic passage under 
study comprises two parts viz. the base Srlparvala and the taddhita 
suffix cha. So far we have seen that the conventional meaning of 
the first part militates against the S\iparvatiya = IksvSku ideiili- 
fication. It may be seen now that the meaning of the suffix also 
fits well if the expression Srlparvatlya is taken to mean the Cut us 
rather than the Iksvakus. In this context it should not be for- 
gotten that the riparvatlya Andhras are described as the bhjtyas 

1. Cellecied works of R. G. Bhandarkar, Vol. I, p. 233. 

2. Arch. Sun. W. Ind. Vol. IV, p. 108 n. 

3. A few seholare like Rapson (op. cit, p. xxxv) have entertained some 
doubts about this identification. But none have come forward with 
any better suggestion. Hence writers in general (see e- g. the Early 
Hia, oftkt Dca*-Ed, Yazdani-p. 78)- a ome half-heartedly of course 
(See D. C. Sircar, J. Sato. p. 142)-approve of the Siritana,, 
Snparvata identineatiQti, ' 



JAN., 1972] THE gRIPARVATIYA ANDHRAS OF THE PURS J AS 17 

or servants of the imperial Andhras, This obviously denotes that 
the Sriparvatiyas had been most probably serving as military 
officers under the Sstavahanas. 1 Now here the suffix cha is under 
a rule of Paijini according to which rlparoatlyfth would mean "the 
ayudhnjivins 'i.e. those who earn their living by war arms) whose 
native land was the Srlparvata.* The Gutukula chiefs are known 
to have enjoyed the army rank of Mahasenapati and to be military 
governors under some rulers/ evidently the Satavahanas. There- 
fore they could have been appropriately referred to as nyudkajivins. 
On the other hand, the IksvSkus are known to us only as kings 
and the direct evidence to show them as ayudhajlmns is yet to come 
to light ; though one may try to find some indirect and vague 
evidence to that effect.^ 

(vi) As we have already seen, in the Puranic passage under 
study the SriparavatTya Andhras are described to be the bhftyas or 
servants of the Satavahanas. Now as shown above, there is a stron^ 
probability of the Gutus being' the servants of the Satavahanas 

1. Cf. the cased of the founders of the S'unga, Kunvayana and S^ta- 
vahana families, who had been originally military officers and rose 
to power when their respective overlords viz. the Mauryas, Suugas 
and KanvSyanas become weak. 

2. Gf. STTSErsftfrwrraS: 13% MtfWAy^, IV, in, 9]J. Of course there 

is another rule viz. q^psq. (ibid. IV, ii, 143) according to which 
also the suffix cha is possible. But that rule is a pwva'sastra or a 
rule earlier than the one q-pp- etc. in the AsCudhfayu Again it is 
concerned with the word paroata alone, which is a general name F 
hills and its suffix is also in the general sense only (iaigKZrthrt. 
So, it \B a sort of samany^'sastra or general rule. On the other hand* 
the rule ayudha etc. is a Paras s t ra Qr ] ate r rule; is concerned with 
the proper names of the hills, like Rohitagiri etc,; and the suffix 
cha. here has a special sense abhijana or native country, besides th 
meaning ayiidhajiuin. Thus, it is an apavada or exceptional rule 
Now it may be pointed out that the word Srtparoata in our Purunic 
passage is a proper name, though its later part happens to be the 
word parvata. Again it is quite evident that the expression Sri, 
parvafiya is used there to denote the native country (abhijana) of the 
people under description. So here we have a elear case for the rule 
-yudha etc., which is doubly stronger than the other according to 
the takra-Kaundinya-nWa and the maxim jfrtf 
TT^tRttR 3"5fter: (* A<f Paribltosendu'sekfiara, No. S8J. 

^ See Ep. 2nd. Vol. XXXV, p. 73. 

4, See e. g. K. Gopalachari, op. cit., pp. 130-3J, 

3 



18 g^TOR PURSiiLA [VOL. XIV, NO. 1 

while evidence is altogether lacking to show the Iksvakus as 
servants. 

(vii Again, the dynastic title Andhrah, in the passage is more 

suitable to the Cutus than to the Iksvakus. It is well known that 

the Satavahanas otherwise called 55 takarnis are referred to in the 

Bhavisya section of the Puranas as Andhm. 1 The Cutus are 

known to have been related to the Satavahanas i e. Andhras by 

blood 3 , and to have borne their title Satakarm. ^ So, they could be 

rightly referred to as Andhras. The adjective Srlparoatljfa is added 

to their name obviously to distinguish them from the Andhra 

Satavahanas. On the other hand, the Iksvakus of Vijayapura, 

as their dynastic name indicates, were probably considered to be 

the descendants of Iksvaku and the Bkavisya section of the PurSnas 

clearly declare that the Andhras were altogether different from 

the Iksvakus." 

Now, if the Ikijyakus are meant in the passage under exami- 
nation then consequently one may have to expect a text something 
like %[3R: <pfcftaT: etc. Even if one should take the word Andhrah 
in the sense of "the rulers of the Andhra Countiy" (for the 
Puranas do not appear to use the word in that sense\ then also, 
one may legitimately expect a text like ^m ^13^% etc. 4 At any 
rate, the Pcuro.nikas would not all have omitted the dynastic 
designation Aikfvfikavah so familiar to them. 5 

(viii) Above all, even the context in which the ^rlparvatiya 
Andhras are introduced in the Puranic passage seems to be more 
suited to the Gutus than to the Iksvakus. For, here they are 
stated to have risen to power in a particular period denoted by 
the passage SFffRTT 'fff^f TP^, which has been generally rendered 
as "when the kingdom of the Andhras has come to an end." 5 

1. Pargiter, op. eit. pp. 38 ff. 

2. See T he Age aj Impcri alUnvly [op. cit.] p. 2o8, A Comp. Hist. Ind. 
(op. cit.) p. 325, 

s. Cf, r>^ts% craraRT^r xxx ^^zffsq^sfq- ?r ^rr?^ ^TrW% *TTr: 
<fr: i xxx ^*n: W^T: jfsn^rw ctc - f ^s'^r, o P cit., P . 2. 

4, The adjectives parvafyak and Andhrtih are each to distinguish the 

Southern IkBvSkxisof Vijayapuri from their northern cojinterpai t. 

5. E. g. We have the expression r^^rspW^^^EfTcT actually in the 
Bhavisja section itself. See Pargiter, op. cit. p. 23, 

5. ce Pargiter, op. cit- p. 72, 



JAM., 1972] THE SRlPARVATIYA ANDHRAS OF THE PURlJilAS 19 

However, the root stha proceeded by sum, from which sariisthita is 
derived primarily means rf to stand", ' f to stay", "to remain" etc. 

Of course the PurSij.as use the root also in the sense of r 'to 
come to an end". But, the following fact may be borne in mind 
in the present context. Whenever the PurSnas make a statement 
that such and-such family came to an end with such-and-such Icing 
and pass on to the description of another family, then they use 
the root sarh+sthS. in the sense of "to come to an end/' 1 But 
it must be distinctly understood that in those passages the end 
of one family is not indicated to be serving as a background of the 
rise of another family. On the other hand, when one family is 
stated to have risen to power at the end of another family, the 
Puraijas generally use for the purpose the words al'Ua utsanna z 
etc., rather than the derivatives of sam+stha, (and the like) 
obviously to avoid confusion between the two diametrically 
opposite meanings of the latter, 

Thus the word samsthita in our passage seems to be used 
only in the sense of remaining". 3 Accordingly,, Andhranam 
samsthite rajye would convey the meaning rt when the kingdom of 
the Andhras was (still) remaining." It is now really interesting 
to note that the newly discovered Gutukula coins have been 
assigned by scholars to that period when the Satavahana power 
1. See e. g. ^ ^.T^ gnrftCTIf ^f g^- ( X X X I 

feFr etc ' CPwgiter, op. cit. p. 2); 



X-X I 

^w: xxxi STFT 3?sif srawrP? fswrajjrf etc. C ibid -^ PP. a-); 



!?r: XXXI 

r: I etc - (ibid., pp. 12, 14). 
2. Cf. e.g. 



f _ 



r; i etc. (ibid, p. 50). Cf. also 
TTT" I [ibid., p. 48]. 
3. For the use of the word in this sense cf. sff^ft gA ^ ^ -> 
ftf&Tra^fcr | (Srimad-VTilmiki RTimTyana, MIJ. 1933, VI, xx ui 
WclTtw etc - (Jbid- VI, xxv, 11); q.,. ^ ^^r 
T etc. (TA Durgasaptasatl Ch. V, verses 14 etc.Jl 



20 g^Rm: PURAtsiA [VOL. xiv, NO. i 



had not totally disappeared but was fast declining. 1 Perhaps the 
Cutus started reigning like the AbhTras (who figure next to them 
in the above Puran.ic verse) about the end of the second century. 3 

On the other hand the Naggrjunakonda inscription of Vijaya 
Satakarni/' perhaps after whom IksvSku capital Vijayapurl was 
named., 1 and the Kodavali inscription of his successor Cajj.d.asati/ 
the penultimate Andhra king of the Puranic list, show that the 
SatavShanas were holding the area upto their end. So, the 
Iksvakus could have risen to power after the complete disappearance 
of the SatavShanas, 

Thus in view of what we have analysed so far the Sriparvatiya 
Andhras of the Puranic passage under question may be identified 
with the Cutus and not with the Iksvakus. 

Recently, an attempt has been made to amend the 
passages under study as follows ; 



W. \ 

etc 



1. Ep. Irtd. Vol. XXXV, p. 73. 

2. Scholars seem to be perfectly right when they suggest that the 
XbMras who are stated, in the passage, to have succeeded the Sata 
vahanas and to have ruled for 67 yeara must have preceded those 
who founded the so called Kalacuri-C e di Era of 548-49 A. D as the 
latter seem to have ruled for more than 150 year8 . Sec ACompr,. 
A H^t. Ind. (op. cit.) pp. 322-23. But the writers who are 
inclined to identify the Abhiras of our passage with the founders 
of the Baicl Era are compelled to reject the majority of the Puranic 
versions that allot to the SbhJraa 67 years of reign in preference'to 
a solitary manuscript of the Va^pur^a. B eBi des in that manus- 
cnpt also th e8e writers have to m odify the corrupt text in such a 
w.ya. ,to get the meaning 167 year8 . See Croj> , In ^ Indic 

Vol. TV, p. xxvi. 

3. Ep, Ind. Vol. XXXVI, pp. 273 ff, 

4. Ibid. p. 274. 

5. Ep. ItuL. Vol. XVIII, pp. 316 ff. 



JAN., 19721 THE SRIPARVATIYA ANDHRAS OF THE PURSJ^IAS 21 

Viewing the Andhraa and riparvatiyas of the last hemistich 
as two different families and identifying them respectively with the 
Cutus and Iksvakus, the above amended passage has been rendered 
as ''There will be families of the Andhras and families of their 
servants. There will be seven Andhras. The Andhras and the 
SrTparvatTyas will rule for 102 and 100 years [respectively]" 1 

Now without entering into the question of propriety and 
feasibility of such a drastic emendation, one may experience the 
following difficulties in the above interpretation. 

(i) In the portion under study we find a iist of royal families 
that rose to power on the decline of the Satavahanas. They are 
eight in -number viz. (1) Andhras, (2) the Abhlras,, (3) the 
Gardabhins, (4) the akas, (5) the Yavanas, (6; the Tusaras, (7) 
the Murundas, and (8) the Maunas. Their respective reign periods 
are given in the succeeding verses. 2 In the above list of families 
we do not find the mention of the Snparvatlyas, even according to 
the above emended reading. But, at the same time, according to 
this new interpretation there would be nine families in the verses 
giving their respective reign periods. This descripancy ( q^raq-^- 
^: ) is indeed too glaring to be ignored, 

(ji) Moreover, the alleged description of the reign periods of 
the two families in a single hemistich in the supposed fashion goes 
against the style of the passages under study where each hemi- 
stich clearly gives the reign period of each royal house separatly. 

(iii) Besides, the verse under question speaks of the rise of 
the new Andhras on the decline of their older namesakes. So 
one may reasonably expect the Pauranjkas to distinguish the new 
from the older by adding a suitable adjective. The term 
Sriparvatljah is actually found immediately following Andhrak in the 
verse. So, it can be better taken logically as an adjective of Andhras 
immediately preceding rather than as an independent noun. The 
Puraijic style also often seems to employ words, in their adjectival 
forms, pointing out to the original place of the dynasties and 
kings to describe in their respective context. 3 

1. The BKarata War and PurHnic Genealogies (Ed. D. G. Sircar, Calcutta, 

1969) p. 120. 

2. See Pargiter, op. cit., pp. 45-47. 

3. Cf. e- g. M"agad!uin~im B'arhadrathanam and NrpUn Vaide'siKan (Pargiter, 
op. cit., pp. 14, 46). See also the Parana, Vol. XII, p. 80. 



22 3*1^ PURANIA. [VOL. xiv, NO. i 



(iv) As we have already seen, the rise of the Cutus and the 
Abhlras is to be assigned to a period earlier than that of the 
IksvSkus. So, the suggested interpretation that would find a 
reference to the latter in between the former two does not again 
seem to be in tune with the Puranic style, 

Thus, on the grounds discussed above, it is better to take the 
whole expression Andhrah Srlparvatlyah as referring to the single 
familyviz, the Gutu Satakarijis. 

Before concluding, it may be of interest to note that the 
newly discovered Tummalagudern plates describe the members of 
the Vishnukundi family as Srlparvatlyas J Similarly, the Haraha 
inscription of the Maukhari Ts'anavarman dated V. S. 61 1 (553-54 
A. D.) speaks of an Andhrapatj 2 who must be obviously identical 
with a contemporary Vishnukundi king. These may indicate that 
the Sariparvaliya Andhras, i e. the Cutus of the early period 
mentioned in the PurSnas and the Visnukundis of the later times 
probably claimed to be the members of a common ethnical group. 



1, Jourrt. Jnd. Hist, Vol. XLIII, pp. 'JSS, ff, text line 26. 

2. Ep. Jnd., Vol XI V, pp. 115 ff., text line 12. 



FRAGMENT OF TVASfA'S bILPA-SASTRA 

BY 
KlRIT MANKODI 




The Manas&ra, & 15th century South Indian &ilpa-b'astra, lists 
thirty- 1 wo past masters of the Silpa tradition, some of which prove 
to be names of authors, others of texts. The fact that the list and 
the account of Isilpins is given in terras of a mythical descent, and 
that names of individuals aie mixed up with names of texts, may 
make one doubt the list. However, several texts mentioned in the 
list have been discovered, confirming the historical validity of the 
Manasara account. 1 The discovery of one fragment from Tvasta's 
text, which I am presenting here, further confirms the list. 



1. Text of Maya and Visvakarnu are already known. Shri M, A. 
Dhaky, Research Associate at the American Academy of Benares, 
in the course of extensive survey of Silpa texts, published and un- 
published, has discovered four texts: ManiPs ManuMra, Parames- 
vara's Mahutantra, the Aindramatam and the farasariyakam. Shri 
Dhaky will discuss these in a Gujarati article he is writing on the 
suurce-book of South Indian temple architecture, parts of which 
I have been generously allowed to read. -For the list given in the 
MT.nasara see: Prasanna Kumar Acharya, MUnasara Series: Mana- 
i,~rci on Architcctuns and Sculpture (Oxford University Press, N. d.), 
chapter 68. 5-9, and Vol. VI (Oxford University Press, 1946). pp. 
245 4"; Jitendra Nath Banerjea, Dnelopmtnt of Hindu Iconography 
(2nd edn-, Calcutta 1956), p. 14 A briefer list of eighteen masters. 



24 g^TCrq; PURAJSIA [VOL. xiv, NO. l 



This chapter is one on the proportions of divine images. 
Though a solitary chapter, the fact of its authorship is of interest 
to students of iconography, and its existence deserves to be reported. 
The text gives prescriptions on the proportions of divine 
images from the tallest or "superior", uttama dasa-tala, to those of 
gradually reducing heights up to eka-tala. It gives proportions, 
concerning heights only, of images and of their limbs. Other 
measurements, like those of widths, or of interspaces, are 
not given. 1 

The textj as preserved^ does not define the units of measure- 
ments., which are: theyava; the ahgula or matra', and the t&la, bhtlga 
or mukha. We know from other texts that java is the smallest unit 
oi measurement; eight yavas make an ahgula, and one aiigulo, is 
1/12 ofa.ta.la. 

The copy is indifferently preserved. Parts of some stanzas 
are missing (stanzas 6, 7, 13); the chapter breaks off abruptly at 
stanza 44. In some places the text is too corrupt to be intelligible. 
The reduction in proportions of each successive smaller image 
must originally have been achieved in the same progressively 
staggered and orderly way as in other better preserved iconometric 
texts. In the present chapter, however, this symmetry is some- 
times lost. 

The copy which I am publishing comes from Surat in 
Gujarat, but the original provenance of the text must be South 
India." The topic of proportions is treated like in known South 

exists in the Matsjui-Purunim which shares four names with the 
M7<nasuTa. Maya, Visvakarman, Vis31ttksa and Indra (under the 
name Purandara). See Acharya. Vol. VI, p, 246, and Banerjea, 
p. 14. 

1. These arc, according to Matici's VaikKtanasagama; niana or length, 

frnmanft or breadth, tinmTma or thickness, pariniana. or girth, itpamTtna 
or interspaces, and lambamuna or measurement taken down the 
plumb Hue. Banerjea, pp. 313 ff,, has a detailed discussion of this 
topic. T. A. Gopinatha Rao, 'I ~a.la.mana. or Iconomttrj (Archaeological 
Survey of India Memoir 3), gives a table of measurements as given 
in aome other Silpa texta. 

2. Shri Prabhashankar Sompura, a sthapaii of Gujarat, copied it from 

a manuscript in Surat. Shri Dhaty, brought it to my attention and 
suggested writing thia note. Thanks are due to Shri Sompura, who 
has willingly allowed roe to publish the fragment Thanks are due 
also to Professor Ahi Bhushan Bhattacharya of Varanasi for going 
through the copy with me and making important suggestions. 



JAN., 1972] FRAGMENT OF TVASTS'S SILPA-SSSTRA 25 

Indian texts studied by Gopinath Rao in his Tnlamana; the pro- 
portions also show an agreement with some reproduced by 
Gopinatha Rao, Further 3 the Manas&ra itself, and the four other 
texts recently discovered, are all South Indian, 

I have not attempted a connected translation; I have given 
the contents of the text in a table. 



mrofa ^ n ? 

( fcnrara ? ) 

nf 

( ^ ? ) 



ass} ?f tfwr: n 



? ) n ^ n 



: ( asw ) i 
t n 

( ^ ? ) ^ i 
: n ^ n 



26 strain PURS ^ A [VOL- xiv, 



?) 



fcmi g fsj'ft ^^i^g^tq^ (559=5^^ ?) 
; =3 [ ;ra ? ] nr^: n 



( 31^5 ) 

^^1^35^ ii ? ^ ii 
star ^ ^iNr ^ 5133^3^ i 

1 1 



JAN., 1972] FRAGMENT OF TVASTA'S SILPA-^ASTRA 27 



i) R^ i! 

n^P^ I 

11 R^ n 



( a^ET ? ) rm&tft: 
II ^ II 



n ^^ n 



( 53 ? ) 

n ^ if 



26 



xlv > N0 ' 



..... 



JAN., 1972] FRAGMENT OF TVATA"'5 



29 



H 



& 



1 


I ^J g 3 


1 1 1 


1 


OS 

ho bo 

B a 

M tC 
< CM 


1 1 I 




M bo 

c a 

Cfl C3 


1 1 1 




or CM 






bo bo 

B o 


, 


1 


CM CM 




1 


bo bo 
C c 
ni cd 

CM CM 


1 1 1 




bo bo 

W ci 


1 1 I 




CM CM 




1 


bo bo 
B C 
(3 cfl 
CO CM 


1 1 I 




bo bo 
c a 




I 


CO CM 


1 ' 


1 


bD bo 
a B 
w a 


1 1 1 




CO CM 






bo bo 

c c 

C3 A 


1 1 1 




<*< CM 

T-i 




1 


bo bo 
B 
cQ ra 

-* 1 CM 


I 1 1 




g 3 ^ ' 




1 


0} t 


1 1 1 






bD bo too 

B B a 



I I I 1 I 1 1 

bo M bp bo bp 



_ P-I CO CM 



>^ ^ CM 



ho ba 



i , 
' ' 



bC ^ bo 

fj 



< ^H r-, CM 



bo 
S I 



50 bo 



bo tuO bo ao 

sn o o 



bo fl bo 
g ra a 

TO 14 TO 



< ^, _H CM CM 



2 2 



A REJOINDER TO THE COMMENT OF PROF. V. V 
DESHPANDE ON THEE DIVINITY OF THE KING 
AND THE RIGHT OF REVOLUTION 

BY 

OM PRAKA.SH 



srfcr f^i^fwnft ^ *ff5R?ft 
sFt ra^r sqrfq-ff 
sRrftr: fest^ erTT fat 



r srfcT 



ifir 



In Vol. XIII of the PurSija Bulletin there appeared a long 
comment on my short note entitled 'The Divinity of the King and 
the Right of Revolution in the Pura^as'. The commentator Prof. 
V. V. Deshpande has three points to make against what I had to 
say in my note. 

1. I and Dr. John Spellnvin, Spellman maintaining that 
the PurSnas uphold the absolute inviolability of the divinely 
infused person of the king and I refuting it have both been led 
astray^ suggesting thereby that it is possible to maintain a third 
position which I or John Spellman (or any of the Indologists of our 
respective views) have failed to arrive at because of our two pre- 
conceived notions, This failure prevents us from saying any thing 
new and original and makes us merely new adherents of the two 
old sets of familiar views. 

2. The two preconceived notions, of which I and all other 
Indologists have been victims so far, are : 1. the presumption 
that members of the ancient Indian community like their modern 



JAN., 1972] DIVINITY OF THE KING 31 

counterparts were not only endowed wilh normal basic rights of 
human beings but they were always keenly conscious of their 
possesing the same ; 2. the supposition that these rights were 
equally possessed by all without being confined to a particular 
class. 

3 The right of resistance to a tyrannical monarch to the 
extent of killing him was granted only to the BrShmanas who 
because of being learned, divine and the guardians of Dharma were 
competent to judge the conduct of the king and to overthrow and 
even to kill him if the violation oi Dharma was deemed to be total 
and flagrant. This is, according to him, the position in the PurSnas 
in particular and ancient India in general. 

The first two points being negative need only be summarily 
replied while the third deserves a more seiious consideration. 

' As regards the first point, it is not clear if he assumes the so- 
called f two sets of view among Indologists' with regard to the 
position in the PurSrias alone or to ancient India in general. If 
latter is the case (he assumption is totally unfounded as many 
scholars, including John Spellman, advocate both the views on 
the basis of different pronouncements of (he politico-social litera- 
ture of ancient India. They maintain that the ancient Indian 
posi ion in this regard, is not quite consistent and contradictory 
utterances supporting absolute inviolability of the divine king, 
even if tyrannical, and expressly giving the subjects not only the 
light of resistance but also of assassination of the tyrant, are not 
far to seek. Unless therefore., one set of utterances be explained 
away in favour of the other, a break in the traditional attitude 
over this question will have to be conceded. My endeavour has 
been to show that it is possible to explain away all the passages 
purporting to grant absolute immunity to the tyrant and hence 
the conclusion of a necessary break in the traditional Indian 
attitude over this question need not be regarded as the only 
alternative. 

If however, he means that this division of the Indologists 
into two sets of view was only in respect to the position in the 
Puranas I may ask as to how many of the Indologists have 
analysed the materials of the Puranas independently as the result 
of which they Ml into so sharp a division ? (The author has 
independently examined the Puranic materials in his unpublished. 



32 g*TOR~PURSlA [VOL. XIV, NO. 1 



thesis 'Polity in the PurSnas'). Corroborative nature of the 
PurSnic evidence has all along been the rule with the Indologisfs 
and they have tried to make PurSpic materials the vehicle of 
their otherwise arrived at conclusions. This was possible because 
the question was nowhere expressly discussed in the Puranas and 
their material is capable of being interpreted in more than one 
way, John Spellman had constructed it in the manner as if it was 
the only possible way to do it and by refuting him I had tried to 
show that the other possibility is not totally ruled out and if 
consistency can be maintained in the whole of the traditional 
attitude over this question their is no need to assume a break. In 
a long paper yet unpublished I have surveyed all theTelevent 
passages right from the Vedas down to the PurSijas to show the 
consistency of the traditional attitude. If the readers of thePufana 
Bulletin are interested, the paper can be sent for publication in 
its pages. 

It appears from the manner in which Prof. Deshpande has 
started his comment that he is going to put forward a third position 
other than the long familiar two sets of views he criticised. But 
to my surprize and delight I find him concluding with my position 
only slightly modified. I hold that the right of tyrannicide 
appears to have been granted by the Puranas to the people as a 
whole and he maintains that the right so granted, was not meant 
for the people as a whole but confined to the privileged class of 
the Brahmanas, also held to be divine like the king, 

The allegation of two preconceived notions' on the Indologists 
in general and on me in particular, may be justified only when it 
can be proved that the right of revolt against a tyrannical ruler 
was granted exclusively to the BrShmaijis. But, as will be shown 
later on, the PurSnas are silent on this point and Prof. Deshpande 
has interpreted this silence in the light of his inference that 
BrShmaijas alone had the right to revolt against a tyrannical king 
because almost all the Pur5$ic legends of tyrannicide or insul t 
to the tyrant exhibit only Brahmanas on the fore-front a circum- 
stance a!so explicable in terms of leadership reposed on the 
intellegentia formed by the Brahmaijas alone. Other Indologists, 
including myself, seek to understand this silence in the context of 
the non-PurSoic and epic passages granting the right of tyrannicide 
opetjjy and exclusively to the people. Readers of the PurSna 



JAN., 1972] DIVINITY OF THE KING 33 

Bulletin can judge for themselves which of the two approaches 
to this moot point is really presumptive arguing on the basis 
of a self-made defective inference or being guided by the textual 
evidence at our disposal. If the textual evidence shows indubi- 
tably that the right of revolution belonged to the people we cannot 
reject it simply because of its apparent incongruity with our 
knowledge that the concept of the basic rights of human beings 
is a modern growth and hence to talk of it in the context of the 
duty-oriented ancient Indian society is an anachronism. The 
concept of the basic right of self-defence may be modern but man 
has been fighting for his self-defence since the day he made his 
appearance on this planet. Similarly the concept of the right cf 
revolution may be modern but man has been rising in revolt when- 
ever his collective existence was endangered as the result of tyranny 
and oppression. Ancient Indian thinkers formulated no regular 
scheme of the basic rights of man when they simply justified this 
collective action of the subjects oppressed beyond endurance. They 
viewed it as an extra-ordinary situation not covered by any of the 
provisions of Rajadharma for all codes stood abolished the moment 
the tyrranny began. The only check, they could contemplate, 
was the collective might of ihe disorganised people which can 
effectively express itself when the limit to endure suffering and 
oppression is reached. 

To say that the right of revolution was granted to the people 
does not mean that the BiShmanas had no privilege. But in this 
respect, at least, the privileged BrShmanas were equal to non- 
privileged commoners. Whatever privilege the Brahmanas had 
lasted only so long as the codes of '.duty were observed and the 
codes of duty were observed only so long as there was no tyranny. 
Tyranny was thus an axe which also fell on the privileges of the 
Brahmanas as it fell on the common man. It rendered the 
Brahmanas and the commoners alike and thus gave them a common 
cause. The equality of the Brahmanas and the common man 
in the event of revolution is thus not a result of our so called 
presumption that anciet Indian society was not a graded hierarchy, 
the rights possessed by one also belonged to the other It was the 
work of the oppressive policies of the tyrant which abolished the 
distinction of the privileged and the non-privileged. 

Comming to the third point, the PurSnas do not expressly 
declare that a tyrant should be killed either by the BrShmanas or 

5 



34 $tPS*3C PURXlilA [VOL. XIV, NO. 1 

by the people as a whole. They are totally silent at this point 
and appear to cautiously avoid to lay down any such rule. On the 
contrary., there are certain passages in the Puranas which seem 
to proclaim the person of the king as totally inviolable even if 
he is oppressive and tyrannical, At its face value } therefore, 
the Puianic material leads to the conclusion of Or, John Spellman 
that the Puranas cio not grant the right of tyrannicide at all and 
hold the pei son of the king lo be wholly sacrosanct because of its 
being divine. If this conclusion be final there is hardly any room 
left for me or Prof. Deshpande to put forward our views. 

By refuting Sptllman I had shown in my note that there is 
nothing in the Furanic utterances \vhich totally rules out all possibi- 
lities of revolt against a tyrannical king and the passage held to 
declare such a rule does not really rnecui the absolute inviolability 
of the king. The justification for iuch a refutation was derived 
from the fact that the Puranus abound i exemplary k-gends of 
tyrannicide and their position cannot be held to be necessarily 
different from the orthodox Hindu opinion on the point unless 
anything is specifically and irrefutably said against the dicta of 
tyrannicide found in the sources other than the Puianas. On the 
basis of the non-Puranic materials John Spellmrai hud arrived at 
the conclusion that there was a school of Hindu thinkers which 
held the king as absolutely inviolable as against the other school 
advocating tyrannicide. He simply extends the views of the 
former school to the Puianas on the basis of the solitary passage 
of the BhSgavata quoted in my original note. I don't see any 
reason for the theory of the two mutually opposed schools of Hindu 
thinkers and the whole of the Hindu tradition appears to me to be 
wholly consistent and one at this point. Just as the non-Purarjuc 
materials expressly or tacitly approve of the tyrannicide inspire of 
the apparent utterances to the contrary similarly the Puranas 
too appear to give their tacit approval in spite of the afore-said 
passage of the Bhagavata. 

I am glad that Prof. Deshpande has vindicated this stand of 
mine and holds with me that the Purarjias tacitly approve of the 
dictum of tyrannicide although they don't expressly lay it down 
like the Mahabharata. But he insists that the right was limited 
to the Brahmanas alone and for this ho gives two arguments. Ori% 
that almost all the legends of tjrannicide show that the 



JAN.; 1972] DIVINITY OF THE KING 35 

opposed and killed the tyrannical king. Second, that the Brahma- 
nas were a privileged class in ancient Indian society and were 
traditionally held to be the guardians of Dharma from the Vedic 
times. Any violation of Dharma, even by the king, should have, 
therefore been checked by the Brahmajjas. As the Pur3nic material 
at this point is deficient and the Purariic position can be determin- 
ed only in the light of non-Puranic material I will examine the 
validity of these arguments after showing as to how far the non- 
PurSnic materials go to sustain or explode the theory of exclusively 
Brahmana resistence of Prof. Deshpande. 

Some scholars like Ghoshal 1 are inclined to believe that 
Manu grants his 'theoretical or moral approval of tyrannicide 
exclusively to the intellectual aristocracy' of the Brahmaijas. 
Although he does not generalise from this position of Manu and 
frankly admits the right of revolt expressly granted to the people 
elsewhere the relevent verse of Manu which appears to support 
Prof. Deshpande's stand, may be quoted here, 



f? 3 

It is significant to note that the emphasis laid by the use of 
the particle 'eva/ on the BrShmanas does not mean to exclude the 
non-Brahmaria subjects of the king from restraining a wicked 
monarch. The issue heiv; is Brahmana versus king and not king 
versus Dharma or common people, Of the two the BrShmanas 
alone have the justification of subduing a king having an edge on 
them and not the king the Biahmanas for the royal power of the 
king owes its genesis to the spiritual power of the Brahmans and 
not vice versa. Manu is silent on the point as to what the common 
man or the BrShmanas would do if a king starts wilfully oppressing 
his subjects and thereby slighting Dharma with or without 
comming into direct conflict wirh the Brahmanas. Far from 
proving the contention of Prof. Deshpande this verse of Manu thus 
leaves the issue point blank. 

The MahabhSrata repeats this verse of Manu with only a 
slight textual variation. It also has in common the next verse of 

1. Ghoshal, A History of Political Ideas p 187 n. 1 

2. Manu IX, 320 



36 griiR PURS&IA [VOL. xiv, NO, I 

Maau (IX. 321). Here again the question, as it was put by 
Yudhisthira, as Brahrna^ia versus king. 



i w TOW \\ 

Santi, 78.19 

Like Manu the Mahabharata too answers this question by 
asserting that the power of the king originates from the spiritual 
power of the BrShmanas and hence, according lo the law of nature, 
its might should subside in its source for fire originating from water 
is reduced by water and iron originating from stone is subdued by 
stone. 1 But unlike ManUj this is not the only answer that the 
Mahabharata has to give on this point, It also says that the 
Brahmana should control such a -wicked king either by the power 
of his penance and continence or by the might of his arms, either 
in a fair fight or in a fight full of deception.' 2 ' 

It then contemplates a new exegency not to be found in 
Manu or any other source and it is the tyranny of the people 
specially towards the Brahmanas at a time when spiritual power 
of the Brahmanas is on the decline and royal power of the king has 
grown weak. 1 * In such a circumstance, declares Bhisma in very 
clear terms, whoever fights at the risk of his life protecting the 
Brahmanas and his own Dharma attains to the highest glory for 
it is the duty of everyone to take up arms for the sake of the 
Brahmanas' 1 . The violation of Varnadharma involved in such an 
action by anyone of the four Varnas has been justified by stressing 
the dynamic character of Dharma. 

ft 



a 

_____ __ 6snti } 78.32 

i. 



n 

Santi, 78.22 

r%?r ^ i 



4, Santi 78. 26-~ 



srar r n 

^Snti, 78.20 



: ti 

i, 78.25. 



JAN,, 1972] DIVINITY OF THE KING 37 

Probably the most clear declaration of the Brahmana's right 
of revolt is the following verse of the MahabhSrata, 



Santi, 78.34 

But that thi3 right was not exclusively of the Brahmanas is 
shown by the verses immediately following it. When the might 
of the robbers is rising for the sake of royal power causing the 
mixture and confusion of the vanjas and fighting them someone 
who is powerful overcomes them all, being Brahmana, a vaisya or a 
itadra, ask these verses, is he justified in protecting the people from 
the robbers and holding the rod in accordance with Dharma r 1 
The reply given to this question says: one who shows the way 
where there is no way out, one who becomes the raft where there 
is no raft, whether a :>udra or anyone else., is always worthy of 
honour. 8 Elaborating the point further the same source tells us 
what is the use of a bull that cannot be harnessed, of a cow without 
milk, of a wife without fertility, and of a king not extending his 
protection. A Brahmaija without learning and a king who does 
not protect is as useless as an elephant made of wood, a deer made 
of skin a man who is an eunuch and a field which is barren.'* 

These examples show that tyranny either of the king or of the 
people or else of the robbers was deemed to be helplessness par 
excellence and any help from any quarter was welcome. 

On the other hand there are a number of passages granting 
the right of revolt against a tyrant clearly and expressly to the 
people. The most direct and emphatic example is the following 
verse of the MahabhSrata. 



The use of the word prajah i.e. the subejcts in general, is significant 
and it alone should suffice to refute. Prof, Deshpande's thesis of 
exclusively Brahmana resistence to the tyrannical potentate, 



1. Santi 78, 35-36 

2. Santi 78,38 

3. Shanti 78. 41-43. 

4. AnusaaBana 61. 32. 



38 ,*rorq; PURAijiA [VOL. xiv, NO. i 

Another verse from the same source Jeaveg the Brahmanas or the 
people unspecified but makes it clear from the mode of its saying 
that tbe right belonged to the people as a whole and not exclusively 
to the Brahmanas, The verse in question being: 

^ ^ wfa **w \ 
$3 8);^ BIT^: II 

Anutasana 61.33. 

Yajnavalkya too makes a reference not rhe fury of the BrShmayas 
but to the fire aroused as the result of the oppression of the people 
which consumes the gloryj the family and the life of the tyrant. 



I. 341, 

Commenting on it Visvariipa says: 



Vibvarupa on Yajfi. I 341. 

Eka losta vodka 1 is an expression which occurs in the ArthabSstra of 
Kautilya and Kangle explains it as 'annihilation (by the subjects) 
as of a single clod of eatth * 

Sukra says that a king should not oppress the poor for realis- 
ing his own pleasure for the poor even by his death kills the king. 2 

Nsrada allows anyone to save the collective undertaking by 
force risking his life even from the calamity caused by the king 
and promises as his reward the one tenth of the total worth of 
the undertaking thus saved 1 *. Obviously the rule occurring in the 
Sambhftyasamttttkiina section of law implies resistence to the authority 
of the king by anyone of his subjects. 

1, J.S. Ncgi, Some Indological Studies Vol. 1 p. 156 n. 3. 

2. I. 160- 

3 - ?^ 57*1% 



Nrrada Smrti CJolly'a ed.) P. 134 



Asahaya KalySnabhtta commentary on the same page. 
I am greatly beholden to my revered teacher Pro'. J. S. Negi for gene- 
rously allowing me to use this passage here. The credit of first diaeovering 
the importance of this passage is entirely his. 



JAN., 1972] DIVINITY OF THE KING 39 

These passages thus clearly show beyond doubt that the 
right of tyrannicide was expressly and unambiguously granted to 
the people as a whole whereas the precepts of its being so clearly 
endowed exclusively on the BrSh.man.as are entirely lacking. If 
the right of reistence could not be derived from the privilege of 
Brahmanahood it ought to be derived from the manhood of the 
common people in which the Brahmanas too partook. 

It is, nevertheless, a fact that in almost all the legendry 
accounts of restraining or killing a tyrant Brahmanas are always 
on the fore-front. Prof. Deshpande was right in observing this 
fact but he was certainly wrong in making it a basis of his inference 
that Brahmanas alone had the right of resistance as a necessary 
conclusion for this fact can also be explained a,way by the con- 
sideration that being the intellectuals of the society they always 
led the people on such crucial occasions, The circumstance that 
the French revolution was led by Mirabcau a born member of the 
first state does not necessarily prove that the revolution was the 
work entirely and exclusively of the first state for facts of history 
refute such an inference. That the BrShmana Purohita could 
deihione a tyrannical king and appoint a successor to him from 
the Same dynasty only with prior approval of the people (Prakrtij 
is shown by the following verses of Sukra. 



Sukra, II, 274,275 

This obligatory prior approval of the people precisely indi- 
cates that the B'rShmana could act only on behalf of the people 
and with their solid backing behind him, This is impossible if 
ri"ht of resistence is forbidden to the subjects at large, 

The argument that the Brahmanas were the guardians of 
Dharma and weie empowered, as such., to guard against any 
violation of Dharma, oven by the king, is meaningless if the right 
of resistence is withdrawn from the people. The power by which 
the BrShmanas could restrain the wicked king was that of the 
people and they could have used this power only as the leader 
of the people endowed with the right to rise against the tyrant. 



THE HOLY PLACES OF E\ST INDIA AS DEPICTED 
IN THE SKANDA-PUR&NA 

BY 

UMAKANT THAKUR 

f ffcf ^ w<sf- 



The description and the glorification of the holy places 
called tlrthas form a special and important topic of the Pur Spas. 
These tlrthas are scattered all over in India and they provide a 
deep religious inspiration to the Hindus. This article deals with 
the holy places situated in the eastern parts of India which include 
the present states of Biharj Orissa, Bengal, the Bangla Desh and 
Assam. Most of the holy places in the Eastern India, however, 
are situated in and around the Purusottama ( Jagann5tha)-Ksetra 
in Orissa The Skanda-PunHia contains separate portion on the 
Puru$ottama- Kfttra-makHtm} <a in its Vaisnava-Khanda (Venkt. Press 
Edn ) dealing with a number onirthaf of this K$elra. Some other 
PurSrj.as also deal with them. 

Here in this article these holy places have been described in 
brief and as far as possible their identification has also been noted. 

As^aliAga 

According to the Skandapurana the eight Liuga images of 
God tva namely Kapalamocana, Ksetrapa^ala, Yame^vara, M5r- 
kandeya, I&ua, Bilve^a, Nllaka^tha and VatesSa are known as 
Astalingas. They are situated in Purusottama 1 Ksetra (q, v.) 
1, git. Vai, P. M. 4751-53, 



JAN., 1972] THE HOLY PLACES OF EAST INDIA 41 

Asifasakti 

The eight female divinities (s*aktis) situated in the eight 
directions around the main temples of purusottamaksetra are called 
Astas'aktis, They are- Mangala , VimalS, SarvamaAgala, Ardhan- 
sinl Lamba, Kalaratri,, CandrarupS, and Maiicika. A visit 1 to them 
and worship of them would annihilate all sins. 

Bindutlrtha. 

This is a sacred reservoir located in purusottamaksetra 2 . The 
God Janardana is said to have resided here For seven days. It 
may be identical with Bindusaras as referred to by N, L Dey a . 
Dr. P. V. Kane 4 also refers to it and identifies it with pancanada, 
but it does not seem to be identical with this tirtha. 

Bhavamo can a 

It is a place of pilgrimage situated in Purusottama-ksetra/ 1 
It is located to the south of KapSlmocana tirtha. 



This is one of the eight liugas of lord Siva known as Astaliugas 
(q. v.) in Purusottama-ksetra. 6 

Damodara (river) 

The river Damodara is a famous river flowing through south 
Bihar. ''Kavikankana Gandi :3T mentions that it is called the river 
Damodara in Bengal. According to Dr. B. G. law 8 the river 
Damodara rises in the hills near Bagodar in the district of Hazari- 
bagh and running through Manbhum, Santhal parganas and 
Burdwan district flows into the Hooghly. The Skandapurana 
eulogises that bathing in this holy river in the month of KSrtika 

K Sk~. Vai. P. M. 4. 42-46. 

2. Bindutirtha tate tasmin saptUhani janardanatv / 

Tiathct pura avayam rajne varametat sauutdisat // 
Tvat tirthatHre r3jendra sthasyami prativatsaram / 
Sarvatirthani tasminBca bthasyanti mayi tisthati // 

Sk. Vai., P. M. 34. 5-6. 

3. Geog. Die. P. 38. 

4. Hist. Dhs. IV. P. 740. 

5. Sk. Vai. P. M. 4.8-9. 

8. Sk. Vai. P. M. 1 3.30-33. 

7. Geog. Die. P. 52. 

8. Hist. Geog. P. 216. 

9. Sk. Vai. Ka. M. 2\24. 

6 



42 3*^ PURSJSIA [VOL. XIV, NO, I 



is most auspicious. Though the PurSn.a does not speak of its 
location, we may assume that the Bamodara river now flowing 
through south Bihar and Bengal, is the river referred to. 

Gaudadesa or the country of Gauda 

Gauqla as the name of a city., a country or a people, is found 
mentioned from very early times and almost everywhere it appears 
to refer to Bengal. But as some scholars have expressed a doubt 
about it, the question deserves to be examined, 

The Sk. P, l says that Gauda comprised 1 8 lacs of villages. 
No more information about this country is found in this PurSna. 
Cunningham 3 identifies it with Gonda., a sub-division of Uttara 
Kosala. Uttara Kosala has been called Gauda by the Kurma- 
purana and Liuga Parana, 3 Dr. li C. Law believes that Gauda 
was the capital of Bengal in the remote past. 4 But Vatsyayana" 
mentions Gauda as a separate kingdom from Vanga. In the 
commentary on his Kamasutra "Gaudyah" has been explained as 
purvadefobhavah and on this very ground Haran Chandra Chakla- 
dar in his article, "The Geography of Vatsyayana," observes that 
Gauda of Vatsyayana is northern Bengal, Vatsyayana has separate- 
ly mentioned Vanga showing that it formed a separate kingdom 
comprising the eastern districts of modern Bengal." The late Mr. 
A. M.T.Jackson says that in the 10th century and earlier the 
name Gauda meant Bengal, but R. G. Bhandarkar believes that 
Gauqla is identical with Gonda in Oudh. 

The Haraha inscription* of the reign of the Maukhari long 
Uanavarman of 554 A. C. (Vikrama Sarhvat 611) also supports 
that Gau4a meant Bengal in the 6th century. But according to 
Varah^ra (6th century A. D.) Gau^ is not identical with 
nd Vaaga^ather it was a separate country in the extern 



3- A,.e.G B og.P.8. 



grttounarfi gaud a deSak c // 

Sk. Ma . Kau. 39,130. 



5. ABRI. (1926) Vol. VII P, 140. 

0. ABRI. (1926) Vol. VII P. 149 

7. Ibid. P. Ii>0. 

8. ABRI. (1926) Vol. VII P. 151. 

. BjhatsaAluta, Vol. I, Chapter XIV Slofc a 5-8, 



JAN., 1972] THE HOLY PLAGES OF EAST INDIA 43 

region. N. L, Dey 1 asserts that it existed on the left of the Ganges 
and as to its antiquity he says that it was founded in 648 A. D. 
As regards the period of its foundation Dey is not correct because 
it was well known to all even during the reign of the Imperial 
Guptas in the 4th, 5th and 6th centuries A. D. 

Gayaksetra 

Gaya. is mentioned as Mahaksetra having goddess Siva by the 
name of Maugala. Though even the performance of sraddhas to 
the ancestors performed by the Brahmanas in Gaya is described 
in the Skandapuriina,' 1 it gives no details with the help of which 
we can locate the exact place. However the name is found in 
several works of Sanskrit literature. The collection of the 
material in all those works 01 Gaya in one volume will be a rich 
literature itself It is a very old and renowned place of pilgrimage 
in Bihar state and is the same as the modern Gaya. 

Indradyumnasaras 

This-is a reservoir in Purusottamabsetra 5 (q. V.) on the bank 
of which stands 'Hari' on the form of Narasimha. A bath in it is 
prescribed specially on the 3rd day of the second half of Asadha. 
Dr. P. V. Kana G also agrees with its location in Purusottamaksetra 
as mentioned above by the Skandapurajja. It was namvd after the 
king Indradyumna. 7 

Jagannatha or Purusottamaksetra 

The importance of this holy place has been dealt with in a 
separate chapter of the Vaisnavakhanda of the SkandapurSna, 
which is named as Purusottamaksetra-mahatmya. According to 
the SkandapurSna 8 it is a Vaisnava ksetra. The body of God 
Visrj,u is said to have been made of wood. Accoiding to the 

1. Geog. Die. P. 63. 

2. Hiat. Geog. P. 217. 

3. Sk. Ma. A. M. U, 2. 33. (33). 

4. Sk. Vai. Ven. M. 10. 61. 

5. Sk. Vai. P. M. 31.1-2. 

6. Hist. Dhs. P. 757. 

7. Ibid. P. 694-700. 

8. Purusottairutkhyarn sumahatksetram parama pTCvanam / 
Yatraate daravatanum sr!ao mTinuaa HlayS // 
Darsarun muktidah aaksat sarvatirtha phalapradah // 

Sk. Vai. P. M. 1.3. 



44 StTIH* PURSlsIA [VOL. XIV, NO. 1 

SkandapurSna 1 this holy place is situated in the centre of 
the hill known as NilScala, which is surrounded by sand. It has 
been compared with one of the breasts of the earth. It is 1 Yojanas 
(80 miles) in extent. As to its exact location it stands at the north 
bank of the sea and to the south of M<ahanadi. s The place beginn- 
ing from the bank of the south sea up to the forest named Ekamra- 
klnana has been said to be very auspicious. People who reside 
herein are very fortunate. The mountain known as Nilacala or 
Nilaparvata on which the temple of JagannStha exists is also 
situated on the shore of the ocean. This mountain has been 
described as very auspicious in every bit of it. God Visr>u is said 
to dwell here with his own body. It is further mentioned 3 that 
within the jurisdiction of Niladri there stands a vata tree to the 
south of which stands a reservoir known as Rohini Kupda. The 
temple under reference is located just near to this pit. 4 The great 
sage MSrkandeya had dug a pit here to the north-west of the tree 
(Nyagrodha), and worshipped God Jaiva. A bath in this shrine 
and visit to God 6iva give the result of a Horse-sacrifice.* 5 This is 
situated at the distance of 5 kros'as (10 miles) from the sea, and two 
krosas i e, 4 miles from the temple 8 . The mountain known as the 

1. Aho tat paramaii ksetrarn vistrtam daaayojanam / 
Tirtharajasya salilSd uthitam vSlukacitam // 
Nilacalcna mahata madhyasthena virajitam / 
Ekastanam iva pfthvyah sudurat paribhavitam // 

5k. Vai. P, M. 1, 11-12. 

. S"garaa>ottare tire raahunadyastu daksine / 

Sa pradesali. p^thivy'm Li sarvatlrtha phalapradah // 
Tatra ye manu jaij brahman nivaaanti subuddhayal). / 
Janm-ntara kftttnrm ca punyanSin phalabhaginah // 
A~lpa puji)~h prajayante nabhakCi mayi padmaja // 
Ek-mrak-nandd y^vad daksinodadhi tirabhuh // 

Sk. Vai. P. M. 1.31.33. 

3. Sk. Vai. P.M. 1.34-36. 

4. idjSaifl tatra gatvaiva draksyase nidm pitamahali / 
NtlAdrcr antarabhuvi kalpanyagrodha mtilatalj." / 
VSrunySti dili yat kun<jam rauhinam nSma viar'utam / 
T*t Mrc nivaaantam mam paayantae carraa eaksusa // 

Sk. Vai. P. M. I. 38-39. 

5. Sk. Vai. P. M. 3. 49-51. 

ft. PafieakroSam idarft fcsetraA Bam udraixt a r vyavasthitam I 
ad tJrthar^jasya tatabhumau surdrmalam // 

Sk, Vai. P. M. 3.552, 



JAN., 1972] THE HOLY PLACES OF EAST INPIA 45 

Nila 1 parvata is just a mound of sand, and it is compared with the 
God Nrayaj?a, himself. The great pagoda of Jagannatha has a 
conical tower 192 feet high surmounted by a Gakra. The shape 
of this holy 2 place is like that of a 6aukha. It is explained that 
in the western boundary, on the head of this place like Satikha 
stands the temple of God Siva known as Vrsabhadhvaja, and the 
other image known as Nilakantha exists on the opposite side. The 
place starting from the waters of the sea up to the root of the Vata 
tree is the belly of aiikha, which has the touch of the waters of 
the ocean. The waters of the ocean here are regarded as very 
sacred. The Skandapurana 3 reveals that God Rudra being angry 
with Brahma chopped off his head which after circuiting the whole 
Universe, fell down at this holy place (Jagannatha), which is hence 
known as KapSlamocana,tirtha. One who dies in the place extend- 
ing from the waters of the sea. up to the root of the Vata tree gets 
salvation after his death. 1 According to the Skandapurana, there 
are 3 crores of tlrtha^ on this earth which are the bestower of 
heaven and salvation. The Purmottama tlrtha is a renowned 
place of pilgrimage among them." It includes eight liugas of Rudra 
namely 6 Kapalmocana, Ksetrapala, Yamebvara, Markandeya, 
IsSnaj Bilvesa, Nllakaaitha and Vatesa. While describing a 
pilgrimage to this holy place (Purusottama tlrtha} it is recorded 
that this shrine is situated on Nlladri in the country of Utkala 7 
_ which stands on the shore of the south sea. 

Being asked by the sages 8 as to the location of Purusottama 

1. Suvarnavaluka kirnam mlaparvata sobhitam / 
Yo'sau visvesvaro devah. s^iksan naKiyanatmakalj. // 

Sk. Vai. P. M. 3.53. 

2. SimSpratici ksetrasya Bankhakarasya murddhani / 
Sarvaktitnaprado devah. BO. liste vfaabhadhvajali // 

Sk. Ava. P. M. 4.1 

3. Sk. Vai. P. M.4. 5-7. 

4. Sindhurajasya salilad yavan trmlaift vatasya vai / 
"Kita paksi manuay3ti.dm muktido matah // 

Sk. Vai. P. M. 4. 14. 

5. Sk. Vai. P.M. 4. 16-17. 

6. Sk. Vai. P. M. 4. 51-53. 

7. Supunye cotkale deae daksinarnava tirage / 
Nilddri sikharavSaata vrajatam Baranairi vibhum // 

Sk. Vai, P. M. 4. 105. 

8. Sk. Vai. P. M. 6. 1. 



46 $&mr- PURSlilA [VOL. XIV, NO. 1 



tirtha where the God Naraya^a Himself abides in the form of 
wood, sage Jaimini says that it is situated in Utkala desa (Orissa) 
on (he shore of the south sea, and it contains many sacred places 
of pilgrimage. The inhabitants 1 of this place are said to be well- 
behaved, and the Brahmins are engaged in study and sacrifices. 
The Brahmins of this country are said to be the creators of the 
religious books As to its vegetation 3 the country of. Utkala is 
very rich. It contains a plenty of betel-nut trees (well arranged), 
and several other fruit trees. The holy river known as [Rsikulya 
flowing through it falls into the south sea. Narasirhha^ ksetra 
which stands here is said to have been founded by the creator 
(Brahma) himself. The image of Nrsirhha exists with that of 
ambhu. A visit to this place is highly auspicious. The existence 
of God Janardana here in such a form has made Odhradesa 
(Orissa) extremely auspicious and this has made India Itself very 
holy. Orissa is described as the best of all the countries in India. 
The Brahmanas 4 of this country are said to be well versed in vedas 
and the sastras. The images of Krsna, Rama and SubhadrS stand 
here. They wero established on Thursday, the 8th day of the 

1. Utkalo tiTtma deio'sti khyStah paramap~vanal> / 

Yatra tirthTinyanekruu punyanyayatant-ni ca / 
Daksinasyo dadhestire sa tu deSah pratisthitah / 
Yatra sthita Vai puruslh sadacara nidaraanSlh // 
VrttTidhyayuna sampannS yajvano yatra bhusurjh / 
Sistyttdau kratavo vcd~ vcdaslstra pravartakah // 

Sk. Vai. P. M. 6-24, 

2. ElIIlavaAga kankola dtldimairvija pCrakaih / 

Srcnikrlaili ptiav.iriair udy~naih aataso vrtah // 
NlnH druma latS kirnaih parvataih sindhubhir vjta^. / 
Sa esa desa pravara utkalakhyo dvijottamllh // 
RsikulySm sani7is~dya daksinodadhi gaminina / 
SvarnarekhTi mah~nadyor madhve deiah pratisthitah // 
Santyatra puny"yatane ksetrlsni subahunyapi / 
Purvaift vastirthayatrayTim varnitdni maya dvijah // 
Bhusvarguh aSjupratarii hyesa kathitak purusottamala. // 

Sk. Vai.P. M.6. 2W8 

3. Sk. Vai. P. M. 10- fiJ-54. 

4. Etad arcS prasaatj vai sadarthe viniyojita // 

Afao bharatavaraastha manusy"!) ksJna kalmasjhi / 
Apavarga prado jes~m Hvir asij jantlrdanah / 
Tatrtt pyayara co4hradcsa.h earveRtna uttamottamah // 
Yr>tra^th;\s carm.\nctreix^ pasyanti brahmarupinam // 
Sruti amjtintlifi gahatiah. panth~h karm^bhir Skulala // 

Sk, Vai. P.M. 21. 9-11. 



JAN., 1972] THE HOLY PLACES OF EAST INDIA 47 

bright half of Vai^akha with Pusya Naksatra. A visit to these 
images on this day bestows salvation to the visitors a 

The image of Lord Visiju made of wood stands evidently at 
the sea shore on NllScala, near the root of the Nyagrodha tree. 
A visit to and worship of this God have been greatly eulogised. 2 
A bath in the sea here gives the fruits of all the sacred places and 
temples Offer of pinclas or tarpana to ancestors and deities is 
very efficacious accoiding to the Skandapurana. ;i As to the location 
of the shrine of Narasimha 4 , it is situated on the bank of the 
the Indradyumna shrine. The SkandapurSna- 1 " 1 says that there is no 
other place of pilgrimage like this Purusottama ksetra among the 
seven Islands, on this earth. The partaking of the food offered to 
the Deity here releases people from sins. The holy place of 
pilgrimage finds mention in several treatises. Many of the modern 
scholars have dealt with this shrine. 6 Viraja-manclala 7 extends a 
little beyond Jaipur on the river Vaitaraui in Orissa. In that 
country there is a holy place, destroyer of sins and bestower of 
Mukti, surrounded on all sides by sand and ten yojanas in extent 
There is the famous shrine of Purusottama in the country of 
Utkala the whole of which is very holy owing to the favour of the 
all pervading Jagannatha. 

Dr. P. V. Kane 8 mentions that the Skandapurfma contains 
a Purusottama-mahatmya in a sub-section called Utkala khanda in 
its section Vaisn.ava khancla, where the story of Indra is given with 
some variations. But there is no sub-section known as Utkala- 
khanda in its section Vaisnava khancla. N, L Dey" identifies it 
with modern Puri in Orissa. According to him Puri is the ancient. 
Dantapura, where Buddha's left canine tooth was kept enshrined. 
Dr. B.C. Law 10 also observes that it is in the Puri district of Orissa. 
It is sandy and ten yojanas in extent containing the famous deity 

1. Sk. Vai. P. M. 27. 99-101. 

2. Sk. Vai. P. M. 28. 55-56. 

3. Sk. Vai, P. M. 30. 161-162. 

4. Sk. Vai. P. M. 31. 1-2. 

5. Sk. Vai. P. M. 38. 96-97. 

6. Hist. Dhs. IV. P. 692.703. 

7. See Hist. of.Oriasa, Vol. I. PP. 42-58, by R. D. Banerjee ref . by 
Dr. P. V. Kane P. 094 foot note no. 1573 (Hist. Dhs, IV) 

8. Hist. DUs. IV. P. 605. 

9. Geog. Die. P. 163. 
10. Hist. Geog. P. 184, 



PURAJ}IA [VOL. XIV, 



Purusottama, It includes two distinct portions, the 
lies between two sacred tirthas, Svargadvara and Cakratirtha. 
It exactly lies on the shore of the Bay of Bengal. It is otherwise 
called isriksetra which is one of the most sacred places of the 
Hindus * At present the sacred enclosure of Jagannsitha is a 
square surrounded by a massive stone wall 20 feet high, 652 fke* 
long and 630 feet broad with 120 temples containing various forms 
of God, 13 being temples of Siva, some more of Parvati and a 
temple of the sun. This clearly shows the catholicity of Jagan- 
natha. Almost every form of Hindu faith is represented here. 2 
The holy Fumsottamalcsetra forbids all wranglings between Saivas 
and Vaisnavas, 3 

The great pagoda of Jagannatha has four chambers, the first 
being the Hall of offerings (bhogarnandira), the second the pillared 
hall for music and dance (the nata mandira), the third the audi- 
ence hall where pilgrims assemble (the Jaganmohana mandira) 
and the fourth the inner sanctuary. The great pagoda of Jagan- 
nfUha has a conical tower, 192 feet high surmounted by a cakra 
and a flag, 4 It is said to resemble, in shape, a conch shell iu the 
centre of which lies the Jagannatha temple. 5 

The temple is situated at the distance of about seven furlongs 
from the sea shore and stands on a mound about 20 feet above the 
level of the surrounding ground, the mound being dignified by 
being called NiUgiri (the blue hill). There is a large gateway on 
each ,ido of th* enclosure, that on the east being the most magni- 
Scant On each side of the entrance there is a colossal crouching 
hon and hence the door-way is called SirhhadvSra (Lion gate). 




Hist. Dhs. IV. P. e$C. 
3- 'ao, . 



4- Hist. Dhs. IV. P. 696, B ra.P, 

5 - Hist, Geog.P, 184. 

6. Hist. Dhfl. IV. P. 697. . 



JAN., 1972] THE HOLY PLAGES OF EAST INDIA 49 

regarded as so sanctified that all barriers of caste are transcended, 
so much so that a Puri priest will receive the holy food even from 
a low caste Hindu. The feeling is that cooked rice when once 
placed before Jagannatha never ceases to be pure. Hence the 
Mahaprasada is dried, and taken to all parts of India. The third 
special feature of Jagannatha temple is the car festival (rathayatra) 
which is the most important of the 24 festivals at Puri. The car 
festival starts on the second day of the bright half of Asadha. The 
car of Jagannatha is about 45 feet in height, 35 feet square and is 
supported on 16 wheels of 7 feet diameter with 16 spokes and has 
Garufja as a crest; the second car is that of Subhadra, which is a 
little samaller than Jagannatha's car, testing on 2 wheels with 12 
spokes in each and having a padma (lotus) as a crest; the third car 
is that of BalarSma resting on 14 wheels with 14 spokes in each 
wheel and having Hanuman for a crest. 1 It finds mention in the 
Govindapur 2 Stone Inscription of the poet Gangadhara of ^ake 
1059 i. e. 1137-38 A. D. 

Kamakhyatirtha 

The KamSkhya tlrtha finds mention at several places in the 
Puranas and Mahabharata as well. But as regards its location, the 
Skandapuraijs does not agree with the rest. According to the 
PadmapurSna and (he Mahabharata 3 it is a place of pilgrimage on 
the river Devika in the Punjab 4 where according to Devlbhagavats 
it is a Devisthana or temple of Tripura-bhairavl on the beautiful 
Nilacala hill over hanging the river Brahmaputra 6 . The KalikS. 
purana tells that it is a holy place on Kamagiri in Kamarupa where 
the private parts of satT fell down when her body was being carried 
round by God Siva. Here it is called Ksmakhya 6 . In his paper 
on the Mother Goddess KamakhyS, Sri B. Kakatj after narrating 



1. Hist. Dha. IV. P. 697. 

2. Gatva anpurusottam3c& (bh~ga) vayo hrdyah pratisthapadam / 
Paravartate patiyasi lasac candragrahanehaai // 
Sarvasvarfi vitatara tarpita pitrstomab. karollasitaih. / 
Teyairyah pihitasya parvani vidgoh sahayyamapa kganam // 

E. I. II. P. 334. verse 12 ref. by Hist. Dha. 700. 

3. Mbh- Van.a. Parva. 82 105 ,- P. I. 25. 12-q by Hist. Dhs, IV. P. 761. 

4. Geog. Die. P. 86. 

5. Devi. Bh~g- VII. 38, 15-q by Hist. Dhs. 761, 

6. Kalika p. 18. 42. and 50. 



[VOL. XIV, 

this puranic lp isode observes that It is situated at about two 
from Gauhati 1 in Assam. 

The facts mentioned above show that none of the scholars 
have consulted the SkandapurSya for its ideimlicatioiu Surely * 
Kamakhya of N.L. Dey and Dr. B.C. Law an- not identical witn 
the KSmakhya of the SkandapurSpa, 

The Skandapurana speaks of the Kfimftkhyfl as one <-f tht' 
sub-tlrthas of Purusottama 2 ksetra. The location of Puruotta.na- 
ksetra is also clearly depicted hero. Thu Skaudapurflua says that 
it is situated to the north of the ocean and south of the river 
Mahanadl". This points to modern Puii in Oiissa. 

KamarGpa 

The location of Kamarupa is not so difficult. Almost all the 

works of the past and present day verifiers have mentioned Is.ana 

rupa as a country but Rajasekhara' 1 , in his Ksvya-rolrnath&S, ** 

that it was a mountain in the eastern country, The eastern country 

according to him, begins from Vai5riasi r ' on wards. It appears 

that Raja^ekhera's Kamarupa is not identical with it. IIo\voVfr, 

N.L. Dey thinks that on the north it included Bhutan, on th* 

south it was bounded by the confluence of the- Brahmaputra :i"d 'hi* 

Lafehya and Banga and included Mariipur, Jayantiya, Kachar and 

parts of Myraensingh and Sylhet . The Kalika PurSlja indicates 

that the modern district of Kamarupa extend from QoaipaiM t 

Gauhatij and its capital was called Pragjyutisa which has bt't'U 

identified with KamSkhya of Gauhati 7 . It is further said that the 

temple of Tarnresvari Devi or the copper temple called by 

Buchanan, the eastern Kamakhya on the river Dalpani, is sicua'eti 

1. SiddhabhjratJ.part II, PP. 44 ff.-q by Hist. Dhs. IV. P. 7*} I. 

2. K~n,"khyam ksetrapllam ca vimalani vtt tapasthita / 

Saksad brahma, svarupo' sau nraiifiho dal;sino vibtiolj. // 
FSirai)>akasipor vatho vidarya yarii prabh'ojjvalarj. // 

Sk. Vai.,P, M. 4.23-24. 

3. S~garsyottare tire mahanadyastu dakaine / 

Sa pradesah p^thivyrrii hi sarvatirthaphalapradalj // 

Sk. Vai,,P.M. 1.31, 

4. '-Bichad gijha lihitagiri cakora dardura nepjla 
K-Imarup^dayah parvatali." K. M. XVII. P. 93. 

5. Tatra V3ranaayah puratsh purvadeaah. -K.M. XVII. P. 93, 

6. Geog. Die. P. 87. 

7. JRAS, 19UO, P. 25. 



JAN., 1972] THE HOLY PLAGES OF EAST INDIA 51 

near the north eastern boundary of the KSmarupa 1 . He assumed 
Kamarupa as identical with Assam 2 . The learned Geographer 
Cunningham 3 also identifies it with Assam in the eastern region. 
The Skandapurana 4 explains that Kamarupa comprised nine lacs 
of villages which certifies its greatness in the time of yore- 

Krspatirtha 

The name occurs in association with the other important 
temples in Purusottama ksetra The temple of Krsna, Rama and 
Subhadra stands altogether in the Purusottamaksetra" Magadhades a 
or the country of Magadha. 

The country of Magadha figures prominently in the Vedic 
literature particularly in the Atharva 6 Veda, and hence it may be 
said that it is as old as the Atharva Veda SamhitS. After the vedic 
age Magadh finds mention in the Brahmanic, Buddhistic and Jaina 
literature and has properly been dealt with, Modern scholars have 
spoken much about the country of Magadha and its history. 

The SkandapurSr^a 7 says that Magadha contained 66 
thousand of villages, but according to Vinaya 8 Pitaka,, Magadh 
comprised SOjOOO villages in the time of BimbisSra and the river 
Tepoda flowed by it. The difference is certainly one to the 
difference in time of the two works Rajasekhara 9 has listed 
Magadha among the countries of eastern India. F. E. Pargiter 10 in 
his article "Ancient countries in Eastern India" points out that 
Magadha included the modern districts of Patna, GayS and 



1. J A SB, XVII. P. 462. 

2. CWB. III. P. 115. 

3. Anc. Geog. P. 572. 

4. Karaarupe ca grPmTIndrfi navalaks'ah prakirttiFSb .' 
Dtihale ved* sanjne tu gramanlrfi nava lakgakam // 

St. Ma. Kau. 39.131. 

5. Xdyantayor jagannSthaiii pGjayitya yathavidhi / 
TirtharSje, bhisicya svam narah syan muktibhSjanam // 
Tatastirtharfc visargarii ca krtva Buddhaman^h purn3n // 
Rarnar& krsnaift. subhadram ca natva ruparfi. vicintayet // 

Sk. Vai. P.M. 30. 167-168. 

6. A. V. V. 14. 

7. Laksaikarfi ca tathd proktam gramSnarfi tu bhayanakam // 
Satsastirfi ca saharTIni deso mSgadha ucyate // 

Sk. Ma. Kau. 39. 159. 

8. Vinaya pitaka I 29. IV, 116-117-q by Law P. 45 

9. KM., VII." P. 33. and XVII P. 93. 
10. JASB. (1897) P. I. P. 86, 



52 gtrcw; PURS^A [VOL. xiv, NO. 1 

Sahabad. The author has contributed ona more article 1 under 
the title "Magadh and Videha"_, but strictly speaking no 
geographical information worth mentioning is found in it- B. C, 
Law 2 believes that the country of Magadha is identical with the 
Modern Patna and Gaya districts of Bihar. N, L. Dey 3 remarks 
that the country of Magadha once extended south of the Ganges 
from Benaras to Monghyr and south wards as far as Singhbhurru 
Dr. Cunningham' 1 also places it in the eastern India. However, 
since the people in its vicinity call the districts of Patna,, GayS 
and south Alonghyr as Magah or Maggah (wrongly mentioned as 
Maga by Dey fl ;, the region of the above noted districts should be 
included in the Magadha country. Magadha is apparently the 
Sanskrit word of the Prakrta word Maggah. It is generally 
identified with south Bihar. 

Mithiia 

The name of Mithiia occurs twice in the Skandapurarjia once 
while describing Sita B and next while describing a Brahamaxm 
named Kamhuma.' The Skandapurana gives no detailed account 
of this country. 

B G. Law 8 has gathered numerous facts about it. It is an 



andM f ' 

and Mahabharata hold that Mithiia was the na me of the capital 

C Unlr the 



der e wt e 

modern Janakapura a small town within the Nepal border It 
according to Rhys David, about 85 ^L nor ?h Jt 
ItWM ' 1 8 u and the kingdom of Videha 30O 
^^ VI (P ' 3 ^) -entions that it was 



1. JRAS. (1908) July PP. 831-853. 

2. Hist. Goog. P, 44. : 
3 - Gcog, Die. P, 118-117. 

4. A nc . G CO g, PP. e. a d 518 

5. Gcog. Die. P. 116-11 7 

6- Sk. Ma. Ke. 8. 105-106. 

7. Sk. Ma. Kau 5. 54. 

B. Hist. Geog, p. 236. 

. BuddhiBt India P. JMU-rrf. by La 
y 






JAN., 1972] THE HOLY PLAGES OF EAST INDIA 53 

(Ko^T) in the east, the Ganges in the south, the SadSnirS (Gandaka 
or the Rapti) in the west and the Himalayas in the north. Accord- 
ing to the Bhavisyapurana, Nimi's son Mithi founded the beautiful 
city of MithilS. He came to be known as Janaka because he was 
the founder of the city. (cf. Bh5gavatapurS.na IX. 13.13; see also 
VSlmiki Ramayaiia V) It is said that Mithila was named after 
Mithi and the kings thereof were called the Maithilas. 1 But what 
was the name of Mithila before Mithi is not known yet and hence 
this question has remained unsolved. MithilS, at present, com- 
prises the districts of Darbhanga, Muzaffarpur, Northern Monghyr, 
portions of Bhagalpur and Purnea and Bettiah. 

Markafldey ak uitda 

The Skandapurana 2 explains that the great sage Ma"rkand.eya 
worshipped God Siva in a dip dug by the wheel (Cakra) of Han, 
in the northwest corner of the Nyagrodha tree in Purusottama- 
ksetra s and got victory over death. So the pit was named after his 
name later on. Dr. P. V. Kane s refers to one Markand.eya hrada 
which he locates near Purusottama tirtha. These two holy places 
under reference seem to be identical - 

Narasimhaksetra 

According to the Sk. P. 1 this is a holy place situated in Puru- 
sottamaksetra. It was made by Brahma Himself Here stands 
the image of God Narasirhha with that of ambhu. 



1. Vayu P. 89.6, 23. 

& 

Brahmdnd.a P. Ill 64, 6, 24, ref. by Law 237. 
VisnuP.'lV. 5, 14. 

Z, Evarii pura dattavaro mai-kandeyo mahamunih / 

Nyagrodha vayavya kone khultam cakrena vai hareh jj 
PSvanain. gartam asthaya pujayitva maheavaram / 
Mahata tapaea viro jitavan rartyunaanjaad / 
Munes tasyaiva nSmndyaii. prakhylito gartta uttamah / 
Yatra sn^tva sivara drstv3 vajitnedhaphalarfi labhet // 

Sk. Vai P.M. 3. 49-51 

3, Hist. Dhs. IV. P. 780 

4. Ksetrarii tan narasimhasya brahraanti nirmitaiA pura / 

Indradyumnanugrahaya sarvaloka hitaya ca // 

Sk. Vai., P.M. 16.53. 



54 S*faR PURA"J*IA [VOL. XIV, NO. i 



Nlladri 

The mountain known as Nlladri 1 is situated in Otfhrade^a i.e, 
Orissa. It is this mountain on which the temple of Lord Jagan- 
nStha stands. It is situated at the shore of the south sea i. e. Bay 
of Bengal. According to the Sk. P, the mountain is surrounded by 
forests. The Kalpa trees exist to the extent of two miles around 
this mountain, To the west of this stands a reservoir named 
Rauhina Kunda. It is not identical with the Nila-parvata 
mentioned by N. L. Dey 2 though the same Nlladri is known as 
Nllaparvata^ Nllacala, and Nllagiri also 3 . 
Oddiyanades'a 

According to Sk, P, 1 the country of Oddiyana contained ten 
lakhs of villages. It is also known as Odhradefa'a situated on the 
shore of the south sea. B 

The holy place called 6ri Purusottama stands therein, This 
country 8 is described as the best of all the holy places in India. 

Pragjyotisapura 

It finds mention in the Sk. P. 7 The meaning of the name 
indicates that it was a town in the eastern part of India. Jt is 
mentioned in the epics, PurSnas and classical literature as well. 
But as to its location many of the works differ. 

On one hand it is said to have been the capital of Kamarupa, 
and on the other it is located on the bank of the river Betwa or 
Betravati. 8 Undoubtedly it must have been another PrSgjyotisa- 

1. Odhradeea iti khySto varge bharata sa&jnite } 
DakaiijasyodadheBtlre fcsetrarfisripurusottamam // 
Yatra NJlagirirnama samantSt kanan3vf tah / 
TasyotsaAge kalpavfksah aamantSt kroSa sammitah // 
Tasya chdySfi eamakramya brahmahatySm. vyapohati / 
Tasya pascSd disi khyStarfi kuj)4aifi rauhcna sailjnitaiB // 

Sk. Vai. P. M. 7. 23-25. 

2. Geog. Die. P. 14-1. 

3. Sk, Vai., P. M. Chapters 1, 4, 7, 19, 28, 35, 38. 

4. OddiySne tatha dese navalakgali prakirttitab. / 
Jdlandhare tathS dcse navalakfdlj prakirttitah // 

Sk. Ma. Kau, 39- 133. 

5. Sk. Vai. P. M. 7. 23. 

6. AhobharatavarsasthS maauayS^, kgina kalmagili / 
Apavargaprado ye2Ep 5vir Ssij Janajrdanali / 

Tatrd py^yaA co^hredesah sarvesSm uttamottamala // 

St. Vai. P.M. 81. 9-] 0. 
' 7. Sk. Ma, Kau. 5954 and 60.1-2. 
8. Geog. Die. P. 158. 



JAN., 1972] THE HOLY PLACES OF EAST INDIA 55 

pura. It has been discussed as a beautiful city under the sover- 
eignty of Naraka. 1 The Katnauli grant of Vaidyadeva refers to 
the mandala of Kamrupa 2 and the visaya of Pragjyotisa which 
implies that the latter was the larger administrative division in- 
cluding Kamarupa. Sir Edward Gait identifies it with the modern 
town of Gauhati. 

The MahSbhSrata* refers to it as a mleccha and asura 
kingdom, Kalidasa (in his Raghuvam^a) locates it to the north of 
the Brahmaputra river. Varahamihira and Rajaiaekhara also 
mention it. Rajas'ekhara 4 has placed it in the eastern division. 
The place has been touched by several scholars. However, it can 
evidently be placed in the eastern division of India. 
Purusottamaksetra 

(Vide Jagannatha above) 

Sabaradlpaka Asrama 

This hermitage stands to the west 15 of the temple of God 
Visnu in Orissa. A footpath from this hermitage leads to the 
temple of God Visnu. 

Subhadra 

This is one of the three images 6 namely RSma, Krsna 
and Subhadra, which are established in Jagannathapurl, 
Svarflarekha (river). 

The river named Svar$arekha is situated in UtkaladesSa. 
According to the St. P. it falls into the south sea 7 . 

N. L. Dey 8 locates it in the south west corner of Assam. But 
no other scholar speaks of it. The Sk. p." informs that each of the 

1. KalikS purSna, ch. 40. 75-ref. by Law 253. 

2. Hiat. Geog. P. 253. 

3. Karna parva, V. 104-105. \ 

Sabha parva. XXV. 1,000 ff. | ref. by Law, Hist, Geog. P. 253, 
Vana parva, XII. ; 488 j 

4. KM, 93. (298). 

5. Tatriiste aarama areathah. khyStah aabara dipakah / 
P*iscimasy3in dial vibhor vestitala faba.rttlayah. / 
YasmTtd ekapadi mtirgo yena vianvdlayaA vrajet // 

Sk. Vai., P. M. 7. 28-29. 
0. Sk. Vai. P. M. 30. 167-168. 

7, Hist. Dhs, IV. P. 811. 

8, Geog. Die. P. 205. 

9, Sk. Ma. Kau, ?9. 152-153, 



56 SW* PURXfilA [VOL. XIV, NO- I 

country of Tomara, Karnata, and Yugala or PuAgala comprised 1 4 
lacs of villages. As Tomara is associated with Karna^a the location 
of the former is imagined to be somewhere near the latter. Fh 
country of Karna^a is situated in the southern region so the loca- 
tion of the country of Tomara too can be ascertained In the* 
same region, 
Utkalade^a 

Same as Oddlyana (q. v.) 
Var dhaman a 

Instead of Vardhamana, B. C. Law 1 mentions Vardhamana- 
Bhukti and argues that Vardhamana Bhukti is identical with 
modern Burdwan in Bengal. For its location and name he refbrs to 
the following as evidence. The Mallasaral copperplate Inscription, 
an inscription found in a village near Galsi in the Burdwan District, 
Bengal; Naihati copperplate; the Chittagong plates of KSrUideva of 
the 9th century A.D. which mention it as VardhamSnapura, and the 
Irda cooperplate 2 Grant of king Nayapaia Deva. But it has been 
located in different places by different PurSnas, and classical litera- 
ture,. The Sk. P. 3 exposes that Vardhamana comprised 14 
thousand of villages besides this no more information is available 
therein. Markandeypurana and Devlpuraija also deal with the 
name. According to DevipurSjja it is a separate country from 
Vauga. N. L. Dey< locates it in between Allahabad and Banaras o 
the basis of Kathasaritsagara (chs. 24, 25) Dey locates it in Malwa 
referring JASB (1883) p. 67. Another town of this name was in 
Kathiawad which has been identified with the present Vadvana 
where MerutuAga, the celebrated Jaina scholar composed his 
frabandna Cmtamani 15 in A.D. 1423, 

A scrutiny, so far done, of all the works leads to the concision 

has referred to *** 






Varenetudesa 

s that 



1- Hist. Geog. P. 269. 

2- Hist, Geog. P. 2Q9. 

3. Sk. Ma, Kau. 39. 157. 

4. Geog. Die. P, 25. 

5. Ibid. 



aahaara u-ca grm an Sl t Ga varendukalj y/ 

' 



. 39. 360* 



JAN., 1972] THE HOLV PLAGES OF EAST INDIA 57 

villages. No further description about this place is found in this 
PurSna and no other works speak a word about it. N. L. Dey n 
mentions one Barendra in the district of Maldah in Bengal. 
Varendu and Barendra seems to be synonymous, Barendra might 
be the later form of Varendu. If this is taken for granted, then 
Varendudes"a can be located in Bengal, now in Bangla 



Venuvana ksetra 

It is stated in the Sk. P. 2 that there is a place (ksetra) which 
purifies one's sins, and is called as Venueana wherefrom the bamboos, 
pearls are obtained. As the several place names of different regions 
are described in the same chapter, e g. Am^Scala mahatmya, it 
is difficult to locate it in this region without strong support of other 
pur&jjic evidences. 

It is said that Venuvana, was neither too far from nor too near 
to the town of Rajagrha 3 . As Rajagrha falls in Magadha it can 
be placed in the eastern region of India. 



1. Geog. Die. P. 26. 

2. Ksetrarii venuvanarft nama vidyate plpanasanam / 
Yatra variiaplata garbhaj J3to muktamanih siva // 

Sk, Ma. A. M. U. 2. 62. 

3. MahavSgga. 1.22. 17-ref. by Geog, Die. P. 29, 



OF THE ATHARVAVEDA 

By 

GANGA SAG/VR RAI 



: \ 

5 5Krcrf:*rnrciraT?if qffcw: snPTfamt 



srr 
i] 

The oldest available name for the fourth or Atharvaveda is 
Atharvangiras which is found in the very text of the Atharva- 
veda. 1 This name is found in the beginning of the Ms. of tin* 
Saunaklya Sariihita. 8 This name also occurs in the MahabhRrala", 
Yajnavalkya Smrti 4 , Manusmrti'' and the Baudhayana Dhuruia- 
sutra. c The word Atharvan and its derivatives is profoundly usi-ci 
in the literature to denote the fourth Veda while its second part 
Angiras finds mention only once in the literature in this scmsc 7 
The etymology of the word Atharvan is given in the Niruktu 
(II. 2. I) and the Gopatha B ra h ra a a (I. 4), The word is derived 
from /tharv having the meaning 'Kautilya' or 'Himsa'. Thus th 
word Atharvan means Akautilya or Ahirhs3 



-.- ^M, ,, Ath. X.7.20 
2. M. Bloomfield: Atharvaveda and Gopatha Br. under 

Sec. 7 
I Mbh. 3.205.20 

ibid 8.40.33 

I Yajfiavalkva Smrti I. 313 
5. *rR?f^33fr qj!f: | Manu. .11.33 

ru wwff^?Sff ?rif qjfr Baudhayana Dharma Stjtra 2 5.9. 14 
7. fl%*>wr: ?^f|r Tait. Sarhh. 7.5,11.2 



JAN., 1972] SAKHA'S OF THE ATHARVAVEDA 59 

The word Atharvan and Angiras are used in contrary senses. 
The Atharvaveda is designated as Santaveda while Angiras is Ghora. 
According to the ^atapatha Brahmana 13.4.3.3, the Asvalayana 
^rauta Sutra 10.7. 1 and 6ankhayana &rauta Sutra the recitation 
of the Verses from these two Vedas is prescribed at the occasion 
of Pariplava of A^vamedhayaga 1 . 

Here at these places, recitation of c Bhesajam J is prescribed 
from Atharvaveda and that of 'Ghoram' from Angirasa with 
agressive sorcery and practices of spells (Krtya). The late 
Paribis\a hymns Ath. 19.22 and 23 which are repeated in the 
Atharvan Pari&sta 46.9,10 deal with and state the subdivisions of 
the Angiras and Atharvan. But subsequently this distinction 
disappeared in the course of time and the word Atharvan and its 
derivative (snwfar:, wrffar, w^ and finally Atharva-Veda) prevai- 
led for the fourth Veda. But these terms do not denote the 
original diversified character of these two terms. 



The other words applied for this Veda are f%^: and the 
These are product of later age and neither of these two is 
found in the Saihhitas. The word T^SRS: occurs in the Atharvan 
texts only. In the Culikopanisat (11) the Atharvan texts are 
designated as Bhrgu-Vistara and in the same text (10) the Bhrgus 
are regarded as the best among the Atharvans. 2 In the SamhitSs 
the Bhrgu, the Angiras and the Atharvan are more closely related 
to each other. 3 This -interrelation continues in the Brahmanas 
and in the Satapatha Brahmana sage Gyavan is described either 



1. (a) 

Satapatha 13.4.33 ...... 

Satapatha Br. 13.4. 



I A&valayama ^rauta Sutra 10.7.71 

(c) q^-jft ^: tfhrfafe Srtrsf Prn^ i 

SankhSyana ^. Su. 16.2.9 
- ywzfcs\ ?[^T*rr: Gulikopanijat 10 
3. Gf. Rg. X. 14.6; 92.10; Vili, 43.13 etc. 



60 <*TttT1 PURSl^A [VOL. XIV, NO. 1 



as a Bhargava or as an Angirasa. 1 The term Brahmaveda is used 
in Atharvan literature and apart from it, it is found in the 
Sankhayana Gfhya Sutra (1.16.3). The Vaitana Sutra, Gopatha 
Brahmana and Atharva Pariiistas amply use this word. 

About the names and number of the &akh3s of this Veda 
the various texts contain the diversent opinion. This Mahabha?ya 
counts nine akhas of this Veda, 2 the Garana Vyuha 3 and Atharva 
Pariis\a* also confirm the same number. In the Prapancahrdaya 
also this number is confirmed. 15 Sayanacarya, B the celebrated 
commentator of the Vedas; Ramakrsna Pandita, the author of 
the Sarhskara Ganapati 5 Satyavrata Sama&ramin 7 in his Trayl 
Paricaya and the author of Aryavidya s Sudhakara count nine 
number of the akhas of this Veda. Contrary to it according to 
the Ahirbudhnya 9 Samhita this Veda contains five Sakhas. The 
Muktikopanisat counts fifty Sakhas of the Atharvaveda. 10 

Though the number of the Atharvana Sakhas is geneially 
accepted as nine, with minor differences, there exists a great 
diversity in the names of these &akhas. The Pur^yic tradition in 
this regard has some major deviation from the prevalent Vedic 
tradition. The relevant portion of the Vayu Purana runs as 
follows : 



1. qsrfTst ens^-RST 31 ?WT W^ ^ 1T^ 5 l ^ 

jfH^^^qt ^iff W^q 1 sftfor: ^CTT^Tt 5j| I ^ata. Br. IV. 
1.5.1. 



3. 
4. 

Ath. P. 49.4.1 



5. 




Trayi Paricaya 
T^f?cf Arya Vidyasudhakara 



Muktikopanisat 



JAN., 1972] SAKHAS OF THE ATHARVAVEDA 61 



Vayu PurSija 1.61 

The Brahmai3<3a Puraija (1.2.35.55-62) contains the same 
reading with some curruptions and minor variations such as 
4,<4 for P5T (49c) %3ZH for %^W (50c) ?i>^4irJli%- for ^rll% (5 lc), 

t: for ^^T: *1cr: (51d), 3^W for g%ff (54a), 
The ^rlmadbhagavata Puraija mentions it as such: 



\R 



\\\ 



62 gRijq; -PUR.5J5JA [VOL. XIV, NO. 1 



: II Sab 

BhSg. XII. 6 

In the Visiju Purgpa the description of the 6akhas of the 
Atharvaveda is found thus : 

tffeprf 



II ? 
I 

ll 
I 

t ^ff|5lf sKT^ t'WI ^ flflft II? 



Vii?u PurSija III. 6 

The list of these PurSpas may be summed up in the following 
table : 

BhSg. Vayu. Brahmaijda Visiju. 

1 

x 



JAN., 1972] 



OF THE ATHARVAVEDA 



63 



srrfa 



Paippaladafr. 
Taudah 

Maudaha 
Saunakl yalj 



X 
X 

In the other texts dealing with the S^khas of the Atharvaveda 
the list is somewhat different from that given in the Puranas. The 
list of some important texts is provided in the following table: 

2. ^aunaklya 3. Sayan a 
Caranavyaha 

Paippala 1 . 

DSnta 2. 

Pradanta 3. 

Saunaka 4. 

Javala 5. 

Auta 6. Jaladah 

Brahmapalasa 7. Brahmavadah 
Kunakhi Vedadar^a 8. Vedadan&k 

Caranavidya 9. Carar^a Vaidyat 

The lists of the Atharvan Carana Vyuha and SSyanScSrya 
tally completely and since both are celebrated authorties, the 
first being directly connected with the Atharvan tradition and the 
second being the celebrated commentator of the Vedas and being 
well equiped in the Vedic tradition their list bears more authenti- 
city than others In this connection it is worth mentioning that 
the Sarhhitas of only two Jsaktas. i. e. that of aunaklya and 
PaippaLida are available. The present prevalent Sam hits belongs 
to the aunaklya 6akha. 



1. 


Atharvan 


2. 




Caranavyuha 




1. 


Paippalada 


1. 


2. 


Stauda 


2. 


3. 


Mauda 


3. 


4. 


oaunakiya 


4. 


5. 


JSjala 


5. 


6. 


Jalada 


6. 


7. 


Brahmavada 


7. 


8. 


Devadar^-a 


8. 


9. 


Carana Vaidya 


9. 



64 



- PURXtfA [ VOL. XIV. NO. 1 



Puranic Tradition 

Before we deal with the nine Sakhas mentioned in the Vedic 
tradition it is proper to take notice of the Puranic tradition. 
According to the PurSnas Sumantu was the foremost among the 
Atharvans to whom Vedavyasa tought his fourth Sariihita viz. the 
Atharvaveda, According to the PurSnas, Sumantu was famous 
Sage well-versed in the lore of Vedas and Vedic sacrifices. 
Yudhisthira invited him in his Rsjasuya sacrifice 1 and he was 
also present in the court of Yudhisthira. a He instructed his 
Atharvan Samhita to his pupil Kabandha 3 . According to the 
Mahabharata he was not only taught Atharvaveda but all the 
Vedas and Mahabharata by VySsa* He went to see Bhisma, 
while the latter was lying on the bed of arrows. 5 Some portions 
of the Dharma Sutra of Sumantu are now published. 6 Mm. Dr. 
P. V. Kane has discussed about Sumantu in his History of Dharma 
S&stra. In Vedic literature, related to the Atharvaveda this 
Sumantu has not found its proper importance, Kabandha was 
Sumantu's student to whom Sumantu taught his Saitihita. In the 
Puranas he is recognised as Sumantu's pupil. In the Brhadarnyaka 
Upaniad (III.7) and Jaiminlya Brahmana (III. 319) some 
Kabandha Atharvana is mentioned. It may he said that this 
Kabandha Atharvana was the Kabandha of the Puranas. 
According to the Purftnas Kabandha divided his SamhitS into two 
and taught them to his two students Tatbya and Vedadar^a and 
thereafter spread the tradition of the Atharvan Sakhas. Here before 
giving some information about the popular names of the nine 
Atharvan Sakhas it should be proper to mention that the only few 
names found in the Pur3nas have been recognised in the Atharvan 
tradition. 



1. Bhag. X. 74.7 

2. Mbh. II. 4.11 

3. BhSg. I. 4.22; XII. 6.53; 7.9; Vayu 60.13, 15; 61. 49; 
Visnu III. 4.9; 6.8, 9; Agni 2. 71.8, 9 etc. 

4. Mbh. I. G3.89 

5. Mbh. &lnti parvan, 47.5 

6. The journal of the Oriental Research, Madras, 1934^ 
pp. 75-88 



JAN., 1972 ] SSKHSS OP THE ATHARVAVEDA 65 

(1) Paippal&da Snkhn 

The variants of this name are Pippala, Paippala, Paippalayani 
and PippalSda. An old sage of this name was present while BhTsma 
was on the SaraSaiyya. 1 . This name was not known even in 'the 
Atharvan literature prior to the Parisista 8, in which the Atharva- 
veda, 19.56-88 in the 6aunakiya are designated as the Paippal&da 
Mantrah This shows the close relation of the book 19 th of the 
Atharvaveda in PaippalSda. The Atharva PariSista begins with 
Pratlka 'Sam no Devi' (1.6) which is most probably the beginning 
verse of the Paippalada Sakha. In the Skanda Pur5na, Nagara- 
khanda a Paippalada is said to be the relative of Yajnavalkya. 
In the Introductory lines of the Pras"nopanisat Suke^a Bharadvaja 
and five other sages went to Paippalada who was a learned 
scholar 2 . According to the tradition and the colophons occurring 
in the end of the book this Upanisad undoubtedly belongs to the 
PaippalSda S"akha of the Atharvaveda, Hence., it is certain that 
this Paippalada is none else but our akhakara, According to 
Prof, Caland the Paippalada is older than the aunaklya. s In 
the Prapancahrdaya the number of the Kaodas in the 
Paippalada is said to be twenty. The Erahmana of this gakhs is 
s^aid to be of eight Adhyayas 4 The oldest manuscript of this 
SakhS, written in S"arad5 character was procured from Kashmir 
and later on it was handed over to Prof. Roth. The photograph 
of this Sarhhita was published from America in 1901 in three 
volumes. 5 Recently late Prof. Durgamohan Bhattacharya of 
Government Sanskrit College s Calcutta published the text of this 
Sarhhita, Gunavijaya, the author of the Ghandogya mantra- 
bhSsya has said that 'Jaarh no Devi, 5 is the first, Mantra 

1. Mbh.j &3nti p. 47.6. 

2. s^Jtii =3- VITC^R: ^Naj^qspnr; sftafarcft 



Pra^nopani- 
sat I. 

3. Cf. Bloomfield: The Ath. of the Gopatha Br. p. 21. 

4. cWmftrl! ^< 

Vedaprakarapa 
5- Bhagavaddatta, Vaidika Vafimaya Ka Itihasa. p. 320. 

6. # sft ^ff ...... 5t*F^lf3[JfHftsfq fip-qrai^: Ghandogya 

Manbatrha^ya 

9 



66 ^mq; PURXtf A [ VOLt XIV< 



of this Sarhhita and this view is confirmed by Patanjali 
and the Gopatha Brahmana (1.29). According to Prof. 
Whitney the Paippalada recension has more Brahmana 
portion than the vulgate recension of Saunaklyas. 1 The 
dialogue between Yudhisthira and Paippalada is found in 
the Matsya Purana (71. 1-45). s According to the Puranas he was a 
pupil of Devadaria. According to the Bhagavata. (I. 12.10;II.7.45) 
he came to see Pariksit who was pactising Prayopavesa and he knew 
the yogic powers of Visnu. Here Pippalsda is described as 
a resident of Naimisa forest Prof. Whitney has compared certain 
readings of the recension of Paippalada and Saunaka. 

(2) The Saunaklya Szkha 

The name Saunaka or Saunakin is frequently found in the 
literature. PSnini has mentioned it. 8 This was the most prevalent 
{sakha of the Atharvaveda and the vulgate text of the Atharvaveda 
belongs to this &akha. The followers of this akha were called 
aunakins or Saunaklyas. In the Puranic description of Vedic 
iaakhas, Saunaka is said to be the pupil of Pathya. According 
to the Mahabharata, sage Saunaka was born in the family of 
Bhrgu. 4 He was a resident of Naimisaranya and a Kulapati. He 
performed the sacrifice of twelve years (S^^lfq?.?^) in which 
Ugrasrava Suta narrated the story of the Mahabharata/' He was 
the son of Saunaka 6 , The Atharvaveda is called as 'Bhrgu Vistarab.' 
and has clo^e relations with the Bhrgus, so the relation of Saunaka, 
of Bhrgu clan,, with the Atharvaveda is but natural. Here it is 
noteworthy that various Saunakas are recognised in the Vedic 
literature. One Saunaka is connected with the Rgveda to whom 
many works are attributed 7 . It is not certain whether Rgvedic 

1. Whitney, Intr. to the Translation of Atharvaveda 
p. LXXX. 

2. TOS* ^friTC$ fqwrenif Tnrgfa^ l *fonHr wr t4 nw?r* *fifc[% i 
^sa ^TTS^ ^%grefqt^^ 7 1 .2 

3. ^ft^rf^^'gEi^fe Panini IV. 3.106. 

4. Mbh. I. 30.65. 

5. Mbh. I. 19. 

6. Ibid AnuSssana 30.65. 

7. Weber, Lectures on the History of Indian Literature 

p. 33. 



JAN., 1972J SSKHAS OF THE ATHARVAVEDA 67 

Saunaka and one, the founder of the Atharvana Sskh&, are the 
same person. Saunaka is mentioned in the Kaus'ika 1 and Vaitana 
Sutras 2 and similar statement is available in the Kau&taki 
Brahmaija. 3 The Atharva-Pratibikhya is termed as Saunakiya 
Gaturadhyayika 4 . The Atharva-Paddhati on the Kausika SQlra 
1.6 designates the Vaitana Sutra ai Saunakiya Sutra. In the 
Atharvan Upani^ads i^aiinaka is regarded as 'a great Acarya. 5 
A Saunaka Upaniad is also found" and Bloomfield thinks the 
word 'Kunakhin' as a variant of Saunakin. 7 In the Atharva 
Pari^ista, the followers of the Saunaka Sakha are regarded as a 
person fit for the post of a priest 8 . The Kanaka Sutra,, Vaitana 
Sutra, and a Atharva PrfitisSkhya or Saunakiya CaturadhygyikS 
belong to the & aunakiya Sokha. 

The SaunakTya Samhita is divided into twenty Kansas or 
books which is supported by the tradition. T^he Gopatha 
Brahranna I. 1.5 speaks of twenty mythical Rsis descended from 
Angiras. But this view is contradicted by the modern scholars 
and they think that the original collection of this Samhita consis- 
ted of a less number of the books. It is well assumed that the 19th 
and the 20th books are the later productions as they have borrowed 
considerable material from the Kgveda. The airangement of the 
books is according to the hymns of different length, The contents 
of this Samhita are placed under 14 heads such as Bhaisajyani, 
Ayusyaoi> Abhicariksni, StnkarmSni etc. 



2. 

3. Kausitaki BrShmatja 4.7. 

4. See Introduction to the Ath. PrSti.'akhay, by Dr. Surya- 
kanta. 

5. Mundaka up. 1 .1.3; Brahroa up. 1. 

6. Bloomfield, Atharvaveda & Gopatha Br., p. 12. 

7. Bloomfield Introduction to Kau&ka Grhya Sutra, of 
American Oriental Society Vol. XIV p. 34 1889. 

8. 



Ath. Paribista 2.4 
9. Cf. Winternitz. History of Indian Lit.; Macdonell History 
of Sanskrit Lit. etc. 



68 WrR PURX^A [VOL. XIV. NO. 1 



(3} Tauda or Taudayana 
The other name used for this akha is Stauda or StaudSyana 
akha. The only reference to this SakhS is found in the Atharva 
Paris'ista 23.3 * Nothing is known about this jkkha. 

(4} Mauda or Maudftyana Sakha 

Nothing remains of this isakha but it is certain that originally 
this Sakha was much prevalent one. Panini 3 and Patafljali" have 
mentioned this ;ikha. Sabarabhasya has also referred to it. 
According to the Atharva Parmsta the follower of the Mauda or 
Jalada akha should not be appointed as a priest. 8 It is probable 
that this 3:>kha was mostly connected with the Abhictrakarma 
(black magic) and due to it was looked upon contemptuously and 
in course of time it became obsolete. A city named Modapuram 
is mentioned in the Mahabharata (II. 27.11). Whether this city 
had any connection with the Mauda Slikha is not known. 

(5) Jajala Sakha, 

According to the Ganaratnamahodadhi Jajala was a son of 
Jajali.k According to the Mahabharata a Jajali was a great 
saint who went to Tuladhara and was taught by the latter. 
No literature of this Sakha is available. 



(6) Jalada 

No literature of this Sakha is available. As mentioned 
earlier according to the Atharva Pamist.a the follower of this 
Sakha should not be appointed as Purohita. 
(7) Brahmavada Sakha. 

Other variants of this name are Brahmabala 3 BrahniapSlasa. 
According to Pt. Bhagavaddatta the name Bhargava, meationed 
in the Atharva Parisista is its synonym. But nothing is certain. 
No literature is available. 



], ismm 5Sm- Ath. Pari. 23.3. 

2- tsfTgWt ?fotN?ira: Kartakaujapadigana. 

3. Mahsbha^ya on Papini II. 4. 3. 

4. Sabarabha ; ya 1.1.3. 

<R*?i^ 3C?^"T Jflt*^ H^?t ^=5^ (, Ath. ".$$$. 23.4 

6. srofswrlsrcq'iiijiBi: i Ganaratnamahodadhi 

7. Mbh. S,.mi p. chs. 261,262. 




JAN., 1972] SSKHAS OF THE ATHATIVAVEDA 69 

(8) Deoadarsa Sakha 

PSnini has mentioned this name in the Saunakadigana. 

-According to the Puranas Devadarsa was a pupil of Kabandha 

who divided his Sakha into four and taught it to his four pupils 1 . 

Vhe Sakha is mentioned in the KauJika sutra. 2 The Atharva 

Pari&sta 23.2 has also mentioned it, 

Other variants of this name are Vedadar^a, Divadar^a, 
i^evarsi and so on. No literature is available. 
(9) Cnrana Vidya Sakhti 

The other name used for this Sakha is Caranavaidya. The 
name occurs in the Atharva ParifaLsta 22.2, Kebava", a commen- 
tator of the Kaubika Sutra has mentioned this ^akha. On the 
evidence of Ke^ava it is certain that this Sakha contained its own 
Sarhhit?. On the evidence of the Puraiias also the existence of 
this Sarhhita is proved 4 

Besides above mentioned nakhas the Puranas and other texts 
mention the following bakhas : 

(10) Pathya Sakha, (11) Sausk&yani or Sauikyayani ^akha 
(12) KumudSdi s'akhs, (13) Saindhavayana s"akha, (14) 
Babhru ^akha, (15) Munjake^a SakhS, and (16) Jabali 
Sakha. 

Though in the later literature the number of the-Atharvaija 
Sakha is mostly confined to nine but according to the PurSnas 
this number is much more. In absence of any direct tradition 
nothing can be said with certainty. 



1. Brahmanda II. 35.57; Vi?nu III. 6.9.10. 

2. ^T3:frlfc^d5!Rf ^ Kanaka Sutra 85.7. 

3. '<w3i 2T?nr STfe ...... c^ ^RTatm^ft 1SP% Kesava on Kausika 

Sutra, 6.57 

4. sq 



U Vayu 61.69; Br. II. 

/ Oj <j 



Book Reviews 



). Critically edited with a 

Hindi translation by Dr. Asoke Chatterjee Sastrl, 
Professor and Head of the Department of Puraaa- 
Itihasa, Sanskrit University, Varanasi; Ga-'ganStha Jha 
Granthamala, Vol. IV, Published by the Director, 
Research Institute, Varanaseya Sanskrit Vishvavidya- 
laya, Varan asi, 19 : 1 Royal, 8 vo, pp. 54, plates 11, 

The contribution of the Fionas in the domain of the art 
of Indian painting cannot be neglected. The Matsya, Agni, 
Garuda, Naradiya and sorae other PurSnas have tried to deal with 
this subject in a limited way. But it is the Vhnudharmettara- 
Purana, the encyclopaedic store-house of various branches of Indian 
Knowledge, which stands far above these PurScas so far as the 
Indian painting is concerned. Besides the PurSnas some IfyaXMtra 
treatises also deal with the art of painting- of these the Samarangana 
mradhara of Bhoja, llth century A.D., the Abhilantarlha-Cintamam 
of Some^vara, 12th century A D . and the ilpa . ratm of ^ rlkumara 
16th century A.D. arc worth mentioning. These texts differ 
considerably from the Viwudharmottara on some important 
points, such as the nine poses (nava-stMnas] . But these texts wore 
composed much later than the Visnudharrnottara which, accor- 
ding to Btihler and Hazra, is said to be a work of the fifth 
century A. D. 

TheVis^dharmottara is a voluminous Parana comprising 
over 800 AdhySyas (Chapters) divided into three Khaodas or 
Parts-the first Khanda of 2G9 Adhs., the second Kha^da of 183 
Adhs., the third Khanda of 355 Adhs. (VeAk. edn.) It is in the 
third Khan<?a that the technical fine arts-such as music, dancing, 
pauxtog, architecture, iconography-are elaborately dealt with. 
The CM 



. 

(the art of painting) forms the topic of the nine 
Adhyayas (35-43) of this third Kha,da, out of which the first five 
Adhs, (85-39) are more important as regards to this subject. Accord- 
ing to the Visnu-Purana the art of painting is intimately connected 
with the art of dancing (Xrtta4aslra}, without the knowledge of 



JAN., 1972 ] BOOK REVIEWS 71 

which the art of painting cannot properly be learnt, for in both 
these arts the world is to be imitated ("fRI f[\RU^ faw g^fe^i 
^fratsgfei [ 3ircf safaft ^1 ijf u" Visnu-dh. III. 2.4). Hence it is 
that the chapters on the Citrasutra are preceded by those on the 
Njtta-s astro. Again the sound knowledge of the Citra-sutra is 
essential for learning the art of iconography ("fa^ ^ *fR[f5T 
^H*^7rafH srfemTa^ SRf ^ w3 ^ ^fsfaaui" Ib. III. 2. 1), 
Hence the chapters on the Citra-sutra are immediately followed by 
those on the Pratinw-laksara in this Parana. But according to this 
Purana the art of painting is the best of all these arts : 

snrc F 



: sr^rrr 

T: ftTcf^?^^ ^5tmrfJT^ f^^?q-: II 

(III. 43.88-89) 

An authentic edition of the text of the Citra-sutra chapters 
of the Visnu-dharmottara is : therefore,, to be considered a valuable 
contribution to the science of the Indian painting, The 'edition 
under review has been prepared on the basis of the five manus- 
cripts named as ^, % T, H and f by I he editor and the two 
printed editions of the Vispudharinottara-purana. viz. the 
Venkatesvara Press edition of Bombay, published in S. V. 1969 
(1912 A. D.) and the Baroda edition edited by Dr. Priyabala Shah 
and published in 1958 A. D. Out of the five manuscripts the 
manuscripts 3i (Devanagarl) and T (arada) are from the B.O.R.I 
Poonaj the Ms. ^ belongs to the Royal Asiatic Society, Bombay 
and the two mss. ^ and ej both .belong to the Sarasvati Bhavana 
Library of the Varanaseya Sanskrit University. The two printed 
editions are named here as %. (Venk, edn.) and <f. (Baroda edn.). 

The text of the five chapters (35-39) of the Citra-sutra has been 
constituted in the present edition. The text presented here is 
quite convincing. Variant readings from the five above- 
mentioned Mss. and the two printed edns. have been noted under 
the footnotes below the text. The footnote-numbers are given on 
the words of the text,, of which the variants are noted under the 
footnote. 



72 iUTH PURXtfA [ VOL. XIV, NO. 1 



The text is preceded by an Introduction (Mukkabandha) 
(pp. 1-22) written in simple and lucid Sanskrit; which deals with 
the position and antiquity of the Visnu-dharmottara, short syno psis 
of its contents, detailed summary of the five chapters, elaborate 
discussion of the technical terms and the comparative study of 
some similar points of the three Silpa Jsstra . treatises and tlie 
Vi^iu-dharmottara, The Hindi translation of the text of these 
Jive chapters of the Citra-sfitra which is added after the text is the 
Just ever attempted Hindi translation of such a technical subject 
f 'f the Pus-Spa The translation is quhe upto the mark. The 
Introduction and the translation both are the result of the editor's 
command over the subject-matter of the text. Eleven plates illus- 
trating different poses and postures and explaining some specific 
it clmk-nl terms used in the text add to the value of the edition. 

ft serms that a few of the readings of the text constituted here 
an th' results of the thoughtful emendation by the Editor, e. g. 
or, p. 32 tho reading 'reiiffir' (of Adh. 37) is not contained in any 
of tho five manuscripts and the two printed editions consulted by 
il> r.ditor; similar is the case with the reading 'fitf^' (of Adh 39} 
on p. 43 fall the five Mss and the two printed editions read 'g>%^ 
It would haw bora better to mark such emended readings by 
asurisk or underline etc. and to discuss the necessity of such 
<nu.nda.ion in Introduction or in separate notes, A word-index 



7 P an tf ! ; and a Hst f the se ^ed bibliography on the 
-. should ate ,ave been provided to make this edition more 
lifciuj to tup readers 

v bringing out this edition Dr. Chatterjee has really 



, WUI ^further take up the 

chapters on the other technical arts (such as 



A. S. Gupta 



JAN., 1972 ] BOOK REVIEWS 73 



: Composed by Dr.V. Raghavan, Madras. 
Presented to friends by the author on the auspicious occasion 
of the marriage of his daughter SaubhagyavatI Nandini, on 
5th December, 1971. 



n 

2. sft-g^ITtf 21^31 ^italt sfttf^TTTTfirTn^rR With English 
translation by Dr. V. Raghavan. It was also presented to 
friends by Dr. Raghavan on this auspicious occasion of the 
marriage of his daughter. 

1. There has been a constant tradition in India of composing 
MntfkU-stavas (Eulogies of Gods and Goddesses composed in verses 
according to the order of the letters of Sanskrit Alphabet which 
comprises fifty or fifty-one (including c5) letters from ^l to ^T. 
The word 'mZtrkS,' means the 'source 3 or the 'origin', and as the 
Alphabet (varna-mala.) is the origin of all the speech and literature; 
it is also called the 'Mat[ka'. The Mtltrkd, the source of all Fsand 
Viihmaya has been held in high regard from the times even of the 
Upanisads. According to the Indian cosmology as propounded in 
the Vedic and the Smrti (including the Puranic and the Tantrika) 
literature, the Fa k has been regarded as the original source of the 
creation, the whole creation has been regarded by the sages as 
a transformation of the Vnk principle et =TT*T 31 ^ gsf ^jT^" (Ghand.- 
Up. 3 12.1). And as the Mntrkti, is the source even of the Vak, 
it has been identified with the Conscious Creative Energy called 
the Self or the Atman 

5 



(Brahma-vidyopanisad. 62-63) 
" Upaniad-brahma-yogin). 

In the Sfo/ra-literature the Deities of the Stotras, specially the 
female Deities or the Goddesses., have been conceived in the form 



t Tft ffT: l" (Tripura-tapinJ-Upanisad. 4) 
10 



?4 - [ VOL. XIV., NO, 1 



In thp Devl-Bhag. (XII. 6) Goddess Gayatrl has been men- 
tioned a> OTTUfrWKP<n' ('ffl^Wt-^:'-^^^^') ^ the 
6'^M-W<^-a. Similarly, in the Lali^opakhynna of the 
Brahmanda-Purana the Goddess Lalita (or JBarasvati) has been 
called as ^wrto^^' or'*RRI' (IV.S6.20), and m the 
-5/Hraaa Goddess Lalita has been mentioned as 'JTr^Hnw- 
(SI. 167). In the present /rawaA:fl-za*rfcaj/afl under review 
the author eulogises Goddess Kamakjl as '^fat^' (6l.i). 

Thus a tradition of composing Mutrka-stavas has been 
cherished and preserved from the ancient times. There are several 
famous Matfkl-t'axas included in the Sanskrit slotra literature, for 
example, 



etc., which are all composed in 
th vorst-^ each beginning with the letter of the Maifka (T to ^} 
'jn^ra^'S' There is another type of the Matrkft-stavas which 
follow the order of the letters of the deity's mantra iT^ra'CsK^F ; 
such as thf H^W^I^R^t^I^T^ (included in the Bfhat-ratnakara-stotra 
of the N.S.P. Bombay) and gNjEJraiffliFspTr^^in^^ (included in the 
Afdaya-m'irtita, edited by Dr. V. Raghavan, and pub. by the 
Central Sanskrit Institute, Tirupati, 1966); even the Adi-Kavi 
Valralki is said have followed the order of the letters of the 
Gfyalrl~r><an!ra in his RSmayaija ("Trc^teJ =5^ 65r N ^mr^'QI^g^fH'I," 

Vitara-Kaofla, 131.18 cd) in composing the first verse of every 

thunml Slokas. 

The present ^Ri^f-^l^tfa? of Dr. Raghavan is another 

pri'dmis pvarl added to the string of the Ms.trikn-stavas. Goddess 

K.^iniksi is the favourite Deity of South India, specially of the 

city of Kind ("afetir t^ 3U3W5* EB[5=s?jf sgf^gTrqgf i <s^twr'u'^ i 5ar^- 

^!.g^^ U" Lalitopakhyana, 39.14). The LalitopZkhyana (Adh. 
39) gives the derivation of the name '^rur^' of the Goddess 
l.alttS. thus ; 



JAN., 1972 ] BOOK REVIEWS 75 

This derivation clearly shows the importance of the worship of 
Goddess K&msksl in the form of its stotra; for she bestows both 
knowledge and wealth (^r and *rr) on his devotees. The present 
Kamnkslmatik^-stava is a great inspiring eulogy of the Goddess full 
of devotional ideas and is the product of the ripe poetic genius of 
its author. The Nnrayana-smrti or 'Blessing' by the present great 
SariikarScarya His. Holiness Sri Chandra^ekharendra Sarasvatr of 
the Kanci-Kamakoti-pTtha together with the two illustrations of 
His Holiness Jagadguru and his disciple Sri Jayendra Sarasvati 
Swam! adore the beginning of tKis booklet. The author, Dr. 
Raghavan, has stringed this beautiful bright garland of pearl-like 
letters in order to satisfy his unfulfilled yearning of having a talk 
with the holy Jagadguru at Kgfici on the auspicious occasion of 
his daughter's marriage, when he had gone there to visit Goddess 
Ksmakslj for the Jagadguru had been observing the vow of perfect 
silence \ K n^tha-mauna-orata) at that time, as he ( Dr, Raghavan) 
himself says : 



Exhaustive explanatory notes on difficult words of the Stava are 
given in the footnotes; also the comparative references are given 
in the footnotes from such Stuti-works, as the Lalitasahasranama 
Lalita triaall, Saudaryalaharl, AryS ^ataka of the Muka.pancasatl 
Devi-mShatmya, DevI-Bhagavata, Kalika. Pur5na 3 Brhad-dharma 
Puraoa, Bhagavadglta, Rgveda ond Yajurveda, The stanzas have 
been composed in lucid and standard Sanskrit. In all, there are 
fifty, three stanzas in this Matrkz-stava representing the fifty letters 
of the Matrka^ and hence called the PancZsika here and conceived 
as the Mother Goddess : 



rr 



76 *rorn PURStfA [ VOL., XIV..NO. i 



This beautiful and inspiring MS-tjkcL-stava certainly deserves a 
permanent and exalting place in the galaxy of the Sanskrit Stotras 
Dr. Raghavan is to be congratulated for producing such an 
excellent piece of devotional poem in the form of this K&mct.ksl- 
matrkftstava. 

R.. ^WKT^pTW^faSL (Submhmanya Bhujangastotra) of 
Bhagavatpsda brl Sarhkaracarya is a well-known stava. It is 
composed in the Bfiujaiiga-prayatamette, eachpttda of which consists 
of the four ya-ganas (SW^lcf ^gw^:; ^- -, * -, ^- -, *-'- -)> 
There are other Bhujanga (or Bhujanga-prayjitaj-stoltas composed by 
the Adi lankarrxcSrya; such as the %^S^q; , aft girWSCiftRGS^WSr^Icr- 
^t^^gsi^i^ w^r'^ftptrcRat^q;, ^ff^f^m^^ etc. The 
present Subrahmanya-bhujangasto'ra consists of the 33 stanzas, the 
last stanza containing i\\Q phala-s i utl as : 



An illustration of KalySna Subrahmanya is given on the 
back of the title page, and the Nurayana-smrti (Blessing) by His 
Holiness Jagadguru Sank aracarya of K.S.uc!-K?una ICoti-pUha is 
also printed in the beginning^ The English translation is literal 
and lucid. Explanatory and other footnotes are also given. 

Both these booklets in the form of the two inspiring Stotras 
the one of the great female Deity Goddess KSmaksi, and the other 
of the male Deity God Subrahmaijya-arc really the precious and 
proper presents presented by Dr. Raghavan to his friends on the 
auspicious occasion of the marriage of Sauhha Nandinl with 
Chiranjivi Venkataramani, It is hoped that they will be cherished 
as precious treasures and utilised in enriching the Souls. 

A. S. GUPTA. 



f 3R *I35f 



ira* 



II ? 



=Rt 



ACTIVITIES OF THE ALL-INDIA KASHIRAJ TRUST 
(July December, 1971) 
WORKS ON PURANAS 
1. Kurma -Parana 



(a) Critical Edition 

As mentioned in the last review (Vol. XIII. 2 pp. 177 ffJ, 
the critical text together with the Introduction has already 
been printed and presented to the President of the Canberra 
(Australia) Session of the International Congress of Orienta- 
lists on our behalf by the High Commissioner for India, 
H, E. Mr. A. M. Thomas. But the Appendices and the Slolca- 
index "could not be added at that time. Now the following 
Appendices are being printed and added to the Critical text 
in order to complete this Critical edition: 

Appendix 1 (A) Identified Kfirma-Puiaqa quotations from 
the Dharma sastra-Nibandhas. (Printed} 

Appendix I (B) -Unidentified K.urma-Pura'ija quotations 
from the Nibandhas. (Printed} . 

Appendix 2* Subject-concordance indicating the para- 

llel topics and sub-topics of the Karma- 
Puraija and the other Puranas and the Epics. 

Critical Notes Which supply explanatory, critical and 
textual remarks on the important readings 
of the constituted text. 

The verse- index has already been printed. The detailed 
contents and also a detailed index of the Adhyayas and the &lokas 
with those of the Venkt. edn. is being printed now. 



(b) Hindi and English Translations 

Hindi and English Translations along with the critical 
>amfcrit Text are being printed in separate volumes. Important 



(XIII.2; p, 177fF) 



aft 



m 



if 



PURAJvIA [VOL. XIV., NO. 1 



Appendices like those of the Vamana-Purana translation are also 
being added to these volumes. An exhaustive index of the proper 
(personal) names is also now ready for the press, 

2, Varaha-Purafla 

After the Vfimana and the Kurma we have taken up the 
Varaha-Pura.;,a for its Critical edition. The following Mss. of the 
VarSha-Pur&ua arc being collated: 

1. No. 57/183 (Dcvanggarl) of the Sarasvati Bhandara, 
Fort Ramnagar. 

2. No. 58/183 (Devanagar!) of the Sarasvati BhatjdSra, Port 

Ramnagar. 

3. No. 15766 iJDevanagarl) of the Varanaseya Sanskrit 
University Sarasvati Bhavan Library, Varanasi. This 
Ms. belongs to the Library of Kavindracarya Sarasvati 
as mentioned in the last colophon by the scribe. 

4, No. 1197 (DevanSgart) from the ViivdvarSnanda Vedic 
Institute, Hoshiarpur (Punjab). 

5. A Bengali Ms. from the Serampur College, West Bengal, 
(Its microfilm copy was procured from there, which has 
been photo graped here for collation). 

Two Mss. from the Bhandarkar O. R. Institute, Poona and 
two Mss. (Bengali) from the Asiatic Society, Calcutta, have also 
been procured. Efforts are being made to procure other Mss. or 
their rmcroplnlEnSj photos or transcribed copies from the British 
Museum, London, India Office, London, Bangiya Sshitya Parisad, 
Calcutta. Sanskrit College, Calcutta, Government Oriental Mss. 
Library, Madras, Oriental H<MMn$t Itfl^fa|e Library of the 
Kerala University, Trivaadtfw^ Sringd^uq* Mysore, and 
M. S Sarasvati Mahal Liiwasry, 



JAN., 1972] ACTIVITIES OF THE ALL-INDIA KASHIRAJ TRUST 81 



SIIHI 



8PRI 
11 



82 j^foTH PURSJvIA [VOL. XIV, No. 1 

OTHER WORKS 
Pur an a Pat ha and Prava eana 

The whole of the Varaha-PurSna was recited from 27.10.71 
upto2.11.71 (Kartika Jsukla 8-15) in the PadmanSbha temple, 
Rarnnagar, by Pt. Laksmana Pandey in the morning and the 
pravacana on it was given in the evening by Pt. Visvanath. Shastri 
Datarof the Sangaveda Vidyalaya, Varanasi. 



Veda Paraya^a 

From 23 June to 8 July, 1971 (Asadba ukla 1-15) the 
p3rayaija of the Sukla Yajurveda, Kaijva SakhSj was held in the 
isiva-temple of the ivala Palace, Varanasi. The text was recited 
from the memory by Pt, Shrikrishna Puranika. The Srota was 
Pi. Laksmi Kanta Puranika. 



Purana-gosthi 

In addition to the Veda-Parayana, a Puraija-gosthT was also 
arranged 011 this occasion on the 7th July, 1971 in the Sivala 
Palace, which was presided by H.H. Maharaja Dr Vibbuti Narain 
Singh and was attended by many local Sanskrit Scholars and 
Professors of the Sanskrit University and the Banaras Hindu 
University A cyclostyled brochure containing the account of the 
activities of the Purajja Deptt. and some important problems 
about the critical text of the Puracas was circulated before hand 
by post to the different local Sanskrit scholars interested in the 
subject.^ The brochure was read in the Gosthi by the Editor, 
Shri A.S. Gupta and the problems mentioned therein were discus- 
sed by the scholars present. Prof. Baldeva Upadhyaya, Prof. Badri- 
nath Sukla, Prof. Reva Prasad Dvivedi, Late Prof. K.N.S. Telang, 
Prof. Rama Kuber Malaviya, Pt. Visvanath Shastri Datar and 
some other scholars took part in the discussion. A paper in Sanskrit 
on the problems of organising the Sanskrit learning; specially the 
study of the Rajaniti, prepared by Pt. Rajesvara Shastri Dravid, 
was read by his learned son in his absence. The VySsa-Purima 
Number of the Brans' Bulletin was duly presented to His 
Highness, and the Var^i sna ( a kind o f the bi-annual scholarship) 



JAN., 1972] AGTIVITES OF T&E ALL-INDIA KASHIRAJ TRUST 83 



q. ^ 



j nwif 



84- 5^irq; PURA^A [VOL. xiv, No. 1 

of Rs. 600 was given by His Highness to Ft. Krishnamurti Srauti 
who is memorising the Samaveda and its Brahmai.ias. The 
prasada was distributed to the audience after the gosthl. 

Yamana Jayanti 

The Vamana-Jayaiitl was celibrated by the Purana-Depart- 
ment on Sept. 2, 1971 with Vamana-Puja and recitation of the 
Vamana-stuti from the Vamana Purana. His Highness also 
attended the function, Prasada was distributed after the puj2 
and the stuti-patha, 

Scholars who Visited the Parana-Depart naent 

The following scholars vijited the Purana-Dcpartment and 
acquainted themselves with it-j working : 

1. Dr. Robert J. AJilJer, Resident Director, American 
Institute of Indian Studies., U.S.A. (29,7.7]) 

2. Pre ident, American Institute of Indian studies. 
(29.7.71). 

3. Miss sfil^r ^JTt^r., a teacher of Bengali in the Tokyo 
University, Japan. She showed keen interest in our Purana work, 
She was presented a copy of the Hindi translation of the critical 
text of the Vamana-Purana with a request to wiite an article on 

the comparative study of the Purai.uc and Japanese mythology . 

(21.11.71) 

4. Dr. Hubert Hiinggi, Giirich, Switzerland. (22-11-71) 

ACTIVITIES OF MAHARAJA BANARAS VIDY&MANDIR 

TRUST 
Vaidika Biila- Vasanla Pnjs. 

On the auspicious occasion of the birthday ceremony of 
Maharaj Kumar Shri Anant Narain Singh, which was celebrated 
from 23 to 26 Nov., 1971, The tola-Vasant-Paja was performed in 
the Devi temple of the Ranmagar Fort Sixteen Vaidika balaka-s 
(children who havr momorisorl some portions of a Veda-Samhita) 
recited the Vcdic mantras according to the rules. Daksina was 
given to them afu-r the Pujft 



JAN., 1972] ACTIVITIES OF THE ALL-INDIA K.ASHIRAJ TRUST 85 



I sftva: ^iftnftw?|^i? ifq 
l 



86 SW^PURS^A [VOL. xiv , No. 1 

Kirtana 

A Kirtana o r recitation and singing of God's names was held 
on the s.nae day at night, in which the i nmates o f the RSttia 

Knshna Mission also took part. Prasada was distributed after 
the Kirtana. 

3ala-sastrS.rtha on Nyaya 

As'firfranAfl or debute in Sanskrit on Navya Nyaya was 
orgamsed under the mpetvisioa of Panditraj Shri Rajeshwar 
bUas n Dyid, in which the students of the Vidva-rnandir includ- 
"gthe Maharajakumar took part. Principal V.V. Deshpande, 
bmw.rs. Bauerje* t Editor of the Hkdutoa] and Pt. Baldeva 
thc aildience . After the /R , WrfAa Shri 



mi . Jl f ner J ee Save a short discourse on the importance of 
memorising the passage, of the ikstras .van without grwping 

meg ' PriZeS Were giWn t0 a11 those children who 



Art-conapetition 



ACTIVITY 01 MAHARMrt DHARMAKARYA NIDHI 
BSIa-Mela 

A B a la-Mela (Children's P*; j r, 

orinirf ,1,- luaildrttts Fai * and Baby-show) was also 
organi&ed on this occasion on Nov W * n t . , . 

theDewanKhanaofthePort Tl i / WCre or S aaised m 
schools took part in the ^n f t T children of the local 

teachers PrL . P Wd * r lhe su P^vision of their 

n.d.i-ueri. rnzes WPTP. n;,r^ ^_ i. . 



r0R 

viliages below the a of 19 ** S ** and the neighbouring 
distributed by ,b e RaikuLl! ^ Cl theS and to ^^ ^ 
four years. Ra J^m S]rts to the children below theageof 



Tht? Ramalrla 
Oct. (from 




JAN, 1972] ACTIVITIES OF THE ALL-INDIA KASHIRAJ TRUST 87 



88 iTlorq; PURXJilA [ VOL. XIV., NO. 1 



Afaharaja Kashi-Naresha is of a great cultural and religious 
importance for the masses. It lasts for full one month and is 
visited by a large number of people. Important personages of 
India and abroad who happen to come to Varanasi on that 
occasion" make it apoint to visit this RgmalllS and appreciate it 
Vfiy much. 

This \ car the Ramllls was celebrated from 4th Sept. upto 
&'d Oct., and was visited by many important personages also, both 
Indians and foreigners. 

C3 

Distinguished Guests at the Nadesar House of His Highness 

1. Dr. Juan Roger Rivieri, Professor of Indology, Madrid 
Lntvorsity, Madrid, Spain, along with his wife had been the guest 
of His Highness for about a month in November. 

2. Justice S.K. Varma, Cheif Justice U.P. 6-7-71. 

3. Sri Swaraj Ali Khan, Addl, Commissioner of Income 
tax, Lucknow, 25-7-71. 

4- Sri Morarji Desai, M.P. 18-8-71. 

5- Sri G.B, Gupta 

6. Sri Jagdish Munshi, 22-8-71. 

7- SriB.Mullik, Allahabad, 22-9-71. 

8 - Dr. L. Sternbatch, 30-9-71, 



10. S 2 riGovard,, M Singh, Centra, Bank of Ma Lucknow, 



JAN., 1972] ACTIVITIES OF THE ALL-INDIA KASHIRAj TRUST 89 



V. ,, 

X.. 

V 

^3. 



(ta* 



"SIT ^ ^ IR^I ll&?fl 



fi nm 



q nwrlt 



rj II * ii 



( ^ ) 



[ =tf ] 



)o ^ it ^ ^ 



?) 



( gat ) 

II ? o ii 

) ^ 



u 



( 13 ? ) RIW 



u ? ^ n 



( ? f 



zjgqf 



T. 



t), T 






dtafft 



fsrcfttr 

<j at faw ffo^rafa ( ai ) n ? n 



(cq) 

r ts 
zir 



it ^o n 

: ( q: ) gg^ ( g ^ ) 
( If ) ^if^ ^ ^Tft 

) 

g^ ciair II =IR II 



n ^^ n 

i 

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n ^ u 



JOT35IP? 



ier *iTcraF 

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( off ) Sf^ft znft =3 I 
f ( tt ) $ti ( qgt ) fil^sfr ^N ^ t! 



( ^^r m ? ) 



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II ^ n 
; j 

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ft: fftf =3 <RT: 



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APPENDIX- 1 
EXTRACTS IN GARUpAPURANA FROM WORKS ON 

DHARMA-YAjNAVALKYASMRTI AND 

PARASARASMRTI COMPARED WITH THEIR 

RESPECTIVE SOURCES, 

GP. YAj. 

Ch. 93 Acara, Upodghata 

(Prakarana 1). pp. 2-4 

v. 3a 2a 

3b 3a 

4a 3b 

4b -> 

5 ) 4 

6 5 

7 6 



Brahmacari (Pra. 2) 
pp. 4-13 

10 10 

11 11 

12 12 

13 13 



Ch. 94 



1 14 

2 15 

3 16 
4, 17 



GARUDA PURAJvIA A STUDY 



GP. Y5 

5 18 

6 19 

7 20 

8 21 

9 22 

10 23 

11 24 
13 25 

13 26 

14 27 S5Ef, 

15 29 

16 30 

17 31 

18 32 

19a 33 



20a, 20b 2i a , 34aj 34b) 35 35k 

Jilu 22a 35 

22b, 23a 37 

23b, c 38 

wU^f .- 



\[ 27 




APPENDIX 1 EXTRACTS IN GP. 
GP. 



term t?^- 

?T 11 45 



tl 46 
29 ^ ^R^cT^?T??^^ 5Hqq5WT5i: 

3& I 47a 

30a 47b 



: II 48 

31 49 

32 50 

95 3 

pp. 13-27 



2 

3TgqogT^|| 52 

3 



4 ^frNmrj; 1 1 54 

556 
657 

7 58 

8 59 

9 60 

10 61 

11 



^rar, 5Ri 



GARUDA 


PURSJSIA A STUDV 




GP. 


YAJ 




12 


62 




13 


63 


V3ST 


14 


64 si*?? g 


3 qfeq%^. 


15 


65a 






66b ^5l?i 


arg^t, wfa 


16 


68 3?3^T, ? 




17 


69 


f3, 


18 


70 I^T 


^ 


19 


7i srrei, ^ 


FT ^Rf ) 

arr f 


20 


72 5g^| srfi 



21 

22a 74 b 

22b 75a 

23a 75b 



24a 77a 

24b 79a 

25a 79b 

25b SOa 
SOb 

-6b Sla 

27a s;b 

2?b 82a 

2Sa 82b 

2Sb 83a 

29a S3b 



73a x x 



APPENDIX 1 EXTRACTS IN GP. 

GP. YSJ 
29b 84a 

30a 84b 



fsRT 

u si 



32a 



%: || 32b 89a 
: | 33a 89b 



Ch. 96 4 

pp. 27-30 



Lb 91a 

| 2a 91b 

: | 2b 92a 

". \ 3a 92b 

3b 93a 

-. \ 4a 93b 



4b 94a 
5a 94b 
5b 95a 



GARUI1/V 



A STUDY 



GP. YAJ 

I6a 95b 

\ 6b 96a 



I2a lOlb 

12b 102a 

13a 102b 

13b 103a 

Ha HHb 



...... 15a 

I5b 

.......... - 15a I05b 

I6b x 

17a x 

17b 106a 



, ttb 107a 



pp. 31-40 

7b 97a 

sa 97b 3R*KI3TI$'''taTfr^Tf^5 \ 

8b 98a 

9a 9Sb 

I 9b 99a gcqrr^ .................. I 

ICa 99b 



lob iooa 

lla 



APPENDIX 1 EXTRACTS IN GP. 
GP. YAj 



19a 107b 

Even if he comes in the 
evening, not to be said no- 

19b lOSa 



T I 20a LO&b Slf^rasii^Tsn'Wt II 

109a 

" 20b UOa "' 

21a HOb " 

. 2 lb Ula " 

22a lllb 

22b H2a 

23a H2b 

\ 23b 11 3a 

24a H3b 

| 24b lUa 

| 25a 1Mb 

; } 25b H5a 

2Ca 



117 JTFT ^TcfSt ^W: II 

26b H8a <?RTf?T I 

27a H8b 

27b 119a 3W I 

28a H9b " ' ITS ' 



28b 120a 



GARUDA PURSlilA A STUDY 



29a 122a 
29b 122b 
29c 



30a 124a 

i 

SOb 124b 

31a 125a 

3ib I25b 

32a 126a 

32b 126b 

33a 127a 

33b I27b 



133 

* ........ \38a 



3 ^ 128b 

6 

pp. 40-50 
35a 129a 
t: ............. 35b 130a 



3?C 1301) 

36a 131ft 

3Gb 131b 

J 132a 



APPENDIX 1 EXTRACTS IN GP. 

GP. YSJ. 

| 38b 134b 

I 39a 135a 

135b/l 

I 39b 136b/2 

I 40a I37a 

4Gb 137b 

I 41a i38a s 

\ 41b 138b ' 

| 42a 139a ' 

I 42b 139b ' 

43a 140a 

43b 140b 

I 44a 142a 

I 44b 142b 

45a 143a 

45b 143b 



46a 144a 

46b 144b 

47a 145a '" 

47b 145b 

48a 146a 

48b 146b 

49a H7a 

49b 147b 

50a I48a 

50b 148b 

5la 149a 

5lb 149b 

52a 15 Oa TT^sf^ 

52b I50b 

53a 151a 

53b ISlb 



10 



GARUDA. PURXlilA. A STUDY 
GP. YSJ. 



5 6a 



57a 



154b 



158 
58a 15 9a 

58b 159b 



161b 



54a I52a TOT 

\ 54b 152b 

55a 153a 

\ 55b i54b 



I55b 



156 



g II 



67a 1 170b 

67b 172a " 

68a 172b " 

68b 173b 



69a 

174 
C: | 69b I75a 



APPENDIX 1 EXTRACTS IN GP. H 

GP. YAJ. 

U 60b 162a 
61a 162b 



T U 6lb 



163a 
62a i64a 

I 6_b 



165 

7 

i-^ m - 4 -^ - " mi \ 

pp. 50-55 
63a x 

| 63b 167a 

1 64a I67b 

I 64b 168a q?T??lT5i I 

| 64o 168b q^T I 

65 166 

66a 169a 

I 66b 169b ** 



12 



GARUI?A PURSljIA A STUDY 



GP. YAJ. 

70a 175b 
70b 

176 



71a 

* 

179 

fltre: | 7ib 180a 

700 ISOb 

/ id) 

72b 

1.181 

Ch. 97 8 

la xx 



182 
Ic 183a 

2a 183b 
184a 

184b 
2b 

185 



pp. 55-62 



II 5b 
I 6a 191a 
I 6b 192a 



APPENDIX 1 EXTRACTS IN GP. 13 

GP. YXJ. 

I 3b 187a 
b 

4a 189a 



4b 189b 
5a 190a 



7b I93a 
8a 



195a 

II Sb 196a 
r| 9a 

9b x 
10 X 

Ch. 93 9 

-^ - 1 - i ~i^ x "" 

pp. 62-67 
la x 

:| Ib 

199 



GARUDA PURAliIA-A 



GP, 



200 



>?T 2b 


201a 


3a 


202a 


3b 


202b 


4a 


20 3a 


g^ofer: I 4b 


2osb srrRjfr 


5a 


204a 


5b 


204b 


6 


X 


7 


X 


8a 


20Sa 


f ' 1 8b 






2Q7a i 


9b 


207b 


lOa 


208a 


lOb 


20Sb 


lla 


209a 


lib 


209b 


I2a 


X 



12b 



U 13 211 

H 
15 
16 
17 
ISa 



2H 



APPENDIX 1 EXTRACTS IN GP. 15 



2 i 9a 



4a 220a 

4b 22Cb 

5a 221a 

5b 2 21a 

6a 222a 

sb 222b 

7a x 

7b 



GP. YSJ. 

19a 215a 
19b 215b 



I i9o 

216. 3T[?ffTl4fo 
h. 99 10 



la x 

lb 217a 

2a 217b 

2b 218a 

20 2isb 



16 

PURAA-A STUDY 

GP. yT 



sa 

226 
i sb 

227 

!9a 228a 
|9b 228b 

loa 229a 

lob 

,, 

lla 230a 
b 230b 



12b 21 

13a 

13b 

14a 233b 



- 35a 

235b 

236a 



16b 
17b 

38b 



I 25b 

25c 248b 

I 26a 24 9a 

I 26b 249b 

I 27a 250a 

I 27b 250b 

I 2Sa 25la 

I 28b 251b 



I 29b 

I 3Ga 253a 

30b 2 53b 

31a 254a 

31b 254b 

32a 255a 



APPENDIX 1 EXTRACTS IN GP. 17 

GP S YAJ. 

' | 19a 241b 

19b 242a 

'I 20a 242b 

\ 2ub 243a 

21a 243b 

' 'I 21b 244a "" 

' | 22a 244b 

' | 22b 245a 



23a 245b 

23b 246a 

I 24a 246b 

I 24b 247a 

I 25a 247b 



18 GARUIDA PURSJitA A STUDY 

GP. YSJ. 

32b 255b 

32c 257a 

33a 25Sa 

\ 33b 258b - 

34a 259a 

\ 34b 259b ....... 



35a 261b 
35b 264a 



cf. also. 262 ~ and 263 -|- 



I 36a 264b 

I 36b 265a 

37a 266b 

I 37b 267a 

I 37c 267b 

i 38a 268a 

38b 



39b 270b 

Ch. 100 11 

pp. 88-93 

I la 272a 
lb V 2b 
2a - 1 74b 



APPENDIX l EXTRACTS IN GP. 19 

GP. YXJ. 

18 I 3a 277a 

I 3b 277b 

| 3c 278a 

| 4a 278b 

4b 279b 

I 5a 280a 

I 5b 280b 

| 6a 281a 

6b 281b 

7a 28 2a *m 

7b 282b 

8a 283a 

8b 283b 



9b 284b 

ICa 285a 

I0b 285b 

Ha 286a 

lib 287a 

12a 288a 



12b 289a 
13a 289b "" 



J3b 290a 
14a 290b 
14b X 



291b -" 



20 



GARUpA PURA^A A 5TUDV 
GP. YSJ. 



11 16 



292b 

29 3a 



Ch. 101 12 



295a 



I 2a 296a 

I 2b 296b 

3a 297a 

\ 3b 297b 

298a 
U 4 

........ ^ 5b 2gsb 

"" 1 Ga 299a 

?> 

6b 299b 

7a 300a 

7b 300b 

ba Sola 

Sb 301b 



pp. 94-97 



APPENDIX 1 EXTRACTS IN GP. 

GP. YSJ. 

| 9a 302a 
I 9b 302b 

9c 303b 

lOa 304a 

10b 304b 



: I Ha 305a 
T \ lib 306a 
12a 3C6b 



12b 

308 



Ch. 102 3 

3 

pp. 330-34 

ilk: I la 



I lb 45a 

I 2a 4 5b 

I 2b 46a 

I 3 a 46b 

3b 48a 

I 4a 48b 



5a 

51 



22 GARUpA PURA~1>IA A 

GP. VAX 

5b 52a 
? 6a 52b ...... 



H qa g^ni. I la x 
^Ifs 

I lb 56a 



I 2a 56b 

2b 58a 

i :c 58b 

I 3a 59a 

\ 3b 59b 
i 4a 

4b 203b 

5a 204b 

sb 



Ch. 103 4 

pp. 335-67 



205 

. 104 5 

pp. 367-371 

HIWW 

la 

206 



207 



: 11 



APPENDIX 1 EXTRACTS IN GP. 23 

GP, YAJ. 



| 2a 

208 

f flstt t$fq-fts*j: | 2b 209a 
I 2o 20'<b 



| 3a 21Gb 

| 3b 211a 

I 4a 21lb 

4b 217b 

\ 4c 218b 



5a 22 3a sfara' 

j 
5b 223b 



Ch. 105 - 

pp. 372-4.00 

1 219 
I i 1 a 220a 
2b 220b 



3a x 

3b 221a 
4a 221b 



4b 



GARUI?A PURSlsTA A STUDY 
GP. YSJ. 

tf: \ 6a 224a 



225b 
\ 6b 227a ' 

3 

7a 

228 

\ 7b 229a 
8a 229b 

8b 

1 

230 

9a 231a 

\ 9b 23 Ib 

H 10a 232a 

1\ 1C) t> 232b 

lla 233a 

IH lib 23 3b 



12a 234a 

12b 234b 

13a 235a 

13b 235b 

Ha 23 6a 

14b 
15a 

I 15b 238a 

I6a 238b 

!6b 239a 



APPENDIX 1 EXTRACTS IN GP. 25 

GP. YAM. 

17a 239b 

3* 

17b 242a 



\ 18a 
\ I8b 
I 19a 243b 

19b 
20a 

20b 
21a 

245 
21b 



22a 
'" I 22b 251a 



: | 24b 

253 

25a 254a 



23a 251b ...... ^tfq^: \ 

23b 



26 GARUIDA. PURA^IA A STUDY 

GP. YXJ. 

II 25b 255b/l 
[ I 26a 255a 



256 



27 257 



__>._ - * * 270b 
fnf 



35a 27la 



28a 259a 



I 2Sb 25'jb 

\ 29a 260a 

29b 260b 

I 3 0a 263a 

30b 263b 

* 3Ja 265a 

* 31b 265b 3T8TqT I 

i 3 2a 266a ^r^^E^TT ^l I 

3 2b 2 66b 

I 33a 267a 

: I 33 b 267b 

33 G 269a 
I 34a 



APPENDIX 1 EXTRACTS IN GP. 

GP, YAJ. 

Of: | 35b 271b 

36a 276a 

" ^ m "-\ 36b 280a "' 

I 37a 280b "' 



^ I 37b 282b 
38a 283b 

II 38b 

I 39a 

" I 39b 284a '" 



40a 285a 

40b 285b 

41a 287a 

41b 287b 

42a 289a 

42b 289b 

43a 288a 



I 43b 288b 

I 44a 290a 

I 44b 290b 

I 45a 291a 

I 45b 291b 



46a 292a 
46b 293a 



28 



GARUDA PURSjvIA A STUDY 



GP. YAJ. 

46o 293b 



47 297 



48a 300a 

48b 300b 

49a 301a 

49b 301b 

50a 302a 
5ub 
51a 

5lb 303b 



307 

52b 308b 
5?a 304a 
53b 305a 

34a 306a 



5sa 307a 
55b 31 Ob 
55e 311b 



APPENDIX 1 EXTRACTS IN GP. 
GP. YXJ. 



29 



\ 56a 312a 

\ 56b 312b 

\ 57a 313a 

\ 57b 313b 

I 58a 314a 



\ 58b 

\ 59a 

59b 

60a 
60b 
61a 
62 
63 
64a 
64b 
65a 
\ 65b 
I 66a 
\ 66b 
I 67a 
i7b 
68 

I 69a 

69b 

I 70a 



3Hb 

315a 

315b 

316a 

316b 

3l7a 

318 

319 

32ta 



321a 
321b 

322a 

322b 
323a 
323b 
324 

32 5a 
325b 
326a 



70b 326b 
70c 327a 



30 



GARUQA PURS^A A 
GP. YSJi 

Ch. 106 1 



lb la 



I 2a lb 

I 2b 2a 

2c 2b 

3 3 

I 4a 4a 



4o 5a 
5b 
6a 

6b 

7a 12a 

8a I3a 
Sb isb 
*Ja 14a 



|wb isb 

i n 17 

liaa aaa 

12b 23b 



pp. 294-325 



TOT 



APPENDIX 1 EXTRACTS IN G.P 
GP. Y&J. 

13b 18b 
13c 20a 



14 22 

15 24 
16a 25a 
16b 25b 



II 17 27 
18 28b 

29a 

I 19a 29b 
f: I 19b 3]a 



31 



I 20a 



31b 



20b 32a 

2 

21a 35a 
2lb 



210 



36 



37a 
I 22a 37b 

il 22b 38a 
23a 38b 



TOT I 



pp. 326-329 



32 



25a 43a 
25b 44b 



GARUDA PUR^A-A STUDY 
GP, YSJ 

39a 
23b 39b 

40a 
41a 



: II 
PlR: I 



GP. AND PARASARASMRTI 

[Pandit Reprints I, 

Benares, 1913] 

GP. PARASARASMRTI 

Ch. 107 Adhyaya 1 



la x 

lb 

2a 20 

2b 3? &l<3\ ^g?3: I 

21 



II 3 25 
I 4a 38b 

4b 39a 

I 5a 49a |^ 

^fefil fl; 

5b 

61 

5c 63a 
64a 



34 GARU1?A PURAlsIA A STUDY 

GP. PARASARASMR.TI 



6a 

66 
Adhyaya 2 

6b 2b 

3a 

3b 
7a 5b 



8a 7a 

b ^ntr 

^rjri 



so 13a 
T; 

3 =4^: I 9a ub 

^T: 
Wa ^ errfd|<s? f^^q 

Adhyaya 3 



I 9b 

M lOa 



APPENDIX 1 -EXTRACTS IN GP. 
GP, PARXSARASMRTI 

10b 4a 



fFS*r% I na 4b 

I lib 7a 



12a 7b 
12b 9a 
13a 9b 



10 

14 14 " 

15 15 - 



11 16 18 
17a I6a 



19 

18a 21a 
18b 2lb 

I9a 25a 

19b 25b 
20a 28a 



36 GARUJJA PURA^A A STUDY 

GP. PARASARASM$TI 

I 20b 28b 

I 2 la x 

21b 30b 

22a 

42 



Adhyaya 4 



25 



farrrqrfq- 

24 



APPENDIX 1 EXTRACTS IN GP. 

GP: PARASARASMR.TI 

\ 26b 26a 



27a 26b 
27b 27a 
27c 27b 



ffofr 11 28 30 

II 29 

32 VI^t< STt 

Adhyaya 5 

: | 30a 



10 

30o 

12 
13a 

31 14a 
14b 
15a 



38 GARU1?A PURSiilA A STUDV 

GP. PARXSARASMRTI 



35b 

32a 18b 

32b 19a 



I 33a 19b 
I 33b 20a 

34 20b")...,.. 



I 35a 22b 

1 35b 23a ^T|ft 

Adhyaya 6 

\ 36a 2a 



U 36b 2b 
\ 37a 8b 
I 37b 

15 



38 17 



is 



APPENDIX 2 



VERSES AND PASSAGES QUOTED IN WORKS AS 

FROM GP. WHICH COULD BE TRACED IN 

GP. (INDICATING VARIANT READINGS) : 

(1) In works on dharma : 



Gadadharapaddhati pt. 
I. Kalasara, Bib, Ind, 
147. 



Caturvargacintftmani by 
Hemadri (Danakha- 
nda) Vol. I Bib. Ind. 
72. 



Tlrthacintnmani by 
Vacaspatimisra. Bib. 
Ind. 80. 



Page 


Ch. 


SI. 


89 


133 


1 


146 


127 


1 






2 






3 


266 


128 


16 


329 


52 


23 


64 


136 


4 


88 


224 


23b 


268-70 


82 


1-2 






3 






4-9 






10 






11 




83 


19a 


319 


84 


20 



Garuda Purana, 
Ghowk. edn, I 



(Venk, edn.) 



40 



GARUDA PURS^A A STUDY 



Varsakriynkaumudl by 
Govindananda,, Bib. 
Ind. 149. 



Page 


Ch. 


J " 


29 


116 


3a 


42-3 


125 


1-7 


62 


128 


5 


295 


129 


23b- 






24a 


313 


131 


10-13 






14 






15 






15o 






16 






17 






18 


319 


131 


1 






2 






2o 


321 


136 


4 






5 


322 




6-8 






9 






10 






11 


' 363 


85 


lb-2b 


456-7 


123 


1 






2 


494 


205 


121 


504 


127 


1 



APPENDIX 2 VERSE QUOTED IN WORKS FROM GP. 41 



?5itf araft, 



Srnddhakriyakaumudl 
by Govindananda, 

/waT. 157. 

6 



Page 


Ch 


SI. 






9-10 






Jl 






12-13 






14 






15-18 






19 






20 


508-9 


124 


12b 






13 






14 






15 






16-17 






18 






2ib 


512-13 


124 


1 






2 






4 






5 






6 






i 

7 ; 






8-9 






10 c 






lla 




124 


17 < 

I 






18 * 



f*, 



42 



GARUI3A PURAtvIA A STUDY 



Smrtitattva by Raghu- 
nandana. Vol. I. 
Calcutta, 1895. 



Page 


Ch. 


SI- 


53 


210 


lb 






2b 


54 




2b 


S3 




lb 


119 




7 


123 




7 


124 




7 


129 




8 






9 






13 


138 




13 


1-18 




14 


155 




14 


173 




20 


178 




22-3 


184 




24 


193 




25 


199 




25 


204 




27 


206 




28 


y-i 




29 


319 


212 


la 






10 


346 




la 






lc 


\ 560 


210 


33 






34a 


l- 






33 


129 


25 


\ 

\ 




; 26 



APPENDIX 2-VERSE QUOTED IN WORKS FROM GP. 



43 



Nirriayasindhu by 
Kamalakara Bhatta, 
Ghowk. Skt. Ser. 
52. 1930. 



Page 


3h. 


si. 


42 


131 


3a 


58 


133 


1 


127 


124 


13 


206 


209 


lb-o 


346 


110 


25 


349 


205 


81b- 






82a 


351 


110 


1 


429 


68 


8-9 






10 ' 


430 


205 


145 ! 






' 



439 


168 


18 






19a 






20a 


440 




32-33 






36- 






38a 






44a . 




169 


62 - 






56b 






63a 






5 


752 


205 


121 


> 






137 


128 


6 


and 






617 







44 



GARUIpA PURS^A A STUDY 

Page i Ch. SI. 



HaribhaktirasamTtasindhu 
of RupagosvSmin, Kasi, 
1932. 



(2) in anthology 

Padynmrtataraiigini of 
Haribhaskara 



63 



220 



SL268 



17bc 



215 



35b 
36 



(3) in encylopaedic works 

Yuktikalpataru 



Gh. 


fr 


Ch. 


SI. 


45 




68 




(p. 85) 










47 




1 




48a 




2a 




48b 




3b 




49 




4 




50 




5 


51 




6 


49 1 






(p. 96) 








40 




17 


r 

! (P- 971 


41 




18 


* \ 


| 49 




22 


$ 51 




23 


$ ! i 52 ! 


24 



APPENDIX 2 VERSE QJUOTED IN WORKS FROM GP. 





Ch. 


SI. 


Ch. 


SI. 






53 




30 


(source not mentioned) 


(p. 98) 


56 




31 




p.98'9) 








( )> J ) 




62 




32 




(p. 99) 








( )j w ) 




63 




33 




p. 10 j) 












8 




46 


ITT5C^^P^ 




9 




47 






lOa 




49b 






lOb 




50a 






11 




5 Ob 




53 




69 






(p. 107) 








(source not mentioned) 




43 




1 


/ \ 




44a 




2b 


V 19 if J 










( ) 




44b 




6b 






45 




6c 




(p. 108) 












51 




15 


qgwmrf 




52 




16 






53 




17 


SfMf WTOT 




54 




18 


qfcjf: S[RRq 




55 




19 


5fft^ 




58 




8 




(p. 110) 








'%^f%^ ; s?rT^ 




75 




10 


^EI^ ^SJtRt35f3 




79 




11 




(p. 11] 


) 










80 




12 


=raf ^1; 




81 


13 




46 



GARUI?A PURSJvIA A STUDY 



Ch. 


&. 


Gh 


SI. 




82 




14 




84 




20 




85 




21 




86 




22 




87 




23 


(p.115) 










17 




42 




18 




43 


(p. 88) 




70 






68 




14 




69 




15 




70 




16 


(p. 92) 










10 




22 




11 




23a 


(p. 93) 










12b 




23b 




13 




24 


14 






25ab 




15a 




25c 


I 


ICa 




26a 




17b 




26b 



APPENDIX 2 VERSE QUOTED IN WORKS FROM GP. 



47 



Gh. 


si. 


Ch. 


61. 




18 




27 




19 




28 




20 




29 




21 




30 


62 




7J 




(p. 127 










32 




1 




33 




2 




34 




3 




35 




4 




36 




5 




37 




6 




38 




7 




39 




8 




40 




9 


(p. 129) 










41 




10 




42 




11 




43 




12 




44 




13 




45 




14 




46 




15 


(p. 131) 










67 




28 



48 



GARUDA 

Gh. 



59 
(p. 123) 



(Sou 



rce not 
mentioned) 



SI. 

68 



95 
96 
97 



-A STUDY 



Gh. 1 SI. 



72 



(p. 126) 



'p. 127) 



(Verses 67ff. source 
not mentioned) 



57 
(p. 120) 



j(p.!2l) 



98 
99 

IS 
24 

25 

26 
27 
31 



67 

68 



73 



!(P. 122) 



! 69- 
I 72 



29 



4 
5 

6b 



14 
15 
16 
19 



4-7 



I 8l 

87 
8S 



^ 



10 



^ 



APPENDIX 2 VERSES QUOTED IN WORKS PROM G.P 49 



(slokas 90-94 sour 
not mentioned 



Ch. 

H 


85 


. c 


6l. 


^a 

* ! 

(p. 123 






j 




9 




13- 




9 




16 


66 


7 






(p. 132 










7 




1 




77 




5 


67 




75 




(p. 133 










78 




1 




79 




2 




80 




3 < 




81 




4 l 




82 




5 




83 




6 9 


(P-134) 










84 




7 


68 




76 




(p. 134) 










85 




1 




87 




2 




88 




3 | 


c 


nab 




r 




91o 




a 


(p. 135) 


92a 




6b 




92b 




60 




93 




7 



50 



GARUDA PURSP-A STUDY 



(verses 99-101 source 
not mentioned) 



Ch. 


SI. 


Ch. 


Si 




94 




8 


69 




78 




(p. 136) 










99. 




1- 




101 




3 


7(1 




79 






2 




1 




j 




2 


(p, 137) 


4 




3 



APPENDIX 3 

VERSES AND PASSAGES QUOTED IN 

WORKS AS FROM GP. WHICH COULD 

NOT BE TRACED IN GP. 

(1) in works on dharmaSastra 

Gadadharapaddhati, pt. I Katasara 

Bib. Ind. 1904. 

p. 55 wrcaf sgt^ %fls: S3JOT HJlTOT^qU 

^T II 
jj: \ 

p. 100 



p. no ^?TT r 



p. 126 
p. 140 



52 GARUQA PURXl>IA~A STUDV 

p. 607 



p. 60S 



Caturvargacintamani by Hetnadri 

QDan-khanda) Vol. I. Bib. Ind. 1873. 

p. 18 
ch.2 



p. 55 
ch. 3 



p. 64 

ch. 3 rHPH ^R 5^^k ?F^ ^ST fq^ffi: 1 1 






p. 88 

ch. 3 

P. 95 

ch.3 



APPENDIX 3 VERSES QUOTED IN WORKS FROM GP. 53 

pp. 99-100 %* 

ch.3 



P. 109 

ch. 3 



p. 124 TST^Wi: qsn: ^I 
ch. 3 ecg^cm TcfT^T: 
T: TcTT^T^t 



p. 140 
ch. 3 

pp. 215-16 
ch. 5 



54 GARU1?A PURXJilA A Sl'UDY 

5|Tfaefi WI^W&r \ 

^g f^ra^r u 



p. 331 
ch. 5 

pp. 489-90 
ch. 7 



: n 

: | 

: u 



p. 493-94 
ch. 7 



APPENDIX 3 VERSES QUOTED IN WORKS FROM GP. 55 

| 

It 

|| 



=?r 



cTcf: 

'^^sifR^^i: 

II 



56 GARUpA PURA"i<IA A STUDY 



p, 31 a 



P- 53 
^ " 



: u 
l 
ti 



p. 512-13 
ch. 7 3TT|: 

lft8t 

U 



T qfar- 1 



APPENDIX 3 VERSES QUOTED IN WORKS FROM GP. 57 



ftfflcf 3TT I 
II 



\ 
3 \\ 



p. ess 

ch. 9 ^5TFi%S^3f q^WWPT 

II 



II 



cf 



58 GAllUDA. PURStstA A STUDY 



p, 643 

ch. 9 

p. 648 

ch. 9 



p. 681 
ch. 9 



p. 942 

ch. is 



p. 952 
ch. 13 



1 1 f fa 




APPENDIX 3 VERSES QUOTED IN WORKS FROM GP. 59 



(?) 



pp. 990-1 
ch. 13 



^351 



F55T: 



Vratakhanda, Vol. JI. (Bib. Tnd- 1872.) 



pp. 62-3 

ch. is 



: u 
r I 

: u 
fli^^^ 5 r'T : I 

WT tfSPfprflw: II 

feeqrRsrcr: I 
i WJTI^HCT i 
\\ 
. I 

II 



60 GARUDA PURAJvlA A STUDY 



pp. 227-9 

ch. 19 



, 

si: n 

-j. , 





APPENDIX 3 VERSES QUOTED IN WORKS FROM GP. 61 



pp. 869-76 

Ch. 31 qr%^ ^TTTTTIst f|Tf^fft[REBi^ I) 



: qfe II 



62 GARUDA. PURS^A A STTJt)Y 

?Nlf*cra! *T$WT*t f f$! ^(5*ft faf^i: I 
qsfc^tj 3M33T 351^1 31 W 3$ fpPIT II 
^qt Q&R awhjKi: %sTC 

^^*IT ^^^^T: SET^ ^^ 
^T^< ^i^i Cfc4 q 

p. 876 



Gang avaky avail by Visvasadevi 

Ed. by J. B. Ghaudhuri, Contribution of 

Women to Sanskrit Literature, 

Vol. IV. Calcutta 1940 

P. 144 ^m =3 



[Bhavisya puraija, Uttara, Ch. 123, V. 
p. 145* Tlftf!; 



p. 146 ? 

S^ I 



APPENDIX 3 VERSES QUOTED IN WORKS FROM GP. 63 

$ \ 



flirt H 
Gobhilfya Smrti |. 2. 7-8. 

p. 165 ures-flfosqq* : cf.GP.I.217.38 



Titbitattva. p. 433. 1 . 5. 
p. 170 dagaharasnana 



p. 173 

i ^^fts^i^ flM^g^^-srctainsi; I 

nGP. I. 217.125 



p. 174 

^33^ ^sifai ^ qcif?cr ^tr^^iri u 

p. 175 f^T $& T33.W& S^^fm fst^lt^ I 

n 



p. 176 



p. 177 
p. 194 



p. 312 g 1 ?!! 

^4 ^fflTl^ ^ %?n^ JTS^eNqJ 

|| G.P. 217.117. 



64 UARUDA PURStvIA A STUDY 

Madanaparijata of Madanapala 
(Bib Ind. 1893) 

Stabaka 3 
p. 302 SI. 18 



u 

Varsakriyakaumudi by Govindananda 
Bib, Ind. 149 



pp. 58 and 

69 sfctm^ a^wncqt aciwt ^ 511^ II 

92 ^5 %* 



1 75 
314 
315 *U ^sq-si^w 11^ &]&%*&.' \ 



322 

504 

508 

509 



5I2-J3 



r ^flt w iftflrat 



APPENDIX 3 VERSES QUOTED IN WORKS FROM GP. 65 

Sraclclhakriyakauruudi by Govindananda 
Bib. Ind. 157 



p. 113 STRICT 

$m|>titattva by Raghunandana 
Vol. I., Calcutta, 1895 

p. 439 
p. 440 



p. 441 



: U 

II 



: H 
1 \\ 

U 

p. 442 5|fcT?f^qi ............ 5H%% ^ U 

U 



fc \\ 
M 



66 GARUDA PURAtvIA A STUDY 




pp. 442-3 3T2T 

pp. 443-4 

pp. 445-6 

p. 446 ,, 

PP. 446-7 

p. 447 

pp. 447-8 



Nirnayasindhu by KamalSkarabhatta 
Chowk. Skt. Ser. 52. 1930 



p. 170 
Ekadasl 

pp. 177.180 
p. 177 

p. 327 
Manvadi 

p, 469 

Janmastaml 
jay ant I 

p. 477 




3 VERSES QUOTED IN WORKS FROM GP. 67 

Brahmasutrabhasya of Anandatlrtha 

Sarvamula edn. 



p. 1 b I. 4 S'tfi 

p. 4b //. 1-2 
p. 9b /. 7 

p,43a ;/. 



15T 



p. 72 b w.8-9 
p. 73 b 11.3-4 



pp. 74b-75a 
//. 10 ff. 



68 



PURAIilA A STUDV 



BHagavata tatparya nirnaya, 

Sarvamula edn. pt. 3 



p, 788b 



p, S03a jjTrfq 5!5?T??(?TTrJT ffR 

fi&n ^f^rv^ngc^i^s^n^ ^^r II ?fir 

p. R04a 



p. 



APPENDIX 3 VERSES QUOTED IN WORKS FROM GP. 69 

p.Sllb 



l^ 5iar|3!tsrRl5rsft: M 



p. 834a 



IT^T 

p. 836a 



pp. 836b- 
7a 

p. 837b 

S B*WII ^ war ^ ?r f^-^rar ^?r: il 

STIUr ^T 5^: ^ift ^T4^r ^T ^f^apf^ I ifcf 
p. 839a 
p. 845a-b 

p. 854b 



srm 

P- 865b 



75 GARU1?A PURX^A A &TUDY 

p. 862a 



It 

p. 866a 



II 1 

p. 87 la 5Rrta!ft %5ft^ fe?T %^^f^^T I W 
p. S78a *m&( q^f^JT fsq^ f?J^ ^ I ^ 
p, 88 3 a Rffrt^S^EUfq^^ficffl;^^ \ W 

Sarvadarsanasangraha C. Prasthanabheda 

by Madhusudana Sarasvati 
Anandasrama Sanskrit Series 51. 



pp. 58-59 



II 

: U 

Hathayogapradlpika C. Jyotsna of 
Brahmananda, Adyar edn. 1933 pt. II. 

p, 167 rosgqfa 

: T?:T: I 



APPENDIX 3-VERSES QUOTED IN WORKS FROM GP. 71 



p, 175 



m 



iii 



JRjJifcq.il 



APPENDIX 4 



LIST OF VEDIC MANTRAS REFERRED TO IN GP, 



Abbreviations 
cordance. 
RV. 
SV 
AV 
VS 
VSK 
TS 
MS 
KS 
KSA 
Ar. S 

agna ay&hi 



used as given in Bio o infield's Vedic con- 



Rgveda 

Samaveda 

Atharvaveda 

Vsjasaneyl-samhita (Madhyandiniya) 

VajasaneyTsamhita 

Taittinyasamhita 

MaitrayaflisamhitS 

Kathakasatiihita 

Kathakasarhhita A^vamedhagrantha 

Arauyaka SarhhitS 



1.48.12; 48,78 



agnim lie 



1.48.11; 48.77 



agnim sarhsupti 1.48.15 
agnirjyoti 1.48.36 



agnir murdha 



agni^ca 
agni^ca me 



1.48.19; 
48,37; 101,7 



1,209.4 
1.36,4 



RV.6.16.IOa; SV.l.Ia; 2.10a; 
VS. 11.46; TS.2.5.7.3,4; 8.1,2; 
4.1,4.3c; 5.1.5.8; 5.6.1. MS. 
2.7 Ac; 79.8; 3.1.6; 8.1 ; 4.10.2a; 
145.1; KS, 16.4c; 19.5; 20.1 4a; 
26.1. 

RV.I.l.la; Ar. S. 3.4a; TS. 4. 
3.13.3a; MS. 4.10 5a:155.1; 
KS.2.14a. 

SV.2.1183; VS.3.9; MS.1.6.IO: 
102.11; 1.8.1:115.2; 1.8.5: 
121.1; 2. 7.16:99.4; KS.40.6. 
RV.8.44.16a; SV,1.27a; 2. 
882a; VS. 3.12a; 13.14a; 
15.20a; TS. l.S.S.Ia; 7.1; 
4A4.1a; MS. l,5.1a:55.8; 1,5. 
5:73. 7,8; 1.7.4; 11 3.4; KS.6.9a; 
7.4; 9.2. 

TA. 10.24.1 ;MahSnU 14.3. 
VS.18.22; TS.4.7.9.1; 5.4.8.4; 
JCS.18.ll. 



APPENDIX 4 VEDIC MANTRAS IN GP. 



aghamarsa^a 
sukta 
atharva (vs)- 



73 
ca satyarh 



atharvasiras 

annat pari/ruto 1.101.8 

rasatn 

apanah. 1.106.3 

sa^ucadagham 

apam rasalj T. 206. 17 

ayam gaulj 1.206.22 

avabhrtanicam 1.206.14 



1.205.138; 206.21 RV.10.190 (rtati 

cabhlddhSt). 
1.48. 5P; 48.74 

215.13 (taught by 

Vyasa to Sumantu) 
1.48.56 

VS.19.75a; MS.3.1J.6a:149.1 ; 

KS.38.la; TB.2.6.2 2a. 

RV.1.97.U, lc-8c; AV.4-33.la, 

Ic-Bc; VS.35.6c, 2 la; 



asmin vrlcsa itah 1.48.19 
akrsijena 1.101.7 



Sea tva 

atila 

apahi punantu 

Spo asm5n 



1.48.20 

1.48.78 
1.36.4; 209.4 
1,206.8; 206.9 



apo jyotfrasah T.209.4 
Spo tvantumasl I.206.J3. 

Spo devalj I, 206.16; 206.17 

Spo naugadhi I. 206 12; 206.14 

Spo ma tasma- I. 206.27 
denasafc 

Spo havismatlt I. 206.16 
10 



cf. ayam gosu RV.6.44.24c. 
avabhrta nicumpupa (nican. 
kupa, nicunkuija) VS. 3.48a; 
8.27a; 20.18a; TS.1.4.45.2a; 
6.6.3.4; MS.1.3.39a; 45.11; 
4.8.5:113.2; KS.4.13a; 29.3; 
38.5 a; 

("rajasa vartamana^i) RV.1.35. 
2a; VS.33.43a; 34.31a; TS.3.4. 
11.2a 3 - MS.4.I2.6a:196.16. 
(a ca tvSm.eta vrsao5 
RV. 3.43.4a. 



("mStarati ^undhayantu) RV. 
10.17.10a; AV6.51.2a; VS. 
4.2a; TS.1.2.1.1a; KS.2.1a; 
MS.1.2.1a:10.1; 3.6.2:61,7. 
TA.IO.15.1; 28.1; TAA.10.68. 



VS. 6.17e 



74 



GARUDA-PURAiilA A STUDY 



apohisthn. I. 37.5; 206.16; 

209.7 



apySyasva 



I. 48.16; 48.43 



ayatu varada I. 209.4; 209.5 
devi. 

idam Spa I. 206.26 

pravahata (a) 

idam apo I. 206.16 

havismati 

idam visjjur- I. 206.7; 206 8 
vicakram e 



imam deva. I. 101.7 

imam mantra I. 48.47 

imam me I, 206. 12-14. 
varuna 



imam me 
gSnga 



I. 48 37 



RV. 10.9.1a; AV. 1.5. la; SV. 
2.1187a; VS. 11.50a; 36.14a; 
TS. 4.1. 5. la; 5.6.1.4a; 7-4,19. 
4a; MS. 2.7.5a : 79 16; 3.1.6: 
8.10; 4.9.27a: 139.3; KS. 16.4a; 

19.5; 35.3a. 
RV. 1.91. lea; 9.31-4a; VS. 

12.112a; TS. 3.2.5 3a; 4.2.7.4a; 

MS. 2.7.14a: 96.6; KS. 16.14a. 
TA. 10.26. la; TAA. 10.34a. 



RV. l,23.22a; 
7.89.3a; VS. 
6 5.5a 



10.9, 8a; AV. 
6.17a; VSK- 



RV. 1 22.17a; AV. 7.26.4a; 
SV.1.222a; 2.1019a; VS. 5.15a; 
TS. 1 2. 13. la; MS. 1 2.9a: 
18,17; 1.8 9: 130.12; 4.1.I2a: 
16.4; 4.12 1 : 169 3; KS. 2.10a 
( c asapatnam) (VSK. 11.3,2. 
6.2) VS. 9.40; 10.18. 

RV, 1.25.19a;SV. 2.935a; VS. 
21. la; TS. 2. 1.11.6a; MS. 
4 10.2a; 146.8; 4. 14.17a: 246.1; 
KS. 4.16a. 

(imam me gauge yamune 
sarasvati) RV. 10.75. 5a; TA. 



imS. rtidra 



I. 48.20 



cf. RV. 1.1 14. la; VS. 16.48a; 

MS. 2.9. 9a: 127.9; KS. 17.16a 

(ima. rudraya tavase kapardine) 

and 

RV. 7.46.1a; TB. 2.8.6 8a. 

(imfl rudraya sthiradhanvane 

gira^i). 



ise tvS 



APPENDIX 4 VEDIC 
I. 48.11 



uttare sikhare I, 209.9 

jata 
uttijtha brah- I. 48,80 

mapafr pate 

udutyam J. 36.8;(udtityam) 

206.31; 

209.8 (udutyam 
jatavcdasam) 



udbudhyas- I. 101.7 
vSgne 

urum hi rajs I. 206. 4; 206.5 



i-taficasatyaficS- I. 209.7 
bhiddhattapaso 
kaySnasca I. 101.8 



kavihau I. 48.47 

kince dadhatu I. 48.20 

kumbhasukta I. 48-56'; 48.74 

keturn krpvan I. 101.8 



MANTRAS IN GP. 75 

VS. 1.1.22; 7.30; 14.22; TS. 
1.1.1.1; 3.7.1; 9.2; 4.37.2; 
6.3.6.1; 9.3; MS, 1.2 15; 24.8; 
1.2.16: 26.15; 1.11.3: 164.3; 
2.8.3: 109.2; 2.11.6: 144,3; 
3-9.6: 123 13; 3.10.1: 129.7; 
4.1.1: 1. 10; KS, 1.1.10; 3.4; 
17.3. 



RV. J.40 la; AV. 19.63 la; 

VS 34,56a; MS. 4.9. la: 120.7; 

4.12.1a; 178.11; KS, 10.13a. 

RV. 1. 50. la; AV. 132.16a; 

20.47.13a; SV.I.13a; VS. 7.41a; 

8.41a; 33.31a; TS. 1.2.8 2a; 

4.43.1a; 2.3.8.2; 4.14,4;6 1.11.4; 

MS. 1.3.37a; 43.6; KS. 4.9a; 

11.1; 30.5a. 

VS. 15.54a; 18.6Ia; TS. 4.7. 

13. 5a; MS. 2.12.4a: 148.6; 

KS. 18.18a. 

RV. 1.24.8a; VS. 8.23a; TS. 

1.4.45.1a;6.6.3.2; MS. 1.3.39a: 

45.3; 4.8,5 r 112.8; KS. 4.13a; 

29.3. 

RV. 10.190. la; TA. 10.1.13a. 

Kayanab'citra a bhuvat RV. 
4.31. la; AV. 20.124.Ia; SV. 
1. 169a; 2.32a; VS. 27.39a; 
36.4a; TS. 4.2.I1.2a; 4.12.5; 
MS. 2.13.9a : 159.4; 4,9.27a : 
139.11; KS. 21.13; 39.12a. 



(aketave) RV. 1.6.oa; AV. 
20.26,6a; 47.12a; 69.1Ja; SV. 
2-820a; VS. 29.37a; TS. 7.4.20. 
la; MS. 3.16-3a : 185-8, KSA 
4.9a. 



GARUDA-PURANIA A STUDY 



k?Irodasya I. 48.42 

gaijanam tva I. 48.30 

gandha dvara I. 48.46 



ghvtodasya 
citpatir me 

citram 



I. 48. 42 
I. 206. 18 

I. 206.31; 209.8 



jyestha saman I. 48.55; 48.73 



tath SsSnam 
taccakjurdeva 

tadvispu 



1.48.16 



I. 206.31 



I. 206.25 



tannayami 
tejo si 



I. 48.16 

I. 48.43; 205,71 



(Kslrasya codakasya ca) AV, 
1.15.4b. 

RV. 2, 23. la; VS. 23.19; TS 
2. 3.14. 3a;, MS. 3,12.20; 166.11; 
KS. 10.13a; KSA. 4.1. 

(gandha dvaram duradharsSrn) 
RVKh. 5.87.9a; TA lOJ.lOa. 

(citptir ma punantu) VS. 4.4; 
SB. 3.1.3.22. 

(citram devanam ud agad 
amkam) RV. 1.1 15,1 a; AV. 
13.2.35a; 20.107.14a;Ar.S.5.3a; 
VS. 7.42a; 13.46a; TS. 1.4.43. 
la; 2.3.8.2; 4.14.4a; MS. 
1.3.37a; 43.8; 4.14.4: 220.13; 
KS.4.9a; 22-5a, 6,8. 
(jye?tham yo vrtraha gri3ie) 
SV. 1.273d; 2.283d 
cf. RV. 8.70.1d ; AV. 20.92.I6d; 
105.4d (jyestho yo). 
(tarn l^Snam vasavo agnim 
gru!?e) RV. 7,6.4c. 
("hitam) RV. 7.66. 16a; VS. 36. 
24a; MS. 4.9.20a: 136.4; TA. 
442.5a. 

(tad vijijolj paramam padam) 
RV. 1.2220a; AV. 7.26.7a; 
SV. 2.1022a; VS. 6.5a; TS. 
1.3.6.2a; 4.2.9.3a; MS. 1.2. 14a: 
24.3; 3.9.4: 1 18.11; KS. 3.3a; 
26.5. 

AV. 7.89.4; 19,31.12; VS. 1.31 ; 
15.8; 19.9; 20.23; .'8.25; TS. 
1,1.10.3; 445.3; 5.7.6.1; 6 6.3. 
5; MS. 1.1.11; 6.13; 1.4.2: 
48.17; 1.4.7:55.5; 2.7.15: 98. 



APPENDIX 4 VEDIC MANTRAS IN GP. 



77 



6; 3.4.7:54.12; 4.9.7:1285; 
KS. J.10; 4.13; 5.5; 9.7; 29.3; 
32.5; 36.7, 14;38.5 ; 40.3, 

trataram I. 48.19; 48.79 RV. 6.47.1 la! AV. 7.86. la; 

indram SV. 1.333a; VS. 20.50a; TS. 

1.6.12.5a; MS. 4.9. 27a; 139.17; 
4.12 3a; 182.17; KS. 17.18a. 
triyugmaka I. 48.79 

tvannassatvanna I. 206.12; 
206.14 

tvanno agne I. 206.12; 206.14. 

varuijasya 



dadhiki-avatjijo I. 203.43. 



dasya 

diva}} kakut 
dlrghayustva 

devasya tv5 



I. 48.53 

I. 48.8 
I. 48.79 

I. 48.81; 48.84 



(vidvSn) RV. 4.1. 4a; VS. 
21. 3a; TS. 2.5.12.3a; MS. 
4.10.4a; 153.12; 4.14.17a: 
246.9; KS. 34.19a. 

(dadhikravjio akSrisam) RV. 
4.39.6a; AV. 20.1 37. 3a; SV. 
1.358a; VS. 23.32a; VSK. 
35,57a; TS. 1.5.1 1.4a; 7.4.19. 
4a; MS. 1 5. la: 66.6; 1.5.6: 
74.8; 3.13.1: 168.9; 4.11.1: 
162.1; KS. 6.9a; 7.4; KSA.4.8. 
(dasyann adasyann uta sarh 
groami) AV. 6.71.3b; TA. 
2.6.2b. 

(dirghayustvSya varcase) SMB. 
1.6.7e cf. dirghayutvaya. 
(savituh prasavesvinor bahu- 
bhy5m pusno hastabhyam g. 
dade). VS. 1.24; 5.22, 26; 6.1, 
30; 11.9; 22.1; 37.1; 38.1; 
VSK. 2.3.4, 5; TS. 1.3.1.1; 
7.1.11.1; MS. 1.1.9; 5,11; 
1.2.10: 19.14; 1.2.15 : 24.10; 
1.3.3: 30.12; 2.7.1: 74.12; 
3.H.8: 151.6; 4.1.2: 2.12; 
4.1.4: 6.6; 4.1.10: 12.13; 4.9.1: 
120.5; 4.9.7: 127.4; KS. 1.2, 1 J; 
2,9,11,12; 3.3,5,10; 16J; 27.1; 
KSA. 1.2. 



78 GARUDA-PURAlvIA A STUDV 

devlrapa I. 206.16 (devirapah. Buddha yuyam) 

MS. 1.1.11: 7.5; 1.2.16: 26 6; 
3.10.1: 128.7; KS. 3.6. cf. 
(Buddha vodhvarii SB. 3.8.2.3) 



drupada 


I. 50.45; 214.14 






drupadad iva 


I. 48.41; 206.17; 


AV. 6.115.3a; 


VS. 20.20a; 




209.7 


MS. S.ll.lOa: 


157.11; KS. 






38.5a. 





dhyeyah. sads 
savitrmaijdala 
nilarudra 
pai,het 
pavamana 



pitrmaitra 
punaxitu 5dyS 
puni|asukta 

pracSri 
prayasscittSni 



I. 222.34 

I. 48.56. 
I. 48.30 
I. 48.53; 206.17 

& 18 

(pSvamanya) 
I. 48.54 
1.206.17 
I. 48.54; 205. 

135; 206.33 
I. 48.19 

I. 222.4 



byhad rathantara I. 48.78 



brhaspate pari- I. 101.8 
dtya (atiyadarya) 



brahrnaua 1, 48.54 

brahmavai|$a- I 205.133 

varaxidra 
bhadram karpe- II. 30.29 

bhifc 



bhinnS devl 



I. 48.20 

I. 48.73; 48.55 



(Beg. Sahasrasirsa) RV. 10.90. 
la; Ar.S. 4.3a;,VS. 31. la. 



(brhad rathamtarayos tva) 
TS. 2.3,10.2 cf. AB. 5.30.3a. 
AG. 2.6.1. LS. 3 12.6. VS. 
K2.4; T.S. 4.1.10.5; MS. 
2 7.8:84.16; KS. 16.8. SS. 6,3.8. 
RV. 10.103.4a; AV. 19.13.8a; 
SV. 2.1202a; VS. 17.36a;TS. 
4.6.4.1 a; MS. 2.10.4a; 135.15; 
KS. 18.5a. 



RV. 1.89.8a; SV. 2.1224a; VS. 
25.2la; MS. 4.14.2a: 217.11; 
KS. 35. la; 



APPENDIX 4 VEDIC MANTRAS IN GP. 



79 



(bheruiida 
saman), 
ma nas toka I. 206.10.11. 



mitra I. 48.53 

muncantu ava- 1.206.13 
bhfta 

muncantu mam I. 206.14 



murdha bhava I. 48.79 

maitra I. 48.56 

maitravaru^ia I. 205.133 

yajna yajria I. 48.38 



yamasukta I. 106.2 

yamaya I. 52.16 

dharmarajaya 

yamo naga I, 48.15 

ya osadhi I. 48.40; 48.43; 

48.45. 



phalini I. 48,40 



ye te b'atam I. 206.4; 206 6 



(ma nas toka) RV. 1.114.8a; 
VS. 16.16a; TS. 3.4-11.2a; 
4.5.l0.3a;MS. 4.12.6a: 197.15; 
KS. 23.12a. 



(muficantu ma ^apathyat) 
RV. 10.97. 16a; AV. 6.96.2a; 
7.112.2a; 11.6.7a; VS. 12.90a. 
cf. murdha bhuvo bhavati 
naktam agnih RV. 10.88.6a. 
cf. maitra ^ ^arasi sariitgyya- 
mane VS. 39.5. 

maitravaru^iasya, TS. 6.4.3.3; 
cf. roaitravaruoas te, AS. 6.9.3. 
yajna yajiia vo agnaye, RV. 
648.1a; SV. 1.35a; 2.53a; VS. 
27.42a; MS. 2.13.9a : 159.10; 
KS. 39.12a. 



(ya osadhlb piSrvajatal;) RV. 
1097.'la; VS. 12-75a; KS. 
13.16a. cf. ya o?adhlk somara- 
jnib, RV. 10.97 18a 3 19a; VS. 
12.92a, 93a; 

yalj phalinlr ya aphlah RV. 
10.97.l5a; VS. 12.89a; TS. 
4.26.4a; MS. 2.7.13a : 94.11; 
KS. 16.13a. 

ye te satam varuija ye sahasram 
KS. 25.1. Ha; ApS. 3.13. la; 
24 r 12.6a;K5uS. 97.8a, 



80 

yoge yoga 



GARUDA-PURX^A A STUDY 



I. 48.32 



rakta varjja 
rakso hanan 



rathanla 



rudrasukta 
vata 



vamadevi 

vasa (sakta) 
vastospati 



vidyS 



ityanuvaka 



visvatab 



3. 48.14 
I. 48.15 



I. 48.85 



1.48.54; 48.73 
1.48.15 



1.48.55 

1.48.53 
1,48.30 



1.48.31 



1. 206.33 



1.48.48; 209.8 



yoge-yoge tavastaram RV. 
1.30.7a; A.V. 19.24. 7a;20.26.1a; 
SV. 1.163a;2.93a; VS. 11.14a; 
TS. 4.1.2.1a; 5.1.2.1; MS. 
2.7.2a :75.5; 3.1.3 : 3.21; KS. 
16. la; 19.2a. 

raksohaijan valagehana VS. 
5.25; VSK. 5,6.5; TS. 1.3.2.2; 
KS. 2.11; 25.9. 
(rathamtaramsama) VS. '.10.10; 
TS. 1.8.13.1; MS. 2.6,10 : 
69.13; 2.7.20 : 104.16; KS. 
15.7; 39.7. 

cf. rathantararh sama prati- 
sthitya VS. 15.10; TS. 4.4.2.1; 
MS. 2.8.9 : 113.7;KS. 17,8; 

vata a vatu bheajam, RV.10. 

186.1a; SV. 1.184a; 2,1190a; 

cf, vata iva vrksan, AV. 10, 

1.17a. 

cf. Vamadevyam sam g3ya 

MS.4.9.11:132.10. 



("vUvatomukhaml 4.6.2.4a, 



vastogpate prati. 

RV.7.54.1a; TS. 3. 4. 10. la; MS. 

1.5.13a:82.13. 

cf. RV.7.54.2a and RV.7.54. 

3a andRV.8.17.14a 

cf. vidya ca me, Ap. MB.2.5.5 

and vidyam yam u ca, AB 7. 

18.7d; SS\ 15.27d. 

vibhra^ bfhat pibatu, RV.10. 

170. la; SV.2.803a; Ar. S.5,2a; 

VS. 33.30a; MS.1.2.8a:18.lO; 

3.8 5:101. 12; KLS.2.9a; 25.6. 

RV 10.8I.3a; VS.17,19a; TS. 



APPENDIX 4 VEDIG MANTRAS IN GP. 



81 



vistj urloka 

vii?iisukta 
vrs&kapi 



vedavrata 
^annodevi 



'risQkta 



1.48.16 

II. 18.6 
I. 48.53 



I. 48.55 

I. 48.12; 48.78; 
101,8; 206.17 



I. 48.48 
I. 48.79 

I. 48.53; 206.18 



cf. visnorioke 

RVKh.9.H3. Ib. 



mahlyate, 



cf. vrsakaper ati vyathti. RV. 
10.86.2b; AV. 20.126.2b. and 
vrsakapSyi revati; RV. 10.86 3 
13a; AV. 20. 126.1 3a. 



ilokadhyaya I. 48-54 
larnstipti (mantra) I. 48.15 

cf. agnim 

atvanna I. 206.12; 206. 

adasitva I. 206.1 1 

havEmahe 



I. 48.84 

I. 48.5,3 
I. 48.54 
I. 206.6 



ivitur 

ihajina 
ikriya 
imitriya na 



no devir abhistaye; RV. 
10.9.4a; RVKh. 10,127.13b; 
AV. 1.6. la; SV. 1.33a; VS. 36. 
12a; KS. 13.15a; 38.l3a. 

irlica lak?mf^ca TAA. 10.64 
(hirapyavarnam haripim) 

RVKh. 5.87.1a, 



14 



raoyavarna I. 206.18 



cf. sad asi, TS. 1.6.5.1; 7.5.2; 

MS. 1.4.2: 48.9; 1.4.7: 54.10; 

2.6.12: 71.4; 4.4.6: 56.7; KS, 

5.5 

savitur vafr prasava ut, VS. 

1.12,31; 10.6. 



sumitra na 5pa osadhaya^i 
santu, VS. 6.22; 20.19. 35.12; 
36.23; 38.23; TS. 1.4.45.2; MS. 
1.2.18: 28.10; KS. 3.8; 38.5. 
cf. 



II 



APPENDIX 5 

INDEX OF NAMES IN THE VISNUSAHASRAN&MA 
IN GP. COMPARED WITH VSN. IN MBH 





GP. SI. Mbh. SI. 


Akrura 


81 HI 


Akrurapriya 


81 


AkrQrapriya vandita 


81 


Aksara 


143 15 


Agamy a^caksuradeh 


108 


Agamyah. paijibhyam 


110 


Agastya 


95 


Agnina vihlna 


101 


Agrahya 


154 20 


AgrShyo manasalj 


110 


Aghena parivarjita 


103 


Angirah 


71 


Acyuta 


144 24, 48, 72 


AUahSsapriya 


143 


A$dasya karaija 


51 


Atuamanusa 


38 


Atri 


72 


Atharva 


118 


Atharvavedavit 


118 


Atharvacarya 


118 


AdhyStmasaraSvista 


123 


Ananta 


78 83, 108 


Anantarupa 


78,148 113 


Anala 


14 45, 89 


Analasya pati 


23 


Aniruddha 


89 33, 81 


Anilasya pati 


23 C f. Anila Us. 38, 100. 


Annaprada 


141 


Annapravartaka 


141 


Annarftpi 


141 


Anna da 


141 1. 118 


ApSna 


96 



INDEX OF NAMES IN THE VSN. IN GP. 



83 



GP. SI. Mbh. 



Apanena vihiqa 

Apanasya pati 

Apam atma 

Apara 

Abhidalvata 

Abhistuta 

Amrtasya pradata 

Arisl;asya nihanta 

Arkasya pati 

Arc! 

Arjuna 

Arjunasya priya 

Artha 

Alarkasya hita 

Avarijaka 

AvikSra 

Avyaya 

AsurSntaka 

AsunSm pati 

AhaiikSra 

AhankSra cetasab Stma 

AhankSrasya karana 

Ahain buddhyS grahya 

AkS^a karaija 



Akaj'ena vihlna 



Atma 

Adi 

Adikara 

Aditya 

Adya 

Arajjeya 

Indrasya karana 

Indratmaja 

IndrStmajasyagopta 

Indratm5 

IndriyStraS 



100 

74 

63 

10 

125 

154 

131 

81 

25 

153 

129 

129 

87 

140 

44 

6 

111 

68 
26 
83 
62 
50 

111 
51 
63 

101 
22 

7,62 
48 
48 
48 
76 

115 
54 

131 

131 
67 
62 



cf. Apam nidhi l 48 



cf. Arka SI. 98 
cf. Arcisman i\. 81 
(f. Dhananjaya sj. 83 

fl. 59 



f5ls. 15 j 17 (NidiravyayaJ 
^1. 59 (avyaya) 
cf. Antaka si. 68 



cf. Adideva &ls. 49,65 
^Ia. 18, 73 

cf gopta bis. 66, 76 



84- GARUpA PURXlvIA A STUDY 

GP. l. Mbh. &. 

Isudhi 78 

Ial> sarvadevanam 157 

Ii=atma 68 

X^anasya kSrana 55 

I^vara 8 sis. 1 7, 22 

Ugrartjpa 43 <;/. Ugra Si. 58, 422 
Uttama (asunSm pati) 

(devakiputra) 26, 141 ^1. 56 

Udakena vivarjita 101 

Udana 96 

UdSnasya pati 75 

Udanena vihina 100 

Uddhava 82 

Uddhavasyesa 82 

Uddhavena vicintita 82 

Upastha 84 

Upasthastha 138 

Upasthasya atma 66 

Upasthasya niyantS 139 

Upasthasya Snandakara 139 

Upaya 117 

Upendra 115 30 

CsmS 70 

Crjita 20 30 

"OhatmS 155 

RgrQpl 119 

Rgveda 1 1 9 

Rgvedesu pratis^hita 119 

Ekadajidi 117 

Osadhinam pati 24 

Kamsadanavabhetta 80 

KamsasyanSbana 132 

Kapilasyapati 27 ^ K apila 109 

Kapilacarya 70 
123 54 

Kar^avarjita 73 

Kama 87 47> 54 

Karma 2o 



Karmakarta 



20 



INDEX OF NAMES IN THE VSN. IN GP. 



85 



GP. 



Mbh. 



Karml 

Kavi 

Kanti 

Kama 

Kamayita 

Kamenavarjita 

K5mya 

Karaiia 

Karttavlrya 

Karttavlryanikrntana 

K&rya 

Kalakartta 

Kalajna 

Kalaneminikrntana 

Kalameghanibha 

Kalavarjita 

Kalahanta 

Kinnara 



Kinnaraijampati 

Kirti 

Kirtida 

Klrtivarddhana 



Kutsa 

Kuberasya kara$a 

Kuberasya pati 

Kumbhakarjja pramardana 

Kumbhendrajinnihanta 



Katastha 

Kttrraa 

Kttsmaijdanam pati 

Krsija 

Ketu 

Ketot pati 

Ke^ava 



Kaustubha 
Kaustubhagrlva 



19 

5 27 
86,153 

87 45 

128 

104 
128 

127 

139 

140 
20, 127 

71 
116 
140 cf. Kalaneminiha 82 

44 
116 

95 
147 

58 

29 

86 

86 

86 

76 110 

72 

54 

24 

92 

92 
127 

97 
109 

31 

112 20,72 
146 

40 

73 16,82 

80 cf. Ke/iha 82 

89 

77 



86 



GARUI?A PURX^IA A 

GP. l. Mbh. 



Kriyfi 


20 


Krtlrarupa 


81 


Krodhena parivarjita 


104 


Klesahanta 


73 


Ksatriya 


122 


Ksama 


86 cf. Ksama 60 


Ksara 


143 cf Ksara 64 


KsSntikj-nnara 


85 


KsSntida 


85 


Ksira 


131 


Ksiroda 


131 


Kseraa 


18 cf. Ksemafcrt 77 


Ksobhakalj. indriySijani 


107 cf. Ksobhana 54 


f} brahma^ah. 


108 


,, bhutSnam 


107 


,, mahatab 


106 


i, rudrasya 


108 


} , visaya 


107 


,, sarvasya 


106 


Khadgapaiji 


76 


Kba^gl 


68 


KharadQsauahantS 


91 


Kharva 


85 


Gagana 


83 


Gajendramukhamelaka 


146 


Gadadhara 


8 120 


vadapSp,j 


III 


Gantavya 


137 


Ganta 






137 


Gandharvaijam karajja 


58 


Gandharvaoarnpati 
Gandhasya paramatma 


26 

KA 


Gamana 


O*r 


Gi/ 


137 


Glyatrt 


73 


Q 


126 


Grbth 


145 71 


Cjrt^i'SA* A<9 %t *j V * _~~ . * 


121 


^^^^^ /******* S^l m 5 v i c t o 

wtOQCIJU^ft 


123 




114 



INDEX OF NAMES IN THE VSN. IN GP. 



87 



Gopa 

Gopati 

Gopala 

Goplnfimvallabha 

Gomati 

Govarddhanadhara 

Govinda 

Gautama 

Gaura 

Graba 

Grahajjampali 

Gramajjlraksaka 

Graha 

Grahasyavinihantu 

Ghrajja 

Ghraii.akrt 

Ghrajjastha 

Ghra^atma 

Ghra^endriyaniyamaka 

Ghrajjendriyiigamya 

Gbrata 

Gakradhrk 

Cakrapa 

Cakrapani 

Cakravartinam nrpa 

Gaksus 

Gaksustha 

Gaksurindriyahina 

Gaksusah Karaija 

Chaksusah niyanta 

Gancala 

Caturas'rama 

Caturthaka 

Gatuspat 

Candramasahpati 

? Garmi 

CalScalavivarjita 
CSijurasyapramardaka 



GP. SI. Mbh. ^1. 

114 

114 66,76 

114 

145 

114 

131 33 3 71 

114 
71 

154 

146 

29 

146 

146 
146 

84 
136 
136 

66 
136 
109 
136 

83 
156 

76 
156 

84 
135 

97 

52 
135 

83 

121 

150 

120 

28 

68 cf. arma 23 
83 cf. Acala^cala 92 
80 cf. CSpQrandhrauiiGdana 
101 



88 GARTJDA PURAM^IA A STUDY 




GP. 6l. Mbh. SI 


Gitta 


83 


Cetasah karaija 


50 


Getasa grShya 


111 


Getasa vjgata 


99 


Caitanyarupaka 


113 


Caitrarupa 


150 


Ghandas 


147 


Jagatali sJaraija 


18 


Jagato dhama 


p 


Jagatstha 


149 


Jaghana 


84 


Janaka 


158 


JanSrdana 


115 27 


JantunStn KSra^a 


56 13 3 36 


Janya 


158 


Jala 


83 


JalabSyl 


127 


Jagaritam sthana 


149 


JSgartta 


149 


jagratak atma 


63 


JSgratsvapnasusuptelj vihlna 


150 


Ji?iju 


78 


Jihva 


84 


JIhvagrahya 


53 


Jihvaya^j. karaija 


53 


JihvSyalj parama 


C R. 


Jihvastha 


oa 


Jiva 


135 


Jlvayita 


150 68 


Jfiapti 


150 


Jftanagamya 


113 


Jfiatiamnrti 


112 66 


jaanavit 


112 


Tftanst 


112 


JfetoJ 


155 


Tiieva 


112 


Jfteymlii 


113 


Taoiwvt^ 


113 




112 



INDEX OF NAMES IN THE VSN. IN GP. 



89 



Tapohitakara 

Tamas 

TarunS^ana 

Tirtha 

TlrthavasT 

TTrthavit 

TirthSdibhata 

Tirthi 

Trikala - 

TripurSntapati 

Trivikrama 

Tri&rsasya 

Trisandhya 

Treta 

Tvaksthita 

TvagStmS 

Tvacalj karaija 

TvacSnagamya 

Daksaprajapateratma 

Daksasyapati 

Daijdahasta 

DattStreya 

Dambhenavivarjita 

Daya 

Data 

Dana 

Damodara 

Dlpti 

Duljsllaparivarjita 

Dundubhi 

Durmukha 

Durlabha 

Durvisaha 

DustSnSm mohakartta 

DustanSncasurSijaiicasarvado 

ghatako' antaka 

Dustasuranihanta 



13 



GP. &l. Mbh. &1. 

94 

96 
156 

124 cf. Tlrthakara 87 
124 
124 
125 
124 
116 

21 
116 69 

93 
116 
116 
134 

65 

52 
109 

67 

25 c/Daksa 58, 111 
117 cf. Daijda 105 
139 
105 

86 

87 Dh5ta 18, 115 

87 

116 53 
86 cf. Diptamurti 90 

122 

143 

77 

152 96 
130 

71 

16 cf. Antaka 68 
93 
135 



90 GARUDA 


PURSijIA A STUDY 




GP. 6l. Mbh. 6l. 


Deva 


82, 87 54 


Devaklpulra uttama 


141 cf. Devaklnandana 119 


Devakyanandana 


142 


Devadanavasamsthita 


148 


Devapriya 


87 


Devala 


72,95 


Devanain kSrapa 


60 


Devan5m pad 


21 cf. Devesa 05 


DevSntaka vinS.sana 


92 


Dehasthita 


133 


Dehasya karaiia 


62 


Dehasya niyamaka 


133 


Dehatma 


62 


Dehl 


.133 


Daityasudana 


147 


DvSpara 


116 


DvijSnam pati 


29 


Dvipat 


120 


Dhanaprada 


129 


Dhaui 


129 


Dhanya 


129 93 


Dharma 
Dharraasya karaija 


19 ( "paraya^a ) 5g > JQ6 
56 


Dharmaijaiica pravarttaka 


152 


Dharmi 


19 64 


DhRraka 


1 cr o 




jl5J 


DfaQmakft 


141 


Dhiimarupa 


141 


Dhumavarjja 


44 


NakijatrSjjampati 
NadSn5mkSraija 


24 cf. NaksatranemiGO 
59 


Nadi 






156 


NadTn5mkara5a (para) 
Nanda 


59 


Nandayita 
Nandi 


142 69 
155 79 ' Nandi ) 


Nimds f 


156 79 ( Nandi ) 


**** 


I *ifi 


Narakasyanihanta 


4 JO 

93 



INDEX OF NAMES IN THE VSN. IN GP, 
GP. SI. Mbh. SJ. 



91 



NarSntakSntaka 

NagSnSm pati 

Nanacandanacarcita 

NSnapuspopasobhi ta 

Nanarasojjvaladvaktra 

Nanarupa 

NanSlankSrasamyukta 

Narada 

NSradapriya 

Narayajja 

Nikrntana 

Nitya 

Nimnaganampati 

NiySmaka 

NirSkara 

Niratanka 

Nira^raya 

Nirukta 

Nirnitnitta 

Niskala 

Nllameghambhat^uddhati 

Nrpati 

Nrpaijancapati 

Nrsimha 

PaktS 

Paksbja" tnkSraija 

Paksiijampati 

Pai?d,itat pandltebhyali 

Padavyafr (ganta) 

Padmagarbha 

Padmajangha 

Padmanabha 

Padmanidhi 

Padmamaiadhara 

Padmasaiiisthita 

Padmahasta 

Padmaksa 

Para 

Parantapa 



92 
25 

41 
42 

42 

41 

95 

95 

74 

95 

90 

26 

135 

158 

158 

158 

125 

158 

14 

44 

20 

25 

115 

155 

57 

31 

10 

137 

9 

9 

8. 12 
8 
9 
9 
8 
9 

63 
112 



39 



cf. Narasimhavapu 16 



51 

19, 34, 51 

cf. AravindSksa 51 



92 



GARUDA PURX^IA A STUDY 





GP. SI. Mbh. al. 


Parabhuta 


8 


Parama 


8, 66, 67 ^/. Paramaspasta 55 


Param&tmS 


7, 68 3 


Param3nandarupf 


151 


Paramartha 


10 


Paramesvara 


7 54 


Parameb vara (sab harya) 


42 


Parabiir5ma 


90 


Pars 


86 


Parakrama 


130 44 


Paraijailcapara 


10 


ParSi'ara 


72 


Pariraksaka 


11 


Parjanya 


9 100 


ParvatSnampati 


26 


Pavitra 


10, 11 cf Pavitra (pavitraijain) 20 


PasQnamkuraija 


61 


PaisGnSmpati 


22,31 


fdt)\ 


84 


Patala 


151 


PatalakSra^a 


60 


Patalavasi 


151 


Plda 


84 


Psdayofci niyaats 


138 


Psdigamya 


110 


PadRtma 


66 


Pad4bhy5m vivarjita 


98 


Tadya 


11 


*'."id\abhak 


138 


i'Spaittardaka 

I'^y 


10 

Q/ 


i^vfipajthavihltia 


O< 

98 


fWofykSraya 


54 


ayv4imaparama) 


66 


rirrjjiiahara 


130 


Piptiivarjita 


11 


^ 


44 


4S * dh * ra 


77 



OF NAMES IN THE VSN. IN GP. 



Pimdarika 
Puiiya^Ioka 

Purajjasyakararjta 

Purusa 

Purusasya 5tma 

Purusottama 

Pulastya 

Pulaha 

Puskara 

Pukaradvlpa 

Puskaradhyaksa 

Puspahasa 

Pujaka 

Pojya 

Putanayatinihanta 

Pusa 

PrthivT 

Prthividhara 

PrthivJpadma 

kSra^am param 
,ti paramatma 

Praka^arupa 

Prakjti 

PrakyterjL kara^ia 

Prajadhvara 

Prajapati 

Praijava 

Prarjiavena, pravandita 

Prapavena laksya 

Praijave^a 

Pratyagatma 

Pratyahara 

Pratyaharakara 

Pradyumna 

Pradhana 

Pradhanasya paratmS 

Prabodhenavihlna 

Prabha 



GP. &. Mbh. &. 

9 cf. Pujjdarlkaksa 25 
145 



49 
1 j 

65 

8 

72 

72 

157 

1 57 

157 

143 

12 j 

123 

79 

128 

83 

127 

12 

51 

64 

1 1 

1 \ 

51 

88 
128 
125 
125 
126 
125 
7 

153 
153 

89 

12 

63 

99 
153 



15,57 

16 



cf. Puskaraksa 18, 72 
115 



cf. Praka^ana 275. 

77 

116 
21, 34 

57; 115 



81 



94 



GARUI3A PURSJilA A STUDV 



Prabhu 
PraraS^a 
Prasanna 
Prahlada 



PrSij asyaks ra j? a 

Prgjjasyapati 

PrSijaySmapara 

PrSijistha 

Pr5iiena vivarjita 

Priya 

Priyaprada 

Bala 

Baladhara 

Balabhadra 

Baladhipa 

BalSdhyaksa 

Balirdana 

Bali 

Balibandhanakrt 
Ball 

Bahupat 

Bala 

Balacandranibha 

Buddha 

BuddhtrStma 

Buddhlnam k^ 

BuddhyS grahya 

Buddhya vivarjita 

Budha 

Budhasya pati 



Brhaddlpta 
Brhadbhanu 
Brh*dvlra 
Bfhaspntelj pati 
Boddhi 



GP. SI. Mbh SI. 
10 17, 45 

32 cf. Pramaaa 59, 116 
132 cf. Prasannatma 39 
90 

96 21, 48, 57 

53 

74 

152 

137 

99 

9 

12 

128 

6 

4 

4 

106 
6 

90 
5 

120 

120 

4 

4 

90 94 
62 
49 
110 
99 



73 
115 

115 49 
7 

40 
155 
121 



INDEX OF NAMES IN THE VSN. IN GP. 



95 



Brahmatma 

Brahmaija 

Bhaktapara 

Bhaktapriya 

Bhaktastuta 

Bhakti 

Bhaktiman 

Bhaktivarddhana 

Bhagavan 

Bhagaha 

BharatS 

Bhartia 

Bhavakara 

Bhavana^ana 

BhSgavatah. svayam 

Bhanu 

Bharata 

Bhava 

Bhavana 

Bhavayita 

Bhavya 

Bhaskarantavina^ana 

Bhiksuka 

Bhisak 

Bhima 

Bhuvanadhipati 

Bhuvananam niySmaka 

BhQtastha 

BhutSnam karaija 

Bhutanaiicapati 

Bhum5 

Bhtisa^am karajja (^restha) 

Bhrgu 

Bheda 

Bhesaja 

Bhokta 

Bhrajispu 

Makharupl 



GP. 6l. Mbh. 6l. 

67 
122 84 

86 

85 

86 

86 

85 

85 

82 73 

82 73 

91 158 

85 17 
113 
113 " 

82 

82 27, 44 
156 

113 14 
113 17 
155 
113 

79 
121 

96 75 
129 52,114 
151 
151 
148 cf. Bhutatma 14 

50 

30 
155 
56 

71 
117 

96 75 

155 29,66,108 
78 29 
38 



96 GARUDA 


PURSlNlA A STUDY 




GP. ^1. Mbh, l. 


Makhesta 


38 


Mail gal a 


32 145 cf. Maiigalam param 20 


Mati 


70 83 


Matsya 


90 


Madhu 


37 31 


Madhusudana 


33 21 


Manasab. Stma 


62 


Manasab. kSraija 


49 


Manu 


39 19 


ManunSm Ic5ra$a 


57 


Manob. StmS 


67 


Manovarjita 


32 


Mahatab. kSraija 


49 


MahadatmS 


63 


Mahal? 5ra 


36 


MabakTrti 


37 


Mahagrlva 


36 


Mahatapovivarjita 


98 e f. MahStapah, 26 


Mahatma 


32 36 


MahSdanta 


35 


Mahadeva 


33, 37 65 


Mahadevena pQjita 


33 


Mah5n3sa 


35 


Mahaneminikpntana 


140 


MahSpar^a 


48 


MahSpSda 


36 


MahaprSija 


34 


Mababahu 


35 


MahabharttS 


127 


Mahabhaga 


33, 38, 74 371 


Mababbisma 


130 


MahSmati 


37 


MahatPSnl 


36 72 


Mtbayog! 
Maharapa 
Mahgvafctra 


36 
45 cf. Yogi 104 
37,43 


MKB 


36 




38 



APPENDIX 5-INDEX 


OF NAMES IN THE VSN. IN GP. 




GP. SI. Mbh. ^1. 


MahSvJspu 


4 


Mab5v!rya 


34 32 


Mahasanta 


33 


MahSsura 


37 


Mahahanu 


35 


Maheia 


38 


Mahewara 


37, 38 


Mahodara 


36 


Maijdvya 


71 


Mata 


82 


Madhava 


32, 37 21, 31, 91 


MSnamya 


38 cf, Manya 755 


Manava 


39 


ManavanSm priyaAkara 


39 


Mayaya baddha 


34 


Mayaya (tu) vivarjita 


34 


MayStmS 


34 


MSrkaijcleya pravandita 


34 


Maladhara 


33 


Mukta 


90 


Mukh enavi varj ita 


77 


Mudra 


133 


Mudx'akara 


133 


Munirmaitra 


35 


Munistuta 


35 


MunlnSm kSraija (ires^ha 


) 57 


MunlnSm pati 


28 


Mus^ikasya vimardaka 


80 


Mrga 


39 


Mrgapujya 


39 


MrgS^am pati 


39 


Megha 


140 


Meghapati 


140 


medfaa 


70 


Meya 


32 


Aleru 


32 


Moksa 


87 


Moksakara 


70 


MoksadvSra 


88 


13 





97 



98 GARUDA PURAisIA A STUDY 

GP. 6l. Mbh. 

Moksavidyati 68 

Mohapradhvarhsanakara 70 

Yaksaijamkaraija 55 

Yaksarjam karnna (para) 58 

Vajurvetta H9 

Va/urveda 119 

Yajurved;.videkapat 119 

Yajf.a 45 61, 1 17 

Vajnakrt 45 i 18 

Vatirupl 59 

VatTnam hiterata 59 

Yatna 68 

Vatnavan gg 

Varna 145 30 

Yamalarjui.abhetta 94 

Yamasyakaraija 55 

Yamasyapnti g3 

Yajfiavalkya 72 

Yadavanam hiterata ]29 



Yoginsm karaija (para) 57 

69 



i> . 96 

: jiu 

Katnada 

43 
Ratnaharta 

R- ^ *28 

Rasaj'a 42 

*' . 135 

K&'is isrinSm Dati 

29 

Rflgeija vigatia 

Rtvma I03 



pati I46 



APPENDIX 5-INDEX OF NAMES IN THE VSN. IN Gp. 99 

GP. &. Mbh. 6l. 

pati 144 

RukmiijySb. vallabha 144 

Rudratma 67 

Rupada 45 

RQpadrasta 135 

Rupavjvarjita 43 

Rupasyatma. para 64 

RupS^am nrpati 76 

RQpi 4.3 

Rohiijyak priya 142 

Raudratma 68 

Laksaija 41 

Laljsmai^a 41 

Latanampati 27 

Lambaustha 41 

Lalita 41 

Lokanam karajja 60 

Lobhenavigata 105 

Vaktavya 136 

Vakta 136 

Vacana 136 

Vacasa parivarjita 103 

Va^avamukha 71 

VanaspatTnampati 23 

Vandita 30 

VayasyatmS 64 

Vara 1 44 

Varada 6 49 

Varaprada 94 

Varuijasyapati 22 cf. Varuija 72 

Varuoadhipa 6 

Varei^ya 5 

Varesaa 6 

Var^ia 122 

Var^avan 46 

Varddhisiju 91 

Varsa 70 



100 



GARUPA PURS^IA A STUDV 

GP. SI. Mbh. SL 



Vasad 


154 


Vashtha 


72 


Vasu 


4 25, 42, 87 


Vasudevapriya 


142 


Vasudevasuta 


142 


Vasunam karaija 


56 


Vasunam pati 


22 


Vak 


84, 123 


Vakyagamya 


124 


Vakyavit 


124 


Vakstha 


136 


Vagatma 


65 cf. Vagrnl 42 


Vagindriyavivarjita 


97 


Vaiiniyamaka 


136 


Vacal.1 karaija 


54 


Vacaka 


123 


VScu agrShya 


109 


Vacya 


123 


Vaditra 


94 


Vadya 


94 


Vanaprastha 


121 


Vamana 


4 30 


Vayu 


84 57 


Vsiyuna parivarjita 


101 


Vasava 


4 cf. VasavSnuja 48 


Vasudeva 


4 49, 87, 89 


Vikuraift sadbfailj (vivarjita) 


104 


Vikraina 


117 22 


Vij ana 


150 


VibhSvasab karana 


50 


Vibhu 


78 39, 107 


Vi^atpara 


7 


Viriit 


128 


Viiupa 


45 


Visalak>a 


147 


Vi'arada 


106 


Vj&uta 
Viivarupa 


145 cf. Vib'rutatmS 35 
147 


VUargakft 


138 



APPENDIX 5-INDEX OF NAMES IN THE VSN. IN GP. 1 01 



Visargasyaniyanta 

Viraha 

Virudhamkaraija 

Virudhaucapati 

VrJjsajjamkaraija 



Vrsakapi 

Vysi-iinarnpati 

Vetalanampati 

Vettavakya 

Vettavyakarana 

Vedakarta 

Vedaparipluta 

Vedarupa 

Vedavit 

VedangavettS 

Vede^a 

Vedya 

Vedha 

Vaidya 

Vainateya 

Vaisya 

Vausat 



Vyanasya pati 
Vyanena vivarjita 
Vyasa 
Sankara 
Esaiikhapani 
^atrughna 
Sanaiscarasya pati 
Sabdasya pati 



Sabdena vivarjita 

ambarari 

Sa.ray.ya 

l^arat 

^arlrabhrt 

Sarmada 



GP. SI. 


Mbh. SI. 


138 




7 


31, 92, 112 


60 




27 




59 




24 
145 


cf, Vrksa 72 
24 


21 




31 




124 




124 




5 




5 




5 




5 


27 


6 
6 


cf. Vedaxiga 27 


5 


31 


5 


72 


88 


31 


48 




122 




154 




96 




74 




100 




72 


74 


85 
111 
139 


cf. 6a:ikhabhrt 120 
57 


40 




75 




65 
102 
93 


cf. 6abdatiga 110 


90 




96 




90 


51 


73 





IG2 



GARL'DA PURSlvIA A StUDV 





GP. SI. Mbh. SI. 


Sy.ragap5$i 
Sulagrama 
SuLigramanivfisT 

Srtsvata 
Sid 


112 cf. SarugadhanvS 120 
126 
126 
128 20 
69 


Sipiviijta 
bilpa 
Silpakft 
Siva 


132 42 
137 
137 
48 17, 77 


Silada 


122 


Sukra 
Sukrasyapati 
Suklavarija 
Suci 


89 
28 
45 
87, 154 30, 40 


Suciman 


87 


Buddha 


11, 153 


Subhakft 
Sukara 


18 
89 


Stidra 


122 


Sokenarahita 
obhana 


127 
103 
18 


Sauri 


115 50, 82 


bilpati 
Srlm3n 
brivaisauka 
breya 
SreyaiSm KSrapa 


134 
20, 156 77 
20 16, 32, 37, 78 
76 cf. Srlvatsavaksah 77 
18 78 
61 


Sratft 


27.28.31 21,56,69 
134 


"rotra 


84 


Scotraiya kSraija 


134 
52 


SrotrSgfcmya 


108 


^rtma 


65 


rhaylta 


121 



APPENDIX 5-INDEX OF NAMES IN THE VSN. IN GP. 103 



Sarhnyasi 

Sariivatsara 

Samvarttaka 

Sarhvit 

Sakala 

Satya 

Satyada 

SatyaparSkrama 

SatyapSla 

Satyavit 

Satyasankalpa 

Satyastha 

Satyatma (parama) 

SatySyab. priya 

Satye^a 

Sattva 

Sannabha 

SamSna 

Samanasyapati 

SamSnenavivarjita 

Samudraij5.m kSrapa 

Samudraij5mpati 

Samrat 

SarasSncapati 

Saritaflca pati 

Sarpajjam karaija 

Sarva 

Sarva^ca jagato dhEma 

Sarva karmavivarjita 

SarvakaraijakSraija 

Sarvaga 

Sarvagopta 

SarvagopJsukbaprada 

SarvajvaravinaJana 

Satvada 

SarvadarsT 

Sarvadevanamaskrta 

Sarva^evasvarupadhrk 



GP. 6l. Mbh. ^1. 

121 

70 23, 58 

71 

70 

14 

18 25, 36, 106 

19 

18 44 

17 

19 

19 

19 

67 
144 
144 

96 

17 

96 

75 
10o 

59 

30 
128 

30 

30 

61 

12, 154 17 

13 cf. Dhsma36 

19 

15 

12 27 

15 
114 
151 

12 cf. Sarvakamada 104 

13 61 
14 

J5 



104 



GARU1?A PURAJilA A STUDY 



Sarvadehavivarjita 

Sarvadhyeya 

Sarvanistha 

Sarvapa 

Sarvapujya 

Sarvabhutahrdisthita 

Sarvabhrt 

Sarvamitra 

SarvamudrSvivarjita 

Sarvarupavivarjita 

SarvalokSrtin3hana 

Sarvavarjja 

Sarvavit 

Sarvasastravib5rada 

Sarvasya jagato mula 

Sarvasya pati 

Sarvkaravivarjita 

Sarvadhyaksa 

Sarv5(va) dhyaya 

Sarvanugrahakrddeva 

Sarve^a 

Sarvesvareivara 

Sarvesam barasja 

Sabasr3.k3.ra 

Sahasrapat 

Sahasrabirsii 

Sahasranta 

Sankhya 

Sadhyasiddha 

Sama 

Saraaga 

S5.marQ.pi 

Samaveda 

Sara 

Sarathi 

Sarapriya 

S^rasvata 



GP. SI. Mbh. Si, 

97 

15 

15 

14 

14 

13 

13 

15 

183 

102 

132 

45 

12 cj. Sarvavijjayi 98 

130 

14 

20 

158 

143 

16 

13 

12 cf, Sarveavara 24 
155 
61 
88 

87 120,37 
88 
88 
125 
17 

117 75 
117 75 
117 
118 
95 
128 
95 
130 



APPENDIX-5 INDEX 


OF NAMES IN THE VSN. IN GP. 105 




GP. SI. Mbh. 6l. 


Siddha 


147 24, 101 


Siddhavandita 


17 


Siddhasudhya 


17 


Siddhasiddha 


17 


Siddhanam ksraija 


58 


Siddhe^a 


17 


SitSpati 


91 


Sukarpa 


73 


Sukatapa 


78 


Sukiritl 


89 


Sukfta 


118 


Sukha 


138 


Sukhada 


87 62, 108 


Sukharupaka 


118 


Sugrlva 


89 


Sunakha 


78 


Supanjasya karaiia 


48 


SuparijT 


48 cf. Supanja 34, 104 


Supat 


120 


Sumukha 


77 62 


Surasundara 


78 


Surasuksma 


105 


Surajjampati (bres^ha) 


27 


Suradhyaksa 


16 28 


SurSsuranamaskrta 


16 


Sulabha 


152 101 


Suvarija 


46 tf. Suvar^abandhu 46 




Suvarpavanja 46 


Suvarijasya pradata 


47 


Suvarijasyapriya 


47 


SuvargSmiSa 


47 


Suvarijakhya 


46 


Suvar^iadhya 


47 


SuvarJjiivayava 


46 


Susupti 


148 


Susuptistha 


148 


Sustha 


149 


14 





106 

Suhrdaficapati 

Suksma 

Suryasyapati 

San my a 

Sauinyarnpa 

Saura 

Stuti 

Stota 

Sthilna 

SthSnastha 

SthSnanta 

Sthnlat sthfilatara 

Spar.-'ana 

Spar^ayiiS. 

Spar.'asya pad 



GARUI?A 



Spar.'enavihina 

Spr=ya 

Spha likasannibha 

SmrtirnySyopama (ball) 

Svacchanda 

Svacchartipa 

Svadha 

Svapatal^ atma 

Svapna 

Rvapnavit 

Svapnasiha, 

Svarga 

Sv.trjjarnekhala 



Haj agitva 
lJUii_ 
HalSyudha 
Hastayolj 

niyamafea 



A STUDY 

GP. 6l. Mbh. SI. 
25 cf. Suhrt 62 
105 62 
28 
18 
43 
95 

123 86 
123 86 
148 
149 
148 

105 cf. Sthula 1O3 

134 

134 

75 

65 

102 

134 

153 

120 

147 

97 

154 

63 

149 

149 

149 

128 

46 

157 

154 

89 

69 110 52, 82 
76 
53 
137 
66 



AfPENDlX-5 INDEX 


OF NAMES IN THE VSN, IN GP, 




GP, ill, Mbh, & 


Hastina&na 


132 


Hastipa 


132 


Hastendriyavihina 


98 


H&arupa 


Itf 


HirajjyakaiiporhantS 


79 


Hiraijyagafbhasyapati 


2' if. Hiraijyagarbha 71 


Hiranyaksavimardaka 


79 


/ i 




Hrdisvara 


17 


Hfslkei'a 


73 19 


Hflpravarttana^ila 


69 



APPENDIX 6 



INDEX OF THE NAMES OF HERBS AND DISEASES 
OCCURRING IN THE MEDICAL CHAPTERS 
OF THE GARUpA PURANA 



arhiumati 

ak?a (vibhi- 
taka) 

aksiplluka 
uk?isula 
agaru 



agnimandya 
agnividanga 
agnirmantha 



agnivlsarpa 
auko^aftha) 

aja 



I. 202.2 

I. 169,49; 171 25; 173,30; 

192.33; 202. 25; 202 71. 

I. 202.48 

I. 177.63 (remedy for) 

I. 174.6; 178:6; 185.28. 



Hedysarum 
Gangeticum 
Term^nalia 
Belerica 

eye sorp 
Dysoxylum 
Malabaricum or 
Aquiloria 
Agallocha ? 
dyspepsia 

cierodendron 
phlomoides or 
premna integri- 
folia? 

a kind of dry itch 1. 163.13. 

Alangium I. 172.22; 185.25; 191.13 

Lamarcku 



I. 171.34; 183.7 

I. 167.58. 

I. 173.22; 177.44; 192.4; 192,35. 



goat 



( j 



a\a(&ta)ru(ru} 
jaka 



cuminum 
cyminum 
Ailantus excelsa 



ghee 169,32 (as curative); urine 
177 ,4; 174.21; 184.10 (as 
curative); 185.32 ( ); 185.35. 
milk 176.1 (as remedy for bald- 
ness); 183.18 (as remedy for 
enlargement of spleen). 185.31. 
I. 172.2; 184.4; 202.19. 



I. 170.26; 174.2; 177.8; 182.27; 

184.3; 192. 33; 202. 52. 

Linura Usitatissi- 1, 164.23; 169.9; 172,33; 182,4; 
mum. 188.7. 



APPENDIX 6 NAMES OF HERBS AND DISEASES IN GP. 109 

atisara dysentery I. 147.27; 157.1 (6 kinds of); 

157.2-3 (how caused); 157.5 
(symptoms of); 157.8; (symp- 
toms of a type of ); 157.9 ( ); 
157.10 (); 157.12 (); 
157.13; 157.14; 170.13-14 
(remedy for); 170.15 ( ); 
170.16 ( ); 172.16 ( ); 
183.3; 185.24; 185.25; 192.3. 



ativisa 


Aconitum 


I. 170.12; 


172.16. 




Heterophyllum 






adrisara 


iron. 


I. 202.66. 




ananta 


Gardenia 


I. 183.7. 






floribunda 






anaha 


a kind of abscess 


I. 160.58; 


J 70.51 (curative for); 


anupSna 


a drink taken 


I. 169.1; 


169.63; (quenching 




with or after 


thirst and 


fatigue); 169.64. 




medicine 






antaka 


a synonym of 


I. 147.1; 


1.202.44, 




fever ( jvara) 






andha 


blindness 


I. 171.57 (curative for night 



anyeyurjt 

ap. 
apatantraka 

aparajita 
(gokarna, 
visijukranta) 
apasmara 



a type of fever 

water 
a kind of 
rheumatism 
clitoria ternatea, 
linn, or c. 
spectabilis. 
epilepsy 



apSna one of the five 

life-winds in the 
body 

apamarga Achyranthes 

(aghata,, khara- aspera, linn. 

manjarT) 



blindness); 185.35. (); 187.8. 

I. 147.43; 147.55 (periodicity of 

occurrence). 

I. 147.3 (the fever manifest in), 

I. 166.19. (symptoms of). 

I. 177.65; 177.66; 178.7; 178,15; 

184.34; 185.10; 185.27; 188.9; 

189.1; 190 1; 190.15. 

I. 170.35 (remedy for); 170.37 

(); 177.46 (); 183.8 (); 192. 

10 (); 193.5 G,). 

1.156.14. 



I. 172.10; 174.21; 176.15; 177.9; 
177.61; 183.6; 184.14; 185.23; 
188.1; 189.5; 190.18; 190.19; 
192.36; 202.51, 



110 
abja 

abhaya(pathya) 
(haritakl) 



abhighata 

abhicara 

abhitapa 

abhinyasa 
abhisauga 
amrta 



amla 



GARUIDA PURAljIA A STUDY 



lotus 

Terminalia 
chebula 



attack beating- 
magic spell 
fever manifest in 
horse 

a kind of fever 
contagion 
Terminalia 
chebula ? 



acidity 



amlalonikS 


Oxalis corniculat;; 


amlavetasa 


Rheum Emodi 


ayas 


iron 


arista 


Xanthium 




Strumavium 


aruaja 


Phyllanthus 




Rhamnoides 




(aruni ?) 


arusaka 


Adhatoda Vasika 


simhaparijT 




arocaka 


loss of appetite 



arka (alarka, 

mandara, 

sttryapatra) 

askanda 
a rjuna 

ardita 



Calotropis 
Gigantea 



Lagevstroemia 
flos-Preginae 
a kind of 
rheumatism 



I. 170.58 (remedy fox' a kind of 
urinary disease). 
I. 171.24; 172.7; 172 14; 172.23; 
172.24; 174.2; 177.31; 177.62; 
183.9; 184.2; 192.33; 192.34; 
192.36; 193.11; 193.12; 202.25. 
I. 147.24 (fever caused by). 
I. 147.24 (fever caused by). 
1. 147.3. 

I. 147.12-17 (symptoms of ). 
I. 147.24 (fever caused by). 
1.170.42; 170.55; 171.31; 
171.36; 171.38; [71.55; 172.43; 
184.17; 202.6; 202.33; 202.48; 
202.85. 

I. 168.ft3 (remedy for); 171.31; 
171.33; 171.34. 
I. 170.20; 173.7. 
I. 173.7; 202.44. 

I. 202.23; 202.51; 202.66. 

1.170.76; 171.24; 171.36; 

183.11:202.16; 202.34; 202.84. 

I. 172.16. 



I. 202.45. 

I. 153.1-3 (diognosis of); 153.9- 
10 (); 149.2; 170.43 (remedy 
for). 

1.171.18; 171.30; 171.43; 172.5; 
174.17; 177.81; 179.4; 185.29; 
189.3; 189.4; 191.5; 191.15; 
192.27; 202.29. 
1.172.11 (remedy for). 
1.170.27; 177.83; 180.10; 190. 
23; 192.47; 202.8; 202.36. 
1.166.35 (diognosis of), (also 
called ekanga). 



APPENDIX 6 NAMES OF HERBS AND DISEASES IN GP. Ill 



arbuda swelling, tumour 

ariSas piles 



1.170.68 (prescription For ); 
179.11 

1. 1 56. 1-3 (diognosis of different 
kinds of); 156.7 (case of con- 
genital piles); 156.9 (6 kinds 
of); 156,15; 156.22; 156.54 
(curable types of); 156.56; 156. 
58; 170.19 (remedy for); 170. 
21 (); 170.39 (); 171.4 (J; 
171.58 (); 172.3 (); 177.17 (); 
177. 18 (); 183.17 (); 184.2 (); 
184. 10 (); 186.10 (); 186,11 
(); 186.12 (); 192.25 (). 



alaka 


curls on forehead 


1.168.49 (remedy for) 


; 171.40 






(treatment for). 




alalctaka 


red lac. 


1.177.17; 185.31. 




alaksmijvara 


? 


1.193.5 (remedy for). 




alajl 


a kind af urinary 


1.159.12; 159.27 (symptoms 




disease or infla- 


of). 






mmation of the 








eye ? 






alarka 


fever manifest in 


I. 147.3. 






a dog 






alavu (ni) 


bottle-gourd ? 


1.169.19 (obtained 


from 






kaliaga). 




avaplda 


causing sneezing 


1.172.30 (one of the five 






methods in treatment). 




as'ana 


synonym of fever 


1.147.1 




amabhit 


coleus Scutellari- 


1.202.34. 






oides. 






a^vakargaka 


a tree 


1.20240. 




a^vagandha 


withania 


1.170.37:1728; 172.25; 


176.15; 




coagulans 


177.47; 178.27; 182.5; 


183.9; 






185.19; 190.3; 192.4; 


193.1; 






201,29. 




a^vattha 


ficus Religiosa 


1. 171. 12; 202.7; 202.44. 




a^vadanistra 


Tribulus lanugi- 


1.170,14 (use of). 






nosus 






at vamS raka 


see karaviraka 


1.202.60 





112 
asrj 

asthi 

akgepaka (ija) 

akhuparnika 

fcjya 



GARUpA PURAfvlA A STUDY 

b l 00 d 1.170.75 (prescription which 

causes flow of); ] 71.65; 

bones 171.68; 182.27; 192.46; 1.170. 

15; 171.42; 177.50. 1.171.11 
(slip of ; remedy for*); 177.50 
(fracture of; remedy for). 

akindofrheuma- 1.166.16 (symptoms of ); 173.18 
(remedy for). 
1.202.43. 



tism 

salvinia cucullata 

roxb. 

clarified butter 



Sdhaka (kl) Cajanus indicus 



atauka 



atmagupta 



a synonym of 
disease (vySdhi) 
Mucuna 



(kapikacchukS) pruriens 



SbSdha 

ftmanda 
Smayah 

Smaya 

Bmalaka (kl> 
(Aniraphala) 



a synonym of 
disease (vySdhi) 
castor oil plant 

a synonym of 
disease (vyadhi) 
costus speciosus 

emblica. 
officianalis 



flesh 

mangifera indica 



1.171.2. 171.22; 171.55; 172.12; 
172.21; 172.22; 172.24; 172.28; 
175.5; 177.37; 177.52; 182.25; 
184.8; 184.11; 184.18; 184.19; 
18437; 186.1; 186.15; 187.8; 
190.8; 191.18; 191.20; 192.36; 
192.37; 201.18; 201.21. 
1.169.9; 172.8; 174.5; 174.6; 
192.43; 202.74; 202.75. 
1.146.2. 

1.173.3; 202.6. 
1.146.2. 

I. 202.3 

I. 146.2; 146.5 (indicated by 
malaise); 171.3 (remedy for); 
1.172.18; 202.77. 
1.167.60; 169.22; 169.59; 169.60; 
170.61; 171.24; 171.66-7; 172.35; 
173.6; 175.9-10; 176.4-5; 377.2; 
1 '7. 12; 177. 67; 181.10; 185.36; 
190.9; 190.29; 192.22; 193.11; 
193.12; 202.25; 202.44. 
1.169.62 (effect of eating). 
I 169.26; 170.27; 170.33; 171.42; 

171.46; 173.6; 176.4; 176.5; 

176.9; 177.58; 192.4S. 



APPENDIX 6 NAMES OF HERBS AND DISEASES IN GP. 113 



1.172.35; 173.6; 173.19. 



Smrataka spondias 

(pittavraksa) mangifera 

ayatana a synonym of 1.146.4 

diagnosis (nidSna) 
Sragvadha cassia fistula 1.170.47; 171.17; 171.21; 173. 

25; 202.43; 
granala gruel made from 1.171.21. 

the fermented 

boiled rice. 
Srdraka zingiber 

cassumunar. 
Srseyl ? 

Sla yellow arsenic, 

orpiment. 
iku saccharum 

officinarum 



1.169.30; 171.47; 174.20; 177.49; 
182.23; 183.18. 

1.202.6. 
1.202.64 



iksvaku 
ingudi 

idagaja (?) 
indlvara 

indramada 

indrayava(va) 
(ku^aja 
kalinga vatsika, 

girimallika) 
in.drava'runika 

(citraphala) 
1 
15 



1.159.14 (causes prameha) 
(urinary disease) 159.20 (,,); 
169.50 (as remedy for plethora); 
170,21 (as a remedy for piles); 
173.3. 

Cucurbita I. 172.36:202.57. 

Lagenaria 

Terminalia I. 169.11. 

catappa 

? I. 202.56. 

blue lotus Nym- I. 202.4; 202-39. 
phaca Stellata 
Cyanca 

the name of fever I. 147,3. 
manifest in a 
cloud. 

Hollarhena I. 170.11; 172.17; 172.37; 

Antidystentrica 173.14; 202 16. 



Gitrullus I. 174.21; 184.17; 184.32; 190.2; 

colocynthis 202.50. 

? 1. 202.62. 



114 

utpala (kus- 
tha, kasmlraja 
kastha. 
puskara) 

udakameha 
Udara 



GARUIJA PURAljIA A STUDY 

Saussurea Lappa I. 170.11; 170.62; 171.65; 173.24; 
174.5; 179.5. 



a kind of urinary 
disease, 
stomach 



UcUvartta 

Udicya 

Udumbara 

(audumbara) 

unmada 

npakiuljika 
(krs:na, aratiya- 
jJraka) 
tipadarhia(ka) 

upaairaba 
upasaya 



upastha 
urubnka 



UrvSru(ka) 



a disease of the 

bowels (iliac 

passion) 

a kind of 

perfume ? 

ficus Glomerata 

insanity 



Nigella Sativa 



venereal disease 



I. 159 19 (symptoms of). 

I. 161.1 (diseases pertaining to); 
161.3 (8 kinds of diseases affec- 
ting); 161.10 (effect of excess 
of water in); 193.10 (a curga 
which activates the fire in). 
I. 170.50 (remedy for). 



I. 172.18; 202.21. 



I. 173.24; 184.15; 192.47; 

202.65. 

I. 170,36 (remedy for); 193.5 

(remedy for); 193.15 (unmatta, 

for) ? 

I. 172.2; 202.19. 



I. 171.5 (remedy for); 171.6 
(., ); 171.7 ( ) ; 171.8 ( ). 
I. 177.2 (as a remedy for 
blindness). 
I. 146.3; 146.8; 147.5 



an essential 

category in 

respect of a 

disease. 

holy basil ? 

uruvuka ? 

Ricinus 

Communis. 

a kind of cucum- I. 169.19; 173.2 

ber Cucumis 

XJsitatissimus, 



I. 202.36. 

I. 172.9; 202.3 



APPENDIX 6 NAMES OF HERBS AND DISEASES IN G.P. 115 



U^Jra 

(vlrana, amra- 
nala) 
Qru 

urja 

urdhva 

QrdhvagadS 

Qsana 

(gajapippall- 

mula) 

Tijara 



rksa 



Andropogon 
Muricatus 

thigh 



a kind of cough 
a headache? 
Piper Chaba 



name of fever 
manifest in the 
earth, 
bear 



rsyajihva 

ekSfiga 
eda 

eraijda (ka) 
(vatari, gan- 
dharva hasta, 
paricSngula) 



ela (truti, 
kapita, varni, 
kararigi, tri- 
pu^a, trtistl- 



name of leprosy 

caused by the 

humours wind 

and biles 

a name of a kind 

of leprosy resem- 

ling a deer. 

a kind of 

rheumatism 

cassia tora or 

Alata 

ricinus communis 



I. 173.23; 175,4; 175.7; 175.13; 
177.35; 202,31. 

1.170.41 (remedy for stiffness 

in); 166.48. 

I. 202.40 

I. 150.3. 

I. 171.62 (remedy for); 171.63. 

I. 168.43; 202.12. 



I. 147.3. 



I. 177.75 (whose milk is used 
in a preparation for external 
application for diseases). 

I. 164,8. 



elettaria carda- 
momum 



I. 164.19 



I. 166.35 (also called ardita 
and kaksaruja). 
I. 171.19 (as a remedy fora 
kind of leprosy). 
I. 169.13; 170.42; 170.45; 
170.46; 170-66; 170.67; 17069; 
170.74; 171.61; 171.62; 172.40; 
173.22; 174.14; 175.6; 176.10: 
177.14 (white variety); 178.26: 
190.19; 192.5:201.9:202.3. 
I 174.6; 176.3; 176.4; 177.21; 
177.24; 185.13; 202.17; 202.68 
(patraka). 



lie 



GARTJjpA PURXtfA A STUDY 



aikShika 
( jvara) 

osadhi, ausa- 
dha, ausadhi 



audumbara 
audbhida 

kaktulbhadra 
kakubha 
(raktfsrjuna) 
kakeruka 



kakkola 

(lavangalata) 

kakaruja 

kafigu (ka) 
kaca, kesSa 



k archil 
Latchura (sat!) 

kajjala 



quotidian fever I. 189.7 (remedy for). 

herb 1.146.7; 147.3 (fever manifest 

in); 147.26; 147.27 (symptoms 
of fever caused by inkalation 
of the fumes of ); 173.30; 177.38 
(the quantity to be consumed 
of the decoction of ), 

a kind of leprosy 1.164.7; 164.15-17 (symptoms 
of). 
I. 170.18. 



I. 202.41. 
I. 202.8. 

I. 165.13. 



I. 192.20. 




terminalia 

arjuna 

a type of parasite 

(worm in 

stomach) 

luvunga scandens 

a type of 

rheumatism 
setaria Italica 

hair 



a kind of 
carbuncles 
(prameha) 
itch, scab 
curcuma 
zedoaria 
sulphuret of 
mercury. 



I. 166,38 (also called ekUnga} 

I. 188. 4; 202.70. 
I. 169.49 (prescription for 
disease of); 171.42 (prescript- 
ion to blacken),- 176.1 (pres- 
cription for the growth of); 
176.5 (prescription which 
strengthens); 176.7 (pres- 
cription which blackens). 
176.9 (). 

I- 159.12; 159.26 (symptoms 

of). 

I. 171.29 (remedy for). 
I. 173.21. 

I. 178.9. 



APPENDIX 6 NAMES OF HERBS AlSfD DISEASES IN G.P. 117 



kanjuka 


siphonanthus 


I. 183.14 


(kanjikS ? 


Indica ? 




brahmanaya?- 






tika) 






kataiikaterl cf. 


coscinium 


I. 202.32. 


daruharidraka 


Fenestratum 




katuka (ka) (Id) 


picrorrhiza 


I. 170.47; 173.13; 174.16; 


same as next 


kurrooa 


177.22; 192.28; 192.31; 202.20; 






202.44. 


katu (ka) 


,, 


I. 175.11; 17735; 183.5; 


rohinl 




202.20. 


ka^utaila 


brassica alba ? 


I. 176.17 (used for the growth 


^vctasarisa 




of the male organ); 177..9; 






177.53; 179.9; 201.18. 


ka^utraya 


compound of 


I. 202.13. 




ginger, black and 






long-peeper 




kaVuloharaja 


? 


I. 193.8. 


katphala (la) 


myrica nagi 


I. 202.24; 202.53. 


kathilayS ? 


cf. ka1;hilla (ka) 


I. 202.3. 




momordi ca 






charantia 




kapa 


piper longum ? 


I. 170.29; 170.54; 172.23; 






172.27; 202.11. 


kanaka 


euphorbia 


I. 173,11; 202.46. 




antique-rum ? 




kajjt a k5.r.I 


solanum 


I. 170.13; 170.30; 170.44; 174. 


(rika) (rika) 


jacquinii. 


3; 174.13; 175.7; 175,12; 






177.34; 17824; 192.4; 192.34; 






192.44; 193.11; 202.5. 


karj.l;aki 


cf, previous 


I. 202.83. 


kaij(Ju (a} 


scratching in the 


I. 147,9 (as a symptom of a 


/ 


throat 


type of fever); 149.2 (caused 






by various coughs). 171.39 






(remedy for); 171.41 (); 






171.54 (); 173.13 (); 173.17 






(); 191.24 (); 192.23 (); 






193.7 (). 



118 
kataka 

kadamba 
kadall 

kanaka 



kandara 
(bfngavera) 
kapikacchukS 
kapittha (ka) 



kapila 

kapotana 
kapha 



GARUI?A PURSliLA A 



kafoarl 

kamala 



strychnos 
potatorum 
stephegyne 
parviflora, korth 
plantain Musa 



I. 202.38. 



I. 192.47 (used in ointment 
for wounds). 

1.171.47 (the use of its juice); 
Sapientum kuntze 173.24; 179.8; 181.7; 184.1; 
190.7; 190.8; 190.19; 192.17. 
1.184.17 (the use of seed of); 
190.24 (powder is used in 
combination for prickly heat). 
1.202.38. 



datura Alba, 
nees, or D. 
nilhummatu 

zingiber 
officinale, Roscoe 
Mucuna Pruriens 
feronia 

Elephantum, 

Correa 

Benzoin or 

Mallotus philli- 

ppineusis, Muell ? 

grey ore of 

antimony 

one of the 

humours in the 

body (phlegm) 



nelumbium 
speciosum, wild 



1.192.5; 202.6. 

1.169,25 (the effect of the fruit 

in its different states); 172.35; 

173.6; 179.5. 

1.202,7 



1.202.8 

1.147.4 (effect of); 147.22; 
147.37; 147.38; 147.56; 147.76; 
148.9-10; 148,11; 148.13; 149.6; 
149.0-9; 149.16; 150 3; 150.6; 

152.17; 153.8; 154.14; 154. 
15; 154.19; 155.10; 155.21; 

156.22; 158.5; 158.7; 158,38. 
-39; 15 .1; 159.9; 159.13; 159. 

15; 159.16; 159.36; 159.37; 

160.8; 160.25; 160.26; 160.39; 

160.45;168.6-7; 168.18; 168.46; 

171.35; 172.36; 172.38; 173.4; 

173.13 (remedy for); 173.22; 

173.27; 173.33; 175.1 3; 201.18; 

201.22. 

1.202.41. 

1.202.39. 



j APPENDIX 6 NAMES OF HERBS AND DISEASES IN GP. 119 



kampillaka ? 




1.170,78. 


karaka 


punica 


1.202.45. 




Granatum. 




karanjaka. 


pongamia 


1.170.76; 171.8; 171.16; 171.17; 


karanja, karanji 


glabra, vent. 


171. 18; 1. 171. 28; 176.4; 177.7; 


(=naktamala) 


or Galedupa 
indica. 


177.35; 178.9; 190.10; 191.15; 
191.23; 193.3; 202.26; 202.80. 


kararnardaka 


capparis corundas 


1.172.35; 173.6. 


(ki-sriaphala) 


or carissa 






carandas, linn. 




karavira (ka) 


nerium odorum. 


I.I 71.16; 173.15; 176.8; 178. 


(a^vamaraka., 


soland. 


11; 183.15; 186.7; 191.5; 


pratilasa, 




192.27; 202.60. 


raktapuspa. 






^vetapuspa) 






karala 


black tulasl ? 


1.202.42. 


karlra 


capparis aphylla, 


1.156.38 (certain types of piles 




roth or cspinosa, 


resemble); 156.45; 168.45; 






173.14. 


karka^a (ti) 


crab ? muricia 


1.177.29 ipada); 177.30 




cochin chinensis 


(pada); 177.35; 186.3 (mula) 


Icarkatasrugl 


Phus succedanea 


1.202.29. 


- 


linn., R. 






acuminata 




karkandhu 


(jujube fruit) 


I. 156.29 (piles resembling); 




zizyphus sororia 


172.41. 


Icarkota (ka) 


sugar cane or 


I. 169.17; 173.16. 




bilva ? 




karcQra 


a kind of fragrant 


I. 170.57 (cdrga). 




tree 




Icarrja 


ear, pain in 


I. 171.47 (remedy for); 171.48 






(); 171.49 (); 176.12 (); 






176.13 (); 176.14 (); 179.3; 






179.9; 188.1; 192.12; 192.14; 






192.17; 192.18; 192,44-. 


kardama 


a kind of dry 


I. 163.21. 




spreading itch 





120 
karpflra 



GARtJlDA PURAJvIA A STUDY 

camphora I. 177.57; 180.2; 192.20, 

officinarum, 

Bauh or cinnamo- 

mum camphora- 

ness. 



karbura 

kalanaiS 
kalama 

kalasl 

kalapa 
kalaya 
kalayakhanja 

kalitvaca 
kalka 



of variagated 
colour ? 



1.202.52. 



I. 202.56. 



rice sown in May- I. 169.2, 

June and ripens 

in December-January 



same as brhatl ? 
Hemionitis 
cordifolia. 
peacock's tail 



I. 202.2. 



I. 202.70. 

I. 169.8 (qualities of) 

I. 166.44 (symptoms of). 



pisum arvense 

a type of 

rheumatism 

barkofkalinda I. 171.13. 

(bibhltaka) 

Terminalia 

belericaj Roxb. 

viscous sediments I. 170,37; 170.39; 170.62; 

of oily substances 170.67; 170.78; 171.8; 171.11; 

asremedyfor 171.28; 171.57; 1 74.5. 

different diseases 

I. 173.2 (is sweet). 

I. 148.10; 148.11; 171. 14; 
173.20; 175.11; 177.22; 



I, 192,21- 



ka^eru (ka) 


scirpus grossusj 
lin. 


ka5ya 


a decoction; 




as remedy for 




different 




diseases 


kasturl 


moschus 


(mrganSbhi, 
rrvrgamada) 


moschiferus 



APPENDIX 6 NAMES OF HERBS AND DISEASES IN GP. 121 

kakajafighS Ufa arg uata or I. 177.28; 177.39; 177.42; 

L. hirta 177.60; 178.8 ; 185.19; 185.37; 

190.23; 190.25; 202.42. 
kskajihva ? I. 178.3. 



kakana 


a type of 


I. 


164.28-29. (description of). 




leprosy 






kakamacl 


gymnema 


I. 


169.13. 


r"T ' " ~ 


sylvestre, R. Br. ? 






kakadani 


capparis spinosa. 


I. 


202.59. 




linn.. 






kakoll 


gymnema 


I. 


202.29. 




balsamicum 






kaksl 


a kind of 


I. 


202.63. 




fragrant earth 






lead 


an eye-disease 


I. 


185.33 (remedy for); 192.41. 


kafijika (ka), 


sour gruel 


I. 


17142; 171.61; 172.61; 



ksndatiktaka 

kanta 

kapala 

kamala 



kampilla (ka) 
karavl 

karavellaka 

karurj.S 

(matului'iga ?) 
karpasa 

16 



173.7; 176.9; 176.10; 177.8; 

177.10; 177.23; ,177.42; 184.31; 

184.33; 187.6; 190.28; 191.6; 

192.43; 201.10; 202.67; 
a tree (raarathi 1.202.85. 
kadeciraita). 

cardomom or 1.202.79. 

priyangu creeper? 
a type of leprosy 1.164.7; 164.13-14 (symptoms 

of ); 171.41 (remedy for), 
jaundice 1.162.18; 170.23 (remedy for); 

177.16 (); 177.17 (); 183. 

3(,,);184.30U);189.10(,,)j 

190.26 ( ); 192.3 ( ). 
a tree 1.202.33; 202.49. 

cardiospermum 1.202.19- 
halicacabum, linn. 

momordica 1.169.17; 173.15; 184.19. 

charantia, linn, 
citrus naedica, 1.202.3. 

linn. . 

gossypium herba- 1.171.67 (the root of which is 
ceum, linn. used as remedy) ; 1 72. 1 3 ( ). 



122 



GARUDA; PURS^A A STUDY 



kaladugdhika 


? 


1.202.49. 


kalameha 


a kind of 


1.159,24 (symptom of). 




urinary disease 




kalindl 


water melon ? 


1.202.46. 


kali 


a plant ? 


1.202.6 


kaliyaka 


yellow sandal 


1.202.38. 


kasf 


? 


1.202.62. 


k3&:Sa 


? 


1.202.62. 


kSsSmarl 


gmelina arborea, 


1.202.64. 


(gambharl 


linn. 




irfparnt) 






k&s'mlravshlika 


p 


1.202. 22. 


kasa 


cough 


1.147.4; 147.10; 147.11; 149.1 






(five kinds of); 149-6; 149.8; 






149.16; 149.19; 149.21; 150.7; 






153.6; 160.57; 169.11; 169.56; 






170.43 (remedy for); 170.44 






( : , ); 175.12; 181.2; 181.3; 






181.4; 184.12; 190.30; 193.11. 


kims'ukah 


butea superba. 


1.201.38 (as remedy for eleph- 




roxfa. 


ant diseases). 


kiti (tti) ma 


a kind of leprosy 


1.164.8; 164.20 (symptoms of); 






171.21 (remedy for). 


kirSta tiktaka 


gentiana k urroo, 


1.202.85. 


(katuki) 


royle G. chirayita, 






roxb. 




kilaaa 


psoriasis 


1.164.36; 164.40. 


Jahni 


? 


1.202.44. 


kukkuta 


cock 


1.193.14 (excreta and urine of; 


kukkura 


dog 


used as remedy). 
1.147.3 (fever manifest in); 






191.19 (remedy for poison due 






to). 


kuftkuma 


crocus sativus, 

1 " 


1.177.31; 177.33; 178.8; 




imn. or c. saffron. 


178.19; 178,20; 178.21; 182.18; 






185.9; 191.15 (as an antidote 






for poison) ; 192.20 (as a reme- 






dy); 202.22. 



APPENDIX 6 NAMES OF HERBS AND DISEASES IN G.P. 123 



kuftjara 


elephant 


I. 192.11 (remedy for disease 






in). 


kunjara 


Bigonia suaveo- 


I. 202.27. 




lenSj L. 




ku^aja 


Holarrhena 


I. 172.10 (as a remedy); 183.1; 




antidysentrica. 


165.26; 202.15. 




wall. 




ku^annata 


a fragrant gross 


I. 202.23. 




cyperus rotundus 




kuftabhedaka 


? 


I. 202.34. 


kuntl 


Boswellia 


I. 202.47. 




thurifera,, L. 




kubja 


hunch-back 


I. 174.10 (remedy for). 


kumbhaka 


nayrica sapida. 


I. 202.41. * 


kumbhakamala 


a type of 


I. 162.18 




jaundice 




kuraijda 


hydrocele 


I. 186.5 (remedy for). 


kulaja 


sour griel ? 


I. 202 37'. 


kula^i 


? 


I. 202.64. 


kulattha 


Dolichos uni- 


I. 169.6; 169.60; 170.75; 




florus or D. 


171.31; 173.22; 201.22. 




biflorus. 




kullra 


crab 


I. 182.9 (curna used as % 






remedy) 


kuvalaya 


water-lily esp. 


I. 202.39. 




blue variety. 




kula 


poa-cynosuroides, 


I. 171.68 (used as a remedy); 




Retz. 


172.9; 184.31- 



kutha 



leprosy 



I. 164.3; 164.4 (defined); 
164.6 (seven kinds of the 
external type of) ; 164.7-8 
(caused by three humours). 
164.10; 164.13 (marks of); 
164.14 (symptoms of a kind 
of); 164.15; 164.17; 164.19 
(symptoms of carma ); 164.30 
(when incurable); 164.32 
(symptoms of it when it is on 
the skin alone); 164.36 (other 
dieases having the same origin 



124 



GARUI?A PURA1A A STUDY 



(ka) 

(utpala, kSstha, 
puskara) 



saussurea 
auriculata or 
costus speciosus. 



kusuma 
(campaka ?) 

kusumbha, 
kaosumbha 
(kamalottra) 
kufaja 



cf. michalea 
champaca, linn. 

carthamus 
.tinctorius, linn. 



krkalSsa 


la Benincasa 
cerifera, savi. 
lizard 


krcchra 
krtamsla 


pain 


krmi 


Worm, insect 



as); 170,39 (remedy for); 
170.40; 171.13; 171.15; 171. 
16; 171.17; 171.18; 171.22; 171. 
23; 171.24; 171.25; 17L27: 
171.28; 171.30; 171.39; 171.41; 
172.17; 172.34; 173.13; 17410; 
183.19; 184.11; 190.9; 190.10; 
190.12; 190.14; 190.15; 193.7 
201.14; 201.25; 

I. 170.36; 171.19; 171.30; 

172.14; 172.17; 173.12; 173,21; 

173.24; 174.6; 174.9; 174,10; 

176.3; 176.10; 176.11; 176.15; 

177.21; 

178.23; 

182.22; 



178.1; 
179.6 : 
182.23 : 

184.1; 185.13; 190.3 
of); 190.4; 192.9; 



178.8; 178.21; 
181.2; 182.3; 
183.10; 183.15; 
(2 kinds 
192.15; 



192.21; 192,23; 192.26 (the 
2 kinds of); 192.36; 193.1; 
193.6; 202.77. 

I. 177.15 (as a remedy). 
I. 169.14; 172.33; 191.15. 



I- 172.16 (as a remedy for 
dysentery); 172.36 (uses of). 
1-169.18; 170.35; 171.33; 173, 
3; 190.20; 191.9. 
I. 188,7 (whose blood is used 
as a remedy for abscess). 
1.170.56 (remedy for), 
1.173.14 (uses of). 

1.171.23 (prescription to kill); 
1? 2.34 ( ) ; 173.4 (things 

which multiply); 173.13; 
(things which destroy) ; 1 73.27 
(); 176.13 (); see also krimi. 



APPENDIX 6 NAMES OF HERBS AND DISEASES IN G.P. 125 



krsmavetra 
(vetasa ?) 



krnSrjaka 

= krsrjamallika 

(tulast ) 
kr?nopakunjl 

= krsnajlraka 

ketaka fkl) 
(dhulipuspika) 



calamus rotang, L. 1.171.28 (as a remedy). 

name of several 1.170.45; 170.49; 
plants. 172.2; 202.5. 

ocirnum sanctum, L, 1.202.42. 



Nigella sativa, 
L., N. indica 

Pandanus 

odaratissimus 

wild. 



1.202.11 

1.72.2 (plants growing on the 
coast of Sirhhala); 171.59 (as 
a remedy for all eye effections) ; 
185.36; 192.4-0; 184.36; (as a 
remedy for diseases of spleen); 
192.48 (as a remedy for long 
standing wounds). 

hair see kaca, 

kes'amusti melia Bukayun,L. 1.202.43. 

ke^ara (kesara) rottleria tinctoria, 1.169.21; 174.6; 177.20; 180.1; 

mimusops elengi, 192.48- 

or mesua ferrea. 
kei'araja (rajl) eclipta prostrata, 1.202.55; 187.6 (makes one 

L.; wedelia long-lived). 

calendulacea, lin. 

hygrophila, T.I 89. 11 (the root of the white 

spinosa, T. Anders variety as a remedy for consu- 



kokilaksa 
(iksugandha) 



kotha 



kodrava 



koradQsa 



or artanema 
sesamoides ? 
warts 



Paspalum 

scrobiculatum, 

linn. 

same as the 
previous 



mption). 

1.147.16 (as a symptom of a 

kind of fever) ; 1 71 .58 (remedy 

for). 

1.156.45 (bad effects of); 188.4 

(as a remedy); 191.10 ( ); 

202.70. 

L 169.3 (uses of); 173.33 ( ); 

202.70. 



126 



GARU]?A PURSJilA A STUDY 



kola (ka) 



kosStakl 



kostha 
kauntl 
krimi 



KrogtupucchS 
fpflcchika) 

Kleda (na), 
kledt 

Kleia 
Kloma 

Kvatha 



zizyphus jujuba, 1.172.35; 184.30; 190.29; 190. 

mill & lamk; 30; 202.69 (five kinds of); 

Z. laccifera; 202.84. 
Z. anoplia. 

luffa acutangula, 1.202.58. 

roxb. ; luffa 

echinata, roxb. ; 

luffa graveolens, 

roxb.; luffa 

pentandra, roxb. 

bowels 1.172.38 

cf. kuntT 1.202.16. 

worm, insect 1.165.1-3 (2 divisions of; 

external and internal- 4 sub 
divisions of the external variety) 
(20 types of) description of 
various kinds of); 192.14 (in 
the ear; remedy for); 192.18 

a swelling (). 1.166.49 (description of). 

between knee joint 

and thigh, in 

rheumatism 

causing pains. 

Hemionitis I. 202.2 

cordifolia, L. 

discharge from 
a sore 



anguish 
lungs 

decoction of 
several things 



I. 179.5 (remedy for); 173,8 
(preparation which causes); 
173.10 (things which causes). 
I. 173.29 (remedy for). 
I. 177.52 (prescription for the 
purification of). 

I- 170.12; 170.42; 170.45; 
170.58; 170.65; 170.74; 171.6; 
171.8; 171.26; 171.28; 171.32; 
171.36; 171.38; 171.43; 171,55; 
171.57; 172.12; 173.30; 175.2; 
175.3; 175.6; 175.7; 175.9; 



APPENDIX 6 NAMES OF HERBS AND DISEASES IN G.P. 127 



Kjata 
K$aya 

K?ava 
Kjara 



one of the five 

coughs 
consumption 



sneezing 

corrosive or 
acrid or 
saline 
substance 



KfTra 



milk 



Kslrl 



name of several 
plants like 
Mimusops 
kauki, B. 



175.11; 175.14; 175.15; 175.17; 
177.36; 177.37; 177.38; 177.45; 
177.46; 182.6; 182.26; 183.6; 
185.21; 192.6; 192.31; 192.42; 
20,1.13; 201.25. 
I. 149.1. 

I. 149.1; 152.2; 152.3; 170.28 
(remedy for); 173.29; ( ); 
182.9; (); 189.1 !;(). 
I. 147.27 (caused by the odour 
of herbs). 

I. 171.40 (as a remedy for 
warts); 171.58 (remedy for 
piles); 173.27 (remedy for 
excessive phlegm) ; 1 74. 20 
(remedy for inflemmation in 
glands of the neck); 179.6; 
184.36; 186.11; 192.13; 192.15; 
192.19; 193.8; 202.61 (called as 
yavSgraja). 

I. 169.40 (of cow and buffalo); 
169.41 (of white goat); (of 
women); 170.27; 170.37; 
170.51; 170.53; 170.62; 170.64; 
171.10; 171.22; 171.50; 171.54; 
172.29; 172.31; 173.1 (quality 
of); 174.6; 174.8; 175.17; 
177.10; 177.37; 177.40; 177.51 
(of goat); 178.25; 180.7; 182.7; 
182.8; 182.9; 182.27; 183.2; 
185.36; 187.2; 187.8; (of a 
buffalo); 189.11 (of gOW); 
189.12 (); 190.17? 191.18; 
191.20; 192.7; 201.28. 
I. 202.45. 



128 



GARU1?A 



A STUDY 



Ksudra (ka) a kind of cough 



ksudrasaha 

ksudrS 

ksaudra 
(cf. kusuraa) 



Phaseolus 
trilobuSj car. 

a type of 
hiccough 

mi ch alia 
campaka. 



ksaurna (uma) linum 

usitatissimum, L. 



khafija 
khafljaiita 


a kind of 
rheumatism 
wag-tail 


khadira, 


candied sugar 
Acacia catechu 



khadira 



khadyotaka a kind of worm 
khara ass. 

khart ? 

kharjQra (ka) phoenix 

sylvestris, Roxb. 
kharjQra a scorpion 



khalvata, 
nirlomatg. 

khuddaka 



baldness 

Lipeocercis 
sarrata, L. ? 
elephant 



I. 171.43. 

I. 150.3; 150.6. 

I. 202.7. 

I. 151.2; 151.4 (cause of). 

I. 170.26; 170.56; 170.58; 
171.22;171.25; 171.31; 171.45; 
171.52; 171.65; 171.68; 172.14; 
172.21; 172.29; 178.27; 181.1; 
181.2; 181.6; 182.27; 192.41; 
202.66. 

I. 169.48 (oil from which, is 

used as a remedy). 

I. 166.43; 201.25 (in horses; 

remedy for), 

I. 178.5 (the use of flesh of); 

184.6. 

I. 174.16, 

I. 170.32; 171.6; 171.8; 171.25; 

171.26; 171.27; 171.36; 171.38; 

"174.15; 177.12; 190.92; 201.12; 

202.38. 

I. 184.23. 

I. 182.2 (urine used); 190.12- 

I. 202.51. 

I. 169.29 (as a remedy); 173.2 

(quality of ); 

I. 191.16 (remedy for poison 

of). 

I. 176.1 (remedy for); 185.35 

(); 187.9 (). 

1.202.59. 

I. 147.3 (the fever manifest 
in); 201.33 on the diseases 
of); 201.34. 



APPENDIX 6 NAMES OF HERBS AND DISEASES IN G.P. 129 



gajapippall 


scindapsus 


I. 202.13. 


= gajakrsna 


officinalis, 






schott. 




gajabhaksya 


the gum of 


I. 202.24. 




olibanum tree. 




gajakustha 




I. 171.19 ( as a remedy fora 






kind of leprosy). 


ganika 


same as next. 


I. 174.17 (use of). 


gapikarika 


premna spinosa. 


I. 168.46 (use of the roots of). 


= ganika 






gandamala 


inflammation 


I. 170.68 (sternutatory remedy 




of the glands 


for); 174.22 (an oily remedy 




of the neck. 


for); 184.35 (remedy for); 






186.5 (ointment for); 190.1 






(remedy for); 192.10 ( ). 


gandlrika 


tithymalus 


1.170.68 (as a remedy); 171.30. 




ankiquorum. 




gandha (ka) 


sulphur 


1.176.6 (used in taila to remove 


see alse next 




louse). 202.65; 202.79. 


gandhapasSna 


sulphur 


1.188.6 (curna, as a remedy 


(=gandhaka) 




for abscess); 202.65. 


gambhan 


gmelina arborea 


1. 1 68.46 (whose root is used as 


gambharl 




medicine); 1 73,2 (quality of ) ; 






190.17 the use of dried root). 


gambhTra 


a kind of hiccup. 


1.151.2; 151.11 (to be treated 






with highly potential drugs). 


gara 


poison 


1.190.13 (ointment for); 191.13 






(remedy for) 


gardabharoga 


a skin disease 


1. 171. 41 (remedy for) 


gardabh&nda 


Thespesia popul- 


1.202.8. 




neoides 




garb ha 


pregnancy 


1.178.24 (herbs which aid the 






formation of); 178.25 ( ), 


gala 


throat, neck 


1.177.27 (remedy for the 






diseases of). 



17 



130 



gavftksT (sa) 



gavSdanT 
(~ abpota. 

gokarna) 
gJUlgcrukl 



giritr.allika 



gugsjulu 



GARUI?A PURSJvIA A STUDY 
goitre 1.170.69 (ointment for); 173.5 

(remedy for); 186.5 ( ,, ). 
swelling of the 1.177.25 (medicine for), 
glands of the neck 
cucumis 1.202.48. 

maderaspatanus 
etc. 

clitoria ternatea. 1. 202.40, 
linn. 

a grain (su&uta) 1.202.50. 

or uraria lago- 

poides, DC. 

clitoria ternatea 1.202.48. 

or Alhagi 

maurorum 

wrightia 1,202.15 

antidyseiiterica 

bdellium (amyris 1.170.41 as a remedy; 170.77; 

agallochum) 171.2; 171.4; 171.6; 171.12; 

173.12; 17784; 178.6; 183.7; 
184.4; 188.12; 190.29; 201.6; 
201.20; 201.22; 202.78. 
1.156.43 (growth of piles rese- 
mbling) ; 171.41 (use of fruit 
of); 176.2 (use of curna of); 
176.3 (use of fruit of); 177.15 
(the root of); 177.28 (the root 
of); 184.9 (the root of white 
variety of); 184.33 (use of 
curnaof); 189.14 (use of the 
root of the white variety of) 
1.170.4-9 (of certain herbs as 
remedy); 171.4 (); 171.58(,,) 
180 -8 ( ); 182.13 ( ). 

rnolassesfrom the 1.159.14 (as a cause of urinary 
"'" disease); 169.52 (properties 

of); 169.53 () 1 69.55 f }j 



berry of 

Abrus preatorius 



pill 



sugar cane. 



APPENDIX 6 NAMES OF HEKBS AND DISEASES IN G.P. 131 

169.61 (effects of); 170.22 (); 
170.29 (); 170.39 (use of); 
170.43 (); 1 70.49 (); 170. 
54(,,);170.65(,J; 171.15 (mixed 
with rice; use of); 171.33 (as a 
remedy); 171,34- ( ); 171.50 
( ); 171.63 ( ); 172.23 (); 
173.5 used as an ointment); 
173.25 (used as a remedy); 
174.16 ( ); 176.8 (as an 
ointment); 178.6 (used in a 
dhupa); 182.2 (the property of 
oldl; 182.5 (use of); 183.4 (); 
183.7 (,,); 184.19 (); 184.36 
(as a remedy for disease of 
splean) ; 184.37 (as a remady for 
pains); 185.19 (effect of); 185. 
26 (as a remedy for diarrhoea) ; 
186.13 (use of); 190.8 (removes 
insects in the stomach); 191.9 
(as a remedy for poison/ ; 191.20 
( ); 192.3 (use of); 202.35. 

cocculus 1.167.58 (as a remedy): 167.59 

cordifolius ( ) ; 1 70.9 ( ) ; 1 70.20 ( ) ; 

170.30 ( ); 1 70.39 (); 170. 
40 ( ); 170.44 ( ); 171.6 
(); 171. !?(); 1 71.28 (use 
in combination to live 100 
years); 171,66 (as a remedy); 
1 72.26 (); 1 72.27 (); 173. 
15 ( ,, ); 174.2 (used in the 
preparation of brahml ghrta); 
174.4 (as a remedy); 174.13 
( ); 175.3 (); 175.6 ( ): 
175.8 (); 175.10 () 175. 
12(, } ); 1 75.15 (); 177,34 
(); 183.11 (); 186.1 (as a 
remedy for urinary disease); 
190.32 (as a remedy); 192.5 



132 



GARUDA PURXlvtA A STUDY 



gundS 

guijdika 
gulma 



guha 

grdhranakhl 
grdhras,} 



giclhradana 
srhadhftma 



gairika 



Scirpus kysoor, 

Roxb. 

flour, 
a chronic 
enlargement 
of the spleen 



Hemionitis 

cordifolia 

Asteracantha 



Pain in the 
heels, toes and 
throat in 

rheumatism 

p 

name of a 
plant 



silicate of 
aumina and 
onide of i ron> 



( ); 192.33 (used in the pr- 
paration of brahml ghita 
192.36 (effect of); 201.27 (j, .. 
remedy for horses); 201,2'). 
202.85. 
1.202.49. 

1.161.6 (benefits of takings); 
I. 160.1 (dignosis of): KiO,5 
(nature of growth of); I (50.3 1 
(neglected abscess becomes): 
160.38; 160.40 (description of); 
160.43 ( ) 160.46-47 (symp- 
toms of a type of); 1(50.1!} 
(an incurable variety of; a fleets 
women); 160.53 (sometiniti 
resembles pregnancy); 1G0.5.1 
(symptoms of); 160.CO (symp- 
toms of imminent); 168,42 
indication and remedy for); 
170.17 (remedy for); 1 70., r >2 
(); 172.3 (); 182.2G (); 
189.3 (remedy for pain due 
to); 192.25 (remedy for); 193 10 
(cQrnafor). 
I. 202.2. 

I- 202.59, 
I- 166.51. 



I- 202.59. 

-44 (as a remedy for 
dental affections); 

I. 171 ^ 



"7.19 (); 



APPENDIX 6 NAMES OF HERBS AND DISEASES IN G.P. 133 

cow njya (clarified Butter) I. 170.35 

(as a remedy for apasmara); 
185.21 (as a remedy); 186.11 
(for piles). 

ghrta (ghee) I. 177.19 (used as 
remover of pain); 189.9 (to 
remove poison); 191.14 (used 
in pain due to scorpion bite); 
see also ghrta. 

kslra (milk) (payah] I. 172.15; 
174 22 (as a remedy for ganda- 
mala;; 178.24; 189.3 (for pain 
due to enlargement of spleen); 
190.29; 201.26 (to be given 
to lean horse), see also dugdha. 
jala see below mulra. 

takra (curd) I. 169.45 (removes 
the derangement in 3 humours). 
danta (tooth) I. 178.3. 

navanlta (butter) 177,57 (for 
rilling wounds). 

punsa (dung) I. 176.12 (used 
for ear ache); 177.39 (for remi- 
ttant fever), 

mUtra (urine) I. J 70.41 (for 
rheumatism); 170.48; 170.65; 
171.16 (as ointment); 171.31; 
172.39; 176.6 (to remove louse) ; 
179.10; 183.17 (for piles); 
183.19 (for leprosy); 190.1 (for 
inflammation of neck); 190.10 
(for leprosy); 190.12 (); 
190,13 (for scab); 190.20 (for 
well-being of the limbs); 
192.28 (for scab); 193.4 (for 
apasmara); 193.8; 193.14 (for 
fevers); 201.25 (for diseases of 
horses); 201. 32. 



134 



GARUI?A PURSiNlAA S1UDV 



goksura (ka) 



godhorua 



gopavallr 
=gopS; 
muruva ? 



Tribulus 
lanuginosus. 



wheat (Triticum 
sativum) also the 
name of a rpedi- 
cinal plant. 

Sanseviera Rox- 

burghiana, 

Schult. 



gopl gopa a particular class 
of plants 

goraksa=rsabha a kind of medici- 
nal plant. 

gora(o)cana(ns) a yellow orpiment 
prepared from 
the bile of cattle 

go&rsa a kind of sandal- 

wood; or drona- 
puspi. 

gostanika cow's dug ? ; 

a kind of red 
grape ? 

gohsliks name of a plant 

granthanSdl swelling and 

hardening of the 
blood vessels cf. 
next 

% I name of several 
plants and bul- 
bous roots, 



rasa (curd, buttermilk) I, 
159.14 (harms of using in 
excess), 

1.168.47 (use of); 170,42 ( ); 

170.46 ( ); 172.9 ( ); 173.2 

(quality of); 177.36 (use of); 

177.44 ( ); 184.29 (use of the 
root of); 189.2 (use of the root 
of): 192,43 (use of); 202.4. 

I. 169.4 (use of); 173.1 (qua- 
lity of); 182.4 (use of its curna 
to make one beautiful). 

I. 202.31. 



I. 202.31, 
I. 1 86.3 (use of the root of ). 

I. 1804 (use of); 182.15 (); 
185.9 (); 185.11 (); 185 12 
U; 188.11 (); 192.21 {). 
I. 202.28. 

I. 202.30. 

I. 186.1 (use of root of) 
I. 173.27 ^(remedy for), 



I. 170.7 (use of ); 192.16 (use 
of); 202. 12. 



APPENDIX 6 NAMES OF HERBS AND DISEASES IN G.P. 135 



granthivlsarpa a 



graha 

grahanl 



grlva 



grlsrna 



= ghantaka 
ghanastana 



gharni 
ghrta 



swelling and I. 188.8 (remedy for) 
hardening of the 
vessels of the 
body. 

type of dry 
spreading itch. 



diarrhoea 



neck 



summer 



Bignonia 

suaveoleus. 

cf. ghanasvana 

=Amarantus 

polygamus 

heat 

ghee; preparation 
of with several 
medicinal 
plants etc. 



I. 163.16 

see under jvara. 

I, 157.1 (symptoms of ); 157.16 
(causes of); 157.26; 157.27 
(one of 8 dreadful diseases 
difficult to cure)"; 170.17 
(remedy for); 183.1 (); 185.25 
(); 185.26 (). 

I. 171.45 (remedy for pain in). 
190.2 (). 

I. 182.1 (curd not recommend- 
ed in); 190.24 (herbal remedy 
for troubles due to); 201.27 
(prescription for horses to be 
given in). 

T. 202.34. 
I. 202.57. 



I. 190.25 (remedy for troubles 
due to). 

I. 169.16; 169.46; 170.40; 
170.44; 170.50; 170.52; 170.53; 
170-62; 170.65; 171.8; 171.35; 
171.54; 171.57; 171.60; 172.3; 
172.5; 172.8; 172.25; 172.29; 
173.1; 173 26; 173.31; 174.1; 
174.2; 174.9; 174.16; 177.29; 
177.51; 177.54; 177.58; 17S.26; 
181.1; 181.2; 182.3; 182.4; 
182.15; 182.23; 184.3; 184.13; 



136 



GARUpA PURANA A STUDY 



ghftakumarl Aloe indica 
(kumarikil) 

yhots cf. ghota = a 

kind of reed 
gho{I cf. above 

ghosa Anethum sowa. 

(=karkata- 

b'njgi. monier 

williams). 

takramarda (ka) cassia tora 



cakrika 



caficu 



tatusthaka 



a kind of 

serpent 

eve 



name of the 
castor-oil plant 
chick-pea 
(cicer arietinum) 
an aggregate of 
four substances 
quartan fever. 



smum 
folium 



Caesalpina 



188.1; 189.9; 191.7; 191.12; 
192.25; 192.31; 192.33; 193.9; 
201.6; 201.26. 

I. 191.24 (leaf of ; as a remedy 
for itching). 
I. 202.82. 

I. 202.82. 

I. 177.17 (fruit of; used as 
remedy for jaundice); 186.10 
(as remedy for piles). 

I- 176.10 (seed of; as remedy 
for headache); 202.56. 
I. 177.15 (ointment for). 

I. 1 77. 1 (remedy for disease 
of); 177.8 (),- 177.14 (,,); 
181.1 f,,)i 187.7 (}. 
I. 169.14 (quality of). 

I. 156.45 (quality of): 169.7 
(). 
I. 202.68. 

I- 147.43; 147.57 (cause of); 
H7 -59 (); 147.61 (when 
becomes incurable) . 

I- 171.56 (use of); 172.18 (J; 
17 3.23 (); 174.5 (); 174.9 (); 
175.4 (as a remady for all 
Jvaras); 175.10 (); 175.13 (); 
17 7.15 (as an ointment); 
1 77-33 (the red variety; use 
of); 177.75 ( US e o fj; 178.19; 
yy.l (red variety; used for 
teeth); 182.23 (as an ointment 



APPENDIX 6 NAMES OF HERBS AND DISEASES IN G.P. 137 



carma (Kustha) a type of Leprosy 



carmakasa 
carmakila 



called 

Mimosa alster- 
gens. 

wart (skin excre- 
scence) 



carma ? 

carmnikakuj^ha a type of leprosy 
caused by wind 
and phlegm.) 

cavya (Gavana) Piper chaba 

cavyacarana cf. previous 

csrigeri wood-sorrel 

cikitsa ther apeutics 

citra a kind of grass ? 



citraka 



Phembago 
Zeylanica 



for poison); 183.6 (as a remedy 
for rheumatism); 183.11 (use 
of the red variety); 184.24; 
185.13; 185.32; (as an ointment 
for eye diseases); 192.20 (used 
in oil); 192 26 (used for remo- 
ving poison); 202.28 (white and 
red varieties). 

I. 164.19 (symptoms of See 
below carmaikakustha. 
I. 202.47. 

I. 156.56 (caused by piles; des- 
cription of); 171 40 (use of 
instruments for). 
I. 202.47. 
I. 164.8 



T. 170.52 (as a remedy); 170.61 
(); 202.69. 

I. 169.1] (as a remedy). 
I. 169.13 (quality of). 
I. 168.24 (four sections of }', 
I. 183.5 (as a remedy for rheu- 
matism); see next. 
I, 169.11 (as a remedy for 
cough); 170.52; 170.62; 171.45; 
171.50 (for cold); 172.2 (for 
different diseases); 1 72.6; 1 74.4 
(for different diseases); 174.13 
(); 174. 17 (in taila for pains); 
174.19 (in taila for all diseases); 
175.9 (for all fevers); 177.66; 

181.4 (use of the root of); 

183.5 (for rheumatism); 1868 
(as an ointment for rheumatism); 



138 



GARUDA PURSISIA A STUDY 



Cirabilvaka Pongamia glabra 



cillaka 


a kind of pot-herb 


I. 173.19 (effe 
of). 


cullaka 


a live-place? 


I. ,191. 11 (the 
the uses of ). 


coca 


the bark of 


I. 202.20. 




cinnamon. 




coraka 


Trigonella 
corniculata 


I. 202.21. 


chatra 


Andropogon 
schoenanthus 


I. 202.41. 


chatraki 


Agaricus 
campestris ? 


I. 202-41. 


chardana, 
chardi 


causing vomi- 
tiorij vomiting. 


I. 147.4 (as an 
ged kapha) ; 1 70 



ch5ga 



186.14 (effect of taking it with 
water); 189.10 (the red variety; 
as a remedy for jaundice); 
192.1 (for different diseases); 
192.24 (,,); 192.45 (used in 
taila); 201.9 (used for healing 
the wounds of horses); 201.11 
(use of the cfmia of); 202.69. 

I. 202.80. 



3 varieties of; 



goat 



170.33 (); 170.34; 1 72.17 (); 
183.10 (); 183.11 (); 
190.32 (). 

(payah milk) I. 172.15 (for 
children); 177.14 (for certain 
eye disease). 177.33 (forgetting 
an aitractive face); 177,51; 
183.6; 183.8 (for apasmara); 
186.4 (for certain diseases); 
187.10 (in an ointment for 
eyes). 

mulra (urine) I. 177.15 (for 
certain eye disease). 177.82; 
181.9. 



APPENDIX 6 NAMES OF HERBS AND DISEASES IN G.P. 



139 



chinna 
chinnaruha 

chinna 
jathara 
jatharl 
jambhlra 



jambti(bu) 



jayantl(tika) 



jayS. 

jar5 (jarjara) 

jala,, toy a 



one of the 5 
kinds of cough. 
Clerodendrum 
phlomoides. 



citrus liinomim. 



Engenia jambo- 
lana. 



Sesbania aegyp- 
tiaca 



same as pnvious 
or Abutilon 
avicennae ? 

old age 



water 



I. 150.3. 

I. 202.33; 202.84. 

I. 202.84. 
see udara- 
sec pliha, 

I. 156.45 (aggravates the wind 
in piles); 169.20 (controls 
phlegm and wind); 171.46 
(effect of decoction of); 172.35 
(quality of ). 

I. 169.26 (the quality of the 
fruit of); 170.27 (used when 
there is discharge of blood); 
170.33 (used in decoction for 
vomitting); 173.19 (effect of 
decoclion of); 183.14 (the 
fruit of ; used in dhupa for all 
fevers); 190.23 (the use of leaf 
of); 192.47 (the 2 varieties of; 
used in taila for long standing 
wounds). 

T. 170.11 (as a remedy); 173.16 
(the quench the thirst in 
fever); 177.66 (use of the root 
of white kind of); 183.6 (used 
in decoction); 202.81. 

I. 202.81. 



I. 149,20-21 (the diseases of); 
174.11 (remedy for the diseas 
of). 

I, 169.67 (of a mountain 
sprin); 169.62; 172.36 (use of ) 
173.31 (use of hot); 175.11; 



140 



GARUDA-PURANA A 



jalajarnbu 



java=japS 



(dhataki) 



jati(ti) 



jaraka 
jaraoa 



a kind of 
jainbti (Eugenia 
jambolana). 

china rose 
(Hibiscus rosa 
sineusis). 

Wood fordia 
fioribunda 



Myristica frag- 
rans. 



asminum 
grandifiorum 



digestive 
digester 



175.13 (use of hot); 177.59 
used in the preparation of 
ointment); 177.61; 186,9 (to 
stop bleeding); 190.20 (for the 
well-being of the limbs); 
190.27 (as remedy for cold); 
191.13 (for the removal of 
poison); 191.21 (for the remo- 
val of pain); 192.25 (in the 
treatment of piles); 192.39 
(use of boiled); 

I. 202.11. 



I. 172.6 (the flower is used 
with water by women). 

I. 169.32 (to remove bad effects 
of kapka and pitta); 171.65 (to 
remove certain pain in 
women). 

1 7 1 ,49 (used in disease of ear) ; 
172-2 (for different diseases); 
173.16 (quality of); 17325 
(use of); 177.20 (the chewing 
of); 177.25 (use of curna of ),- 
184.30 (use of root of;; 190.30 
(for cough); 192.20 (its use in 
taila); 192.31 (.used in 
ointment). 

I. 171.59 (for eye disease); 
177.2U; 185.31 (). 
I. 179.1 (as an ointment for 
teeth). 

I. 372.29 (medical preparation 

known as). 

I. 173.7 (preparation known 

as). 



APPENDIX 6 NAMES OF HERBS AND DISEASES IN GP. 141 



jala 
jalim 



jihva 



jihvika 
junutaka 

jTraka 


a kind of fever ? 
LufFa foetida or 
a similar plant. 

Panicum 
miliaceuin 



jivaka 



jivasaka 
(=mesaka) 
jnanamana 
jyotis 

jyotismati 



jvara 



omentum ? I. 171.41 (a remedy for garda- 

bharoga a skin disease) 

a certain boils I. 159.12; 159.27 (symptoms 
appearing in the of), 
prarneha disease. 
Odina wodier I 177.18 (root used as remedy 

for piles); 190.2 (rasa, used 

as remedy for pain in arm and 

neck), 
tongue I. 182,14 (remedy for removing 

burning sensation in). 

I. 177.26 (remedy for). 

I. 172 36 (use of ); 202.59. 

I. 170.61 (use of); 177.54 (); 
192.24 (as remedy for different 
diseases); 193-1 (use of the 
curna of); 202.19 

one of the I. 202.52. 

principal drugs of 

astavarga Termi- 

nalia tomentosa or 

Goccinia grandis. 

a kind of portu- I, 202.52. 

laca plant 

? I. 202.80. 

fever manifest I. 147.3. 

in herbs (osadhi). 

Premna spinosa I. 172.6 (use of petal (dala) 
of); 172.34 (use of the taila 
of the root of); 173.16 (various 
qualities of). 174.9 (use of); 
174.18 (used in a taila). 177.30 
(use of the fruit of); 

fever I. 146.2 (as a synonym of 

vyadhi); 146.10 (the basis for 
the 8 fold classification of); 
147. 1 (symptoms of); 147.7 
(marks of a kind of); 147.8 



142 GARUDA PURA"^A A STUDY 



(,,); 147.11 (symptoms of a 
kind of); 147.19 (); 147.25 
(caused by fatigue by stages); 
147.28 (symptoms a kind of); 
147.30 (the dreadful type of ); 
147.32 (two broad-divisions of}; 
147.35(when contrary symptoms 
are manifest in); 147.39 
(curable or incurable depen- 
ding on the dosas) ; 147.40 
(form of a type of); 147.45 
(nature of); 147.46; 147.49 
(duration of ); 147.67 (descrip- 
tion of a kind of); 147.73 
(which becomes incurable); 

147.75 f called Haridrka); 

147.76 (description of noct- 
urnal); H7.77 (description of 
paurva rattika (relating to pre- 
vious night); 147.81 (symptoms 
of a type of); 147.82 (marks 
of control of); 170.1 (8 kinds 
of); 170,2 (remedy for); 170.3 
(); 170.5 (); 170.7 (); 
170.8 (); 170.9 (,,)j 170.10 
(J; 170.11 (); 170.12 U); 
170.24 (); 171.32 ( ); 171.36 
(); 171.51 (influence of fasting 
on); 172.16 (remedy for); 
172.18; 172.24 (preparation 
to be used when fever comes 
down); 173.17 (remedy for) ; 
173.20 (the decoction which 
used in excess causes); 175.2 
(fasting as first step in the 
treatment of); 175.3 (decoction 
for); 175.4 I,,); 175.7 (); 
175.8 (); 175.9 (); 175.10 
(); 175.11 (); 175.13 (due 



APPENDIX 6 NAMES OF HERBS AND DISEASES IN GP. 143 

to kapha and vata; hot water to 
be given for thirsty in); 175.14 
(decoction for); 175.15 (); 
175.17 (); 177.37 (); 177.39 
(); 177-40 (); 177.43 (remedy 
to remove burning sensation 
in a kind of fever); 180.10 
(inceuse for dakinl); 183.11 
(as a remedy in fever); 183 13 
(incantation remedy for); 
183.14 (inceuse for); 184.9 (in- 
cantation for); 185.34 (remedy 
for all types of); 188.11 (oint- 
ment for a kind of); 188.12 
(inceuse for); 189.5; 189.6 
(remedy for a kind of); 190.31; 
193.12 (remedy for); 193.15 
(inceuse for); 197.54. 
I. 202.4. 

I. 191.6 (remedy for the remo- 
val of poison due to). 

I. 169.44 (use of J; 170.19 (its 

use in piles); 173.7 (use of); 

177.49 (); 184.29; 184.30; 

184.31; 184.36; 185.24; 188.8; 

190.14; 192.13; 193.6; 201.10. 

I. 171.16 (use of); 171.17; 

174.9; 176.15; 177.12; 177.49; 

180.1; 182.14; 183.2; 191.17; 

192.21; 202,20; 202.56, 

I. 169.36 (quality of the 

waters of). 

I. 169.54; 170.54; 171.67; 

171 68; 17220; 1773; 177.32; 

1815; 182.28; 185.24; 185.25; 

185.27; 186.5; 188.9; 190.6; 

19032; 191.7; 191.8. 

Amaranthus I. 169.15 (to remove poison); 

polygonoides 171.68 (use of the root of); 



jhas5 

dinjdubha 

takra 



tagara 

ta(ta)d5ga 
tandula 

tandullya(ka) 



Uraria lago- 

podioides 

a kind of snake 

butter milk 



Tabernaemontana 
coronaria 



a pond 

rice (use of the 
waters of ) 



144 



tandra(a) 



PURS^IA A STUDY 



tamaka 
tarksrl 
tapya 

tambula 



fatigue, exhaus- 
tion 



a kind of cough 

(asthma) 

Sesbania 

aegyptiaca 

mineral substance 

obtained from 

Tapir. 

betel, arecanut 

etc. 

[Piper betle leaf 

etc.]. 



tala 

tikta (ka) , tikti 

tiktaghrta 
tiktaturabl 

tiktavallika 
tikta 



Borassus 
fiabelliformis 

a kind of laste 

(bitter) . 

ghee prepared 
with bitter herbs, 
a bitter gourd. 
[Lagenaria 
vulgaris) 
Sanseviera 
Roxburghiana 
name of a 
medicinal plant. 
See Monier 
Williams 



172.21; 177.2 184.29 (use of 
root of ); 191.7 (); 202.57. 
I. 147.6 fan effect of fever); 
147. 10 (one of the symptoms 
of fever due to deranged 
slesma and vfiyit)', 147.1 1 (in 
fever due to deranged slesma 
and pitta}; H7.17; 147.23. 
I. 150.3; 150.11. 

I. 169.11 (controls cough). 
I. 202.63 



I. 177.23. (remedy for sore- 
mouth due to); 191.12 (,,); 
177.63 (as a remedy); 178.1 
(as charm); 178.2 (.); 178.15 
( SJ ); 181.1 (as a remedy for 
eye-sore). 
1. 173.3 (quality of ). 

I. 173.17 (things which are). 
175.6 (use of); 177.22 (use of 
vegetable of the quality of); 

I. 171,33 (use of). 
I. 202.57. 



I. 202.18, 

I. 171.32 (use of decoction of) ; 
175.17 (); 202,20; 202.83. 

I. 202.48, 



APPENDIX 


6 .\AME5 OF HERBS AND DISEASES IN GP. 145 


tiktalavu 


cf. tikta tumbl 


I. 202.57. 




tintidiphala 


fruit of 


I. 169.23 (quality 


of) ; 1 73 6 




Tamarindus 


(use of). 






indica 






tinduka 


Diospyros 


I. 169.27 (use of); 


173.19 (); 




embryopteris. 


192.47 (). 




timira 


partial blindness. 


I. 147. 10 (as a syr 


nptom of a 



tiia 



tilaka 



tugs sksjrj 
19 



Sesamum indicum 



symplocos 
racemosa ? 



tabashir 
(bamboo manna) 



type of fever); 171.56 (remedy 
for); 171.57 (); 171.58 (); 
171.62 (); 177.3 (); 177.4 
(); 177.6 (); 177.7 (); 
177.11 (); 177.15 (); 185.33 
(); 192.41 (). 

I. 169.47 (use of the oil of); 
170.21 (use of); 173,22 (}; 
172.26 (); 176.16 (); 177.2 
(use of flowers of; in the treat- 
ment of disease of eyes); 177.55 
(use of oil of); 177.56 (use of); 
177.61 (use of oil of ); 177.73 
(use of) ; 1 78. 2 1 (use of oil of ) ; 
182.5 (use of); 182.1-6 {); 
184.7 (use of oil of ); 184.15 
(,,); 185 3 (merits of using the 
black variety in homa ; 185.4 
(merits of using in homa); 
185.29 (use of oil of); 185 31 
(); 186.1 (use of); 186 12 
(use of the black variety ofj; 
190.22. (use of); 191.23 (); 
201. 7; 201. 10. 

1.171.40. 177.66 (used as a 
chura); 178.7 ( ); 17&19 
(); 182.19 (); 185.9 ( ); 
185.10 (); 185.11 ( ); 
185,12 (). 
1.202.30. 



346 



GARU1?A PURAlvIA A STUDY 



fuijfjil- 

I'.Jn'ji 
tiunbir. 

tjtiyak; 



tt;n>!r,;i 
iiikaiu 



ika) 



ttipiita {^t'i 



momordica 
monadelpha 
a kind of gourd? 
;nbl the gourd 

lagenaria vulgaris 
a kind of fever 
tertian). 

thiist 



1.202.81. 

1.202.81. 

L172.4 (fruit of; use of). 181.8. 



sansaviera 
Roxburghiana? 
oil 



1. 147.43; 14756 (nerves 
affected by); 170.6 (remedy 
for); 170.7 ( ); 
1.147.11 (as a symptom of a 
kind of fever); 147.16 (); 
147.23 (); 170.43 (remedy 
for); 173.31 (); 183.11 (.,}. 
1202.18. 

1,169.62; 173.25; 173.28; 173. 
31; 174.1; 174.12; 174.18; 
174.19; 174.23; 176.6; 176.11; 
177.19; 177.33; 177.42; 177.75; 
182.10; 184.21; 187.9; 
192.6; 1927; 192.9; 



179.8; 
191.16 
192.11 



192.12; 192.13; 192.14; 



192.22; 192.30; 192.42; 192.46; 
192.48; 193.7; 201. 14; 201 .18; 
201.32. 



coloquintida and 1.169.19 (effect of), 
other cucumbers 



the three spices 
(black and long 
pepper and dry 
ginger). 
Asteracantha 



1-171.59; 172.2fi; 177.7; 182.26 
185.27; 185.31; 193.1; 193.4. 



1,170.55 (used as a remedy). 



the 3 spices 1.202.68. 

(mace, cardomons 

and cinnamon) 

a kind of pulse 

'lathyrus sativus) 

or elottaria 

cardamomum 



1.202.47; 202.70. 



APPENDIX 6 NAMES OF HERBS AND DISEASES IN GP, 147 

triphala the 3 rayrobolans I. 167.57 (as a remedy fur all 

(fruits of termi- diseases) ; 167.58 (uScjol'i 167 60; 
170.24; 170.33; 170.34; 170.4h 
170.47; 170.48; 170.52; 17U. 



nalia chebula, T 
Bellerika, and 
phyllanthus 
Emblica 



iribrt 

tribhangl 

trivrt 

trisugandhi 
(=jata) 

tryahika 
tryusajj.a 
(=trikatu) 

tvac 



darhib (ka) 
da:ndapatanaka 



57; 170.58; 170.72; 
171.2; 171.4: 171.7, 
171.12; 171.22; 171.23; 171.28; 
171.31; 171.32; 171.37; 371.30: 
171.42; 171.44; 171.45: 17.5*; 
171.56: 171.57; 171.58; 171.59; 
172.26; 172.27; 172.40: 173.19. 

171.14; 175.8; 175,1!; 

(?): 176-8; 176.9; 

177.83; 181.3; I'2.'J3: 



184.4; 184.11; 181.H: 
185. 2S; 185.31 ; UJ5J1: 
190.11; Jyu.Jl; 
19J.3; 19U.13; 



17-1.4: 

175.17 

177.7; 

183.5; 

185.20; 

186.9; 187.7; 

192.2; 192.39 

201.12; 201.18; 201.25; JU.3.'!; 

202.26. 
cf trivrt? I- 170.24 (as a remedy) 

? I. 202.47. 

Ipomoea I. 170.49 (as a remedy .- 19J- 

Turpethum 26; 193.8; 202. i7. 

the 3 spices (mace, I. 202.68. 
cardamoms and 

cinnamon 

I. 189.13 (charm tor aii'- <>-,' 
I. 170.21 (effect oi'}- 17ii.i2 
(use of;; 182.25; I"-' -'^ 
192.40; 19243;20J.13. 
I 170.74 (decoction of;; 17U.78 
(use of); 171.30; 183.1 :18U3 
(use of the leaf of), 185.^. 
202.20; 202. t>a. 

I, 191.5 (reim-dy for i!>o hit*- 
of); 191.9 {). 
I. 166.40 



fever 

see trikatu 



bark; 
cinnamon. 



a common fly. 



a type of rheu- 
matism 



J48 



GARUDA PURStf A A STUDY 



dadru 



dad hi 



a kind of loprosy 



curd 



danta 



dantl (tika) 
dardura 



dastaka 



tooth 



croton 

polyandrum 

frog 



daiarnula (ll) the ten. roots 



both kinds of 
brhatl, prthak- 
parni, vidari- 
gandha, bilva, 
agnimanthaj tup 
tuka, pa^ala 
kasmarl] 
p 

punica 

granatum 



daru (deva Pinus deodara 

daru ?) (Gedrus 'deodar a) 



I. 164.9; 164.10; 16424 
(symptoms of); 171.19 (oint- 
ment for); 171.20; 190.11; 190. 
13; 192.29, 

I, 169.42 (quality of); 171.57; 
171.65: 172.21; 173.7; 182.1; 
182.22; 182.25; 184.4; 186.1; 
187,5; 188.4 (of buffalo; use of); 
193.8; 201 10. 

I. 171.45 (remedy for ache of); 
1 73.8; 1 77.20 (remedy to streng- 
then); 177.22 (remedy for 
wounds of); 177.28 (remedy to 
remove the infection of); 177.29 
(remedy which prevents the 
shaking of;; 177.31; 179.1; 
179.2; 181.10; 184.31; 185.37; 
189.2; 191.21; 192.19; 201.35. 
I. 17 1.1 4 (use of fruit of) 186.8 
(use of); 202.32. 
I. 191.19 (remedy for the 
poison due to). 

I. 170.42 (use of the decoction, 
of) 171.64 (}; 172.12 (); 
173.22 (use of); 174.15 (). 



I. 202.83. 

I. 169.20 (effect of); 169.59 

(); 172.35 (use of); 173.6(,,); 

176 17 (); 177.17 (use of the 

flower of); 202,45 

I. 170.42 (use of decoction of); 

170.58 (,,jj 171.53 (in oint- 



APPENDIX 6 NAMES OF HERBS AND DISEASES IN GP. 149 



dSrunis'a 
dSrvT 

daha 



dahaslula 
digbhraraa 

dTpana 



dipyaka 
dlrghavrnta 
dull, spar^a 
( = duralabha) 
dugdha 



ment); 179.6; 192,15; 202.77. 
see darvi and devadaruka. 

a species of 1. 202,32. 

curcuma. 

Curcuma Aroma- I. 170.58 (use of decoction of); 

ticaor 170,72 (effect of); 170.78 (); 

Xanthorrhiza. 171. 52 (use in ointment). 

burning sensa- I. 147.24 (fever caused by); 

tion 147.27 (caused by inhalation 

of poison); 147.28 (a symptom 
of a fever); 147.31 (precedes a 
fever); 177.36 (remedy for); 
183.11 (); 173.13 (things 
whose excess use cause). 
I. 170.47 (remedy for). 
I. 14 7-31 (precedes a feverj. 

I. 16820; 168.21; 168.45 (the 
roots of 5 herbs which are); 
170.44; 170.61; 173.13; 173,17 

a species of plant I. 202.18, 

Colosanthes Indica I. 202.26. 

Alhagi Maurorum I. 202.54 



internal heat ? 
perplexity 

digestive, stimu- 
lating 



duralabha 

(duhspar^a) 

durgandha 



milk I. 17212; 177.29; 177.39; 

184.18; 185.19; 187.3; 190.25; 
191.9; 191. 11; 201.20. 

Alhagi Maiirorum 1.175.4 (decoction of); 175.5; 
(use of); 178.21 (); 202.54 

bad smell I. 192.23 (remedy for). 

synonym of I. 146.2. 

disease (vySdhi) 

durva PanicumDactylonl. 164.23 (a kind of farffo 

resembles); 170.78 (use of;; 
171.29 (); 172.6 (); 172.17 
(); 173.23 (); 177.17 ()] 
184 17 (used in charm); 190.13 
(use O f); 190.23 (); 190.32 
(); 201 23 (use of; in the 
treatment of horses). 



150 


GARUDA PURAlsIA A STUDY 


devakastha 


Pinus Devadaru 


I. 170.2 (use of); 202.77 




or some other 






wood. 




clevatudaka 


Lipeocercis 


I. 202.59. 




S errata 




dcvoxlSru (ka 


) Pinus Devadaru 


I. 173.12 (use of); 174.8; 






175.11; 176.11; 180.2; 183.2 






183.6 (used in decoction); 






185.35 (use of curna of); 






191.22; 192.8; 192.26; 193.S 






193.6; 202.77. 


dof-a 


disorder of the 


i. 146.5 (the "disease remains 




humouis 


lodged with the characteristic); 






147.8 (the advance of which 






after 8 days as characteristic 






of a fever). 


dravanti 


Anthcricum 


I. 173.15 (use of). 




Juberosuni 




urakba 


vine (Vitis 


i. 173.2 (quality of); 169.29 




vinifera) 


(effect of); 193.11 (as a 






remedy); 193.12 (); 193.13 






(); 202.30. 


dravaya 


distillation 


I. 202.43. 


druniatvac 


tree bark or bark 


I. 171.30 (use of) 




of Erythriria 






Indica. 




dvijaya ? V- = 
',ya-,v's rnadhu 


liquorice ? 
?} tGIycyrrhiza 
glabra) 


I. 186.5 (the root of which is 
used as remedy for swelling in 
neck). 


dhanakrt 


? 


I. 202.41. 


dfaanya (ka), 
dhanyaka 


Coriandrum 
Sativum 


I. 169.32 (as a remedy); 170.2; 
170.14; 170.52; 171.35; 175.8; 






175.9; 177.19; 177.21; 183.11; 


dhanvayasa 


Alhagi Mauro- 


192.24; 193.6. 
I. 202.54. 


I >av sa] 


rum ef. Fagonia 






Arabica 




dhanvi 






dMtaki 


P 

Grislea Tornen- 


I. 202.8. 

1- 179..^ fii cdi^ -J ,~..M\. ini irt 



APPENDIX 6 NAMES OF HERBS AND DISEASES IN G.P. 151 



dhatu 



dhatukab'l= 

("knsTsa) 

dhntrl 



dhanya 
dhamam 
dhamargavah 
dhusttira (ka) 

dhupa 
dhfima 



naktamala 

( karanja) 

nakhi 

nata (=tagara) 

nadl 

nadikrfmtl 
(nadlkSnta ?) 
nandlvrksa 
(= tagara) 



tosa 

an essential 

ingredient of the 

body 

red-sulphate of 

iron 

Emblica 

officinalis 



grain 

Hemionitis 
Cordifolia 
Luffa foctida 
or a similar plant 
thorn apple 
(Datura Alba, 
Nus;orD. nilhum- 
matu) 

an incense 



smoke 



see karanja 



(use of the flower of); 182.7 
(use of); 184-.15 (); 202.27. 
I. 173.28 (remedy for the 
decline of); 174.7. 

I. 202.62. 

I. 170,31 (use of the black 
variety of ); 170.45 (.,); 170.55; 
170.58; 171.20; 171,25; 171.26; 
171.31; 171.52; 172.7; 172.13; 
172.24; 172.26; 202.25. 
I. 159.14 (newly harvested; as 
a cause ofprameka), 
I. 202.5 

I. 172.37 (use of); 202.58. 

I. 170.69 (use of); 177.19 (use 
of); 180.9 (); 184.2Q (use of 
the flower of); 184.21 (use of 
the plant of); 191.20. 

I. 177.84 (use of); 17820 (of 
a flower, as a charm); 180.10; 
184.6; 184.22; 185.14 (as a 
charm); 193. 15 (as a remedy.) 
I. 190.30 (of certain herbs; the 
inhalation as a remedy). 
I. 202-10; 202,41. 
I. 202.80. 



Unguis Odoratus 1. 192.21 (use of). 

See tagara I. 202,20. 

river I. 169.36 (qualities of the waters 

of). 

I. 202.42. 



Eugenia Jambo- 
lana ? 
see tagara 



I. 202.9 (qualities of). 



152 

nayana 
naiad am san a 
navanlta 



GARUI?A PURS^A A STUDY 



nasya 



nagake&ara 
(or naga) 

nagapuspa 



nftgabala 
nagara (rl) 

nagaraaga 
nagesvara 

nadi (dJ) 
nadiea 
nadeyl 
nabhi 



eye 
p 

butter 



sternutator y 



Mesua Roxbur- 
gh ii. or M. 
ferrea 
name of several 

plants, cf. 

nagake.ara 

uraria Lagopodi- 

oides 

dry ginger (zingi- 
ber officinalej 



Citrus 
Aurantium 
cf. nagakesara. 



a fistulous sore ? 

colocasia 
artiquorum 

? 

navel 



I. 177.6 (ointment for). 

I. 202.77. 

I. 169.43 (use of ); 177.56 (of a 

buffalo; use of); 178.23 (}; 

180.7 (); 182.2 (>; 182.8 (); 

182.22; 184.2; 186.12; 187.11; 

190.3 (of a buffalo; use of); 

190.4; 190.16 ,of a buffalo; use 
of). 

I. 172. 30 (one of the five kinds 

of treatment); 170.4 (use of); 

177.18 (); 177.56 (); 177.65 

I. 178.1 (used as a charm); 

202.22; 202.68. 

I. 180,1 (use of incense of). 



I. 175.12 (use of cQnja of); 
185.19(useof);190.4(, 3 };2024; 

202.50. 

I. 170.2 (use of); 170.11 (); 

170.12 (.,); 170.22 (}; 170.32 
(); 170.42 (); 170.53 (}; 
170.55 (}; 172.39; 375.12 (); 

192.13 (); 192.15 (); 202.69. 
I. 169.20 (quality of the fruit 
of;; 172.35 (effect of )- 

I. 176.11 (use of); 185. 1 3 (used 
in incense as a charm); 19i.22 
(use of). 

I. 171.1 (remedy for); 171.2 
{); 171.3; 171.23; 188.3; 188.4 

1.169.14 (quality of) 

1.202.11 (another name of 

Jalajambfi). 

1.172.10 (an ointment for); 

172.15 (remedy for swelling 



APPENDIX 6 NAMES OF HERBS AND DISEASES IN GP. 153 



narikela 



cocoanut (cocos 
nucifera) 



women 



nalika 
nidana 



lotus flower ? 
symptoms 



nidigdhika 



nidra 



small cardomoms 
(solanum 
Jacquini) 
sleep 



of); 182.27 (ari ointment for); 
193.10 (remedy for pain in). 

1.169.28 (quality of); 173-3; 
( ,. ) ; 189.12 (use of the flower 
of). 

1. 160.33 (effect of deranged 
vata (wind) in); 170.60 
(remedy for certain diseases 
of); 172.10 (remedy for easy 
child-birth for); 177.66 (a 
charm for); 180.8 (prescription 
for making them strong); 
182.27 (an ointment for easy 
child birth for); 189.3 (remedy 
for certain disease of). 
I. 169.11 (as a remedy); 
1.146.1; 146.3 (of a disease; 
the five constituents of ); 146.4 
(synonym of); 146.13 (descrip- 
tion of); 147.5; 148.1 (of 
raktapitta); 150.1 (of svasaroga); 
151.1 (of hikkaroga}; 152.1 (of 
yaksmanga] ; 153.1 (of arocaka); 
154.1 (of hrdroga); 155.1 (of 
madatyiaya}; 156.1 (of arsas); 
157.1 (of atisara and grahanl}; 
158.1 (of mutrnghata); 159.1 
(of prameha]; 160.1 (of mdradhi) ; 
161.1 (of udararoga}\ 162.1 
(of pandusotha}', 163.1 (of 
visarp&di}; 166.1 (of vS.tavyS.dhi); 
167.1 (ofvatarakta). 
I. ] 70.56 (use of the juice (rasa) 
of); 202.5. 

1.147.12 (in day, as a symptom 
of a kind of fever); 147.13 
(always or not at all as a 
symptom) ; 147.28 (loss of sleep 



154 



ba 



GARUQA PURAJilA A STUDY 

as a symptom of particulai 
fever); 177.41 (anasya which 
induces); 177.42 ( ,, ). 

Azadirachta 1.167.59 (use of leaf of); 170. 

Indica 47 (use of); 170.71 (use o! 

leaf of); 171.6 (used as a 
remedy); 173.8; 171.13; 
171.28; 171.31 (used in 
decoction); 171.46; 171.54; 
171.59; 172-33; 173.16; 174.4; 
174.13; 175.8; 175.11; 175.15; 
177.4 (use of the leaf of); 
177.63 (use of the root of): 
177.65 (use of the leaf of); 

178.8 (use of leaf as a charm); 
178.19 (use of; as a charm); 
178.22 (use of the smoke of 
stick of); 179.9 (use of the loaf 
of); 183.19 (use of the leaf 
of); 185.31 (use of the leaf 
of); 188.10 (use of the leaf of ); 

190.9 (,/; 191.21 (use of tho 
decoction of the bark of); 
192.31 (use of the leaf of); 
193.4 (use ofj; 193.6 (); 
201.6 (use of leaf of ); 20110 
(); 201.11 (,,); 201.12 (}; 
201.38 (}; 202. 84. 



usruha 



enema not of 
oily kind. 

Vitex Negundo 



baldness 



I. 172.42 (on the administra- 
tion of). 

I. 169.11 (use of ; ; 169.59 (}; 
170.28 (); 170.68 (on the use 
of the root of); 170.76; 17I.S; 
174.4; 174.13; 184.9; 184.35; 
202.37; 202.81. 
1.185.35. See khalvata. 



Curcuma longa I. 170.58 (use of); 171.19 (}; 
H2 !?(); 172.21 ()*, 17420; 



APPENDIX 6 NAMES OF HERBS AND DISEASES IN G.P. 155 



the 2 kinds of); 192.31 (use 
of). 



niskvatha 


decoction 


I. 172.22. See also kvatha. 


nisy and aria 


an oil to drip 


I. 174.18 (use of). 


laila 


down 




mra 


water 


I. 177.13; 193.13 (effect of hot). 


nlla 


Indian fig tree ? 


I. 171.65 (use of); 202.37; 






202.50 (nllavarna). See nili. 


nilameha 


a kind of urinary 


I. 159.24 (symptoms of). 




disease 




nilavalll 


Vanda Roxbur- 


I. 202.33. 




ghti 




nilika 


fever manifest in 


I, 147.3. 




water 




nlll (Hka) 


Indigo plant 


I. 170.38; 171.41; 176.8; 176.9; 






177 11; 177.15; 177.28 (use of 






decoction of); 191.8 (use of 






the root of) . 


nilotpala 


blue lotus 


I, 178.6 (use of the incanse 






of); 178.15 (as a charm); 






181.5 (as a remedy); 202.39. 


nlvara 


rice grown 


I. 169.3 (use of) 




without culti- 






vation 




netra 


eye 


I. 147.19 (cause of redness in); 



nalpali 


fruit of wild date 




tree ? 


nyagrodha 


Ficus Indica 


(vata) 




pakSghala 


a kind of 




rheumatism 



171.53 (external application 
for the diseases of ); 17155 
(decoction for the diseases of); 
171.58 (remedy for the diseases 
of); 171,60 (); 177,12. (oint- 
ment for the diseases of ); 177-12 
(remedy for all diseases of); 
177.13 (); 179.11 (); 202.62 
() 
I. 202.64. 

I. 170,72 (use of); 202.7. 
I. 166.37. 



156 

pankaparpati 

pancakarma 
paficakola 

paucamula (li) 
patala 

patola (h) 



patras"oka 
patranga 



patrl 

pathya 
padma (kaj 

panasa 



GARUQA PURAiitA- A STUDY 

? paiika, parpatf I, 202.63, 

(a kind of fragrant 

earth ?) 

the five kinds of I. 172.30. 

treatment in 

medicine 

the 5 spices (long I. 170.21 (use of); 202.69 

pepper, its root, 

Piper chaba, 

plumbago and 

dry ginger) 

bilva and others 

(the five roots) 

cataract, a film 

over the eyes. 



Trichosanthes 
Dioeca 



Gaesalpinia 

Sappan (red 

sandors) 

any thin leaf or 

plate of metal or 

gold ? 

xvholesome diet 
lotus 



Artocarpus 
Integrifolia 



I. 171.50; 175.14 (use of decoc- 
tion of ). 

I. 177.4 (remedy for); 177.15 
(); 185.33 (); 185.35 (}; 
189.1 (,,); 192.41. 

I, 169.17 (use of); 171. 6 ()> 
171.13 (); 171.28 (); 171.32 
(); 171.38 (); 171.41. (); 
171.46 (); 173.24 (); 175.8 
(use of leaf of); 175.11 (use of); 
175.17 (); 179.11 (); 192.31 
(use of leaf of); 192.39 (use of ) 
193.6 (}; 201,11 () 201.12; 
202.84. 
I. 202.45. 
I. 179.1 (use of) 



I. 202.24. 



I. 169.33; 172.33 (things which 
are); 202.25. 

I. 169.15 (use of the leaf of), 
173.24 (quality of ); 174.5 (); 
181.5 {); 183.11 (); 192.22. 
I. 169.28 (quality of). 



APPENDIX 6 NAMES OF HERBS AND DISEASES IN GP. 157 



payah. 



milk 



parinSma 
(arti, sola) 
parkati 
parrii (leaf of 
pala^a ?) 
parpata (tf) 
ka (ka). 



pain due to 
indigestion, colic 
Ficus Infectoria 
Butea Frondosa 

a red colouring 
Oldenlandia 



palankasa (sa) name of various 

plants (Astera- 
cantha Longi- 
folia etc.). 



palarjdu 
pala^a. 



an omon 
(Allium Cepa) 
Butea Frondosa 



pallava (ka) 
pavana 

pakala 

pScana(ka) 
patalS 



twigs 

wind (one of 

the 3 homours in 

the body). 

the fever raa.nl 

fest in 

elephant. 

digestive 

medicine 

Bignonia 

Suaveolens 



I. 170.65 (use of); 170.66 (); 
171,60 (); 172.25 (); 172.33 

(); isi.i (); isi 10 (); 

184.13 (); 18429 (); 192.37 
(,Jl 192.38 (); 193.8; 201.18 
(use of; in the treatment of 
horses). 

I. 170.48 (remedy for); 182.6 
, (); 1 85.20 ()- 
I. 202.8. 

I. 192.5 (use of decoction of); 
192.8 (used in oil); 202.36. 
I. 170.11 (use of); 170.13 (); 
171.31 (); 171.36 (); 175.4 
(); 175,5 (); 175.9 (); 
175.13(,,); 175.15( 3 ,); 192.39. 
I. 202.23; 202.78. 



I. 193.1 (use of). 

I. 170.69 (use of); 171 56 (use 
of the roots of); 177.15 (use of), 
178.27 (use of seeds of); 186.11 
(use of ) ; 1 87. 1 (use of the leaf 
of); 187.11 (use of the seeds of); 
189.5 (use of the roots of); 
192.7 (use of). 

I. 171.46 (from the five trees; 
use of); 1725 (). 
I. 147.9 (effect of the deranged); 
147.255 147.34; 150.3; 150.6; 

151.4; 156.49; 160.16; 160.30. 

I. 147.3. 



the 



I. 170.2; 173,7; 173.10. 

1.168.46 (use of the root of) 
192,4. 



158 

paths. 



pad a 

padadaha 
padharsa 

papma 
p5ma 



parada 
pSrSvata 

paribhadraka 

pSrulyamulaka 
partha 



GA.RUIJA PURA^A. A STUDY 

Glypea Herna- I. 170.11 (use of ); 171.44 (); 

ndifolia 172.10 (); 175.17 (); 177.59 

(use of root of ); 183,2 (use of ); 

189.19 (use of root of); 193.12 

(use of ). 

jaundice I. 162.14- (symptoms of); 

162.8; 162.18; 162.19; 162.28; 
170.23 (remedy for); 171.67 
(); 184.29 (); 186.4 (); 
190.26 (); 192.3 {). 
foot 1.177.51 (an ointment for; to 

remove heat). 

burning sensa- I. 166.53 (as an indication of 
tion in the feet a rheumatic disease). 
a kind of rheu- I. 166.52. 
matism (numb- 
ness of the foot) 
synonym of vyadhi. I. 146.2 
synonym of I. 147.1 

jvara 

scab (a kind of I. 164.9; 164.27 (symptom of); 
mild-leprosy). 171.3 (remedy for); 171.29 (); 

183.15 (); 190.13 (); 190.16 
(); 192.29 {); 193.7. 

quick-silver I. 202.65. 

a pigeon I. 185.24 (use of the eyes of) 

185.16 (use of the excreta of). 
I. 192.4 (use of). 



palankl 

pS|aijabliedaka 
(bheda) 



Erythrina 

Fulgens 
? 

Terminalia 
Arjuna 
pain in the 
side (pleurisy) 

Beta Benga 
1 crisis. 

Plectranthus 
scutellarioides 



I. 171.47 (use of). 
I. 202.8. 

I. 192.10 (remedy for) 

I. 169.16 (use of); 173.19 (). 

I- 170.54 (use of); 176.6 (): 
202.34. 



APPENDIX 6 NAMES OF HERBS AMD DISEASES IN GP. 159 

picuka Vangueria 1.202.71. 

spinosa 

pinjata the mucus or I. '1 77,6 (remedy for the con- 

excretion of the trol of); 177.10. 
eyes 

pidaka carbuncle (small I. 159. 1 2 ( 10 kinds of); 159 31 

boil, pimple), (cause for certain kinds of); 

pitta biles; one of the I. 146.17 (causes for the 

humours. derangement of); 147.9; 

147.11 (symptoms of fever due 
to); 147.16; 147.21 (a kind of 
fever caused by the derange- 
ment of); 147.22-23; 147.29; 
147.37; 147.18; 14756 (head- 
ache caused by); 147.76; 
147.78; 147.79; 148.2 (the 
reason for the derangement of) ; 
148.9; 149.1; 149.7 (effect of): 
152.5; 152.16; 154.4 (symptom 
of disease of the heart due to 
deranged); 154.03 (); 154.8; 
169.14 (things, the consump- 
tion of which cause); 172.36 
(,,); 155.10 (as a cause of dise- 
ase); 155.13 (); 155.2!; 156.9; 
156.22; 156.27 i(description of 
piles due to deranged); 156,34 
(symptoms of piles due to) 
15657; 157.22; 1585; 158.7; 
158.13; 158.35; 158.37; 15838; 
159.1 (6 kinds of parmcha caused 
by); 159.10 (symptoms of 
mtka caused by); 159.16; 
159.31; 159.37; 160.8 (symp- 
toms of abscess due to) ; 
160.44 ( ); 160.11; 160.12; 
160.25; 160.51; 168.4-5 (causes 
for the enragement of); 163 IB; 
168.33; 170.74 (remedy for); 



160 GAUUIJA PURA~IVIA A STUDY 

171.66 (} 172.38 ( ); 
173.26; 173.31; 177.36 (reme- 
dy for fever caused by); 
177.45 (); 183.11 () 
184.37; 190.17; 201.8; 201,18; 
201.21; 201.26. 

pippall piper longum 1.169.1 1 (effect of ); 169.30 (); 

; = tiLjiiatar.itfula) 170.20 (as a remedy); 170.24 

(); 170.32 ( ); 170.50 ( ); 
170.63 (>; 170.65 (); 
171.33 (use of); 171.34 ( ); 
171.36 (); 171.58 (); 171.63 

( ); 172.29; 173.23 (effect of); 

1746 (use of); 175.9 (); 

175.15 (use of the roots of); 

176.15 (use of); 177.2 ( ); 

177.12 (); 177.24 (); 

177.34; 177.37; 177.46; 17767; 

179.9; 181.3 (use of); 181.4 

( ); 182.4; 182.22 (use of); 

183.2 (use of); 183.16 ( ); 

183.17 () 184.2 (,/); 

184 -12 (); 184.34 (); 

185.36 (use of ); 186.14 (); 

188 11 ( ); 190.3 ( ); 190.28 

(,. ); 190.31 ( ); 192.2 (use 

of the root of); 192.24 (use of); 

I92 - 35 ( ); 192.47; 193.11 
(use of); 193.13 (effect of ); 

nitakaa 201.11; 202.12; 202.69. 

Pit* M I> 202 ' 38 ' 

pHik!/ L202 ' 35 - 

t' 5 -> cold Z V 202 ' 32 - 

vOlU 7 -I en 10 / 

A - 134.14 (as a symptom of) 
pulmonary consumption); 

171.50 (remedy for); 18L3 
(); 185.34 (,j ; 190.2 (). 
I- 202.81. 
I. 202.4 



APPENDIX 6 NAMES OF HERBS AND DISEASES IN GP. 161 



(samjfia) 

pundarlka 

putrinl 



punarnavcl 



pura 
purlsa 



puskara 



puspa 



(kasisa) 

puspagarbha 
puga 

pQtika 
ptirvarupa 



fold ? 

a kind of leprosy 
one of the 10 
kinds of prameha, 
(carbuncle) 
Boerh avia 
Procumbens 



(parnika) 
prs^ha^Qla 
21 



excrement 



Nelumbium 
speciosum (blue 
lotus) 
flower 



a disease of the 
eye 

green or black 
sulphate of iron 
in women, 
arecanut ^Areca 
Catechu). 
Basella Rubra 
incubative stage 
(symptom, of 
occurring disease) 
Hemionitis 
Gordifolia 
pain in the back. 



I. 202.70. 

I. 164.9; 164.26 (symptoms of ). 
I. 159.12; 15929 (symptoms 
of); 159.30 difficult to endure). 

I. 167.59 (use of); 170.46 (); 

170.65 (); 173.16 (); 17321 

(); 174.4(,,); 184.12 (); 

184.17 (); 190.6 (use of the 

root of white variety of ); 191.1 

(); 192.5 (use of); 192,9 (); 

192.43 (); 193.11 G,}; 202-3. 

I. 202.23; 202.78. l 

I. 177.70 (used as an evil 

charm); 190,21 (of a buffalo; 

use of). 

I. 173.2 (quality of the seed of ); 

175,12 (use of); 202.54- (the 

root of). 

I. 17161 (use of a variety of ); 

178.20 (use of incause of); 

182.19 (used as carm); 185.17 

(any five of red colour; used as 

charm); 202-66 (rasa). 

I. 177 .4 (remedy for); 185.33 

() 

I. 202,62. 

I. 178.27 (remedy for). 

I. 171.56 (use of); 186.7 (}; 

192.20 () 

I. 202.80. 

1. 146.3 ^one of the five essential 

categories in respect of 

disease). 

I. 168.47 (use of the root of); 

170.11 (use of); 170.13 (). 

I. 185.21 (remedy for). 



162 



pratimaisa 



pratibySya 
pratyakpuspi 

pratyaya 
prapunnndaka 

pram eh a 

pralepaka 
pravapana 

prasara (ri) nl 
prah3ra 

prakrta 
pragrupa 



praci 
pnyaagu 



GARL1?A PURAfsIA A STUDY 



one of the 
pancakarma in 
ayurvcda. (a kind 
of powder used as 
sternutatory ?) 
catarrh 
Achyranthes 
Aspera 

a synonym of 
nidana 

Cassia Tora or 
Cavir Alata. 

urinary disease 



I. 172.30. 



I. 171.51 (subdued by fasting). 
I. 202.51. 

I. 146.4 

I. 171.20 (use of the seed of). 

I. 158.4; 159.1 (symptoms of ); 
159.12; 159.15; 159.32; 172.3-1 
(remedy for); 186.1 ( ,., ). 
I. 147.73 (.symptoms of). 

I. 172.30. 



a kind of hectic 
or slow fever 
one of the 
paiicakarman 
in ayurveda. 
(scattering) 

Paederia Foetida I. 174.13 (use of the rasa of ); 

192.4 (use of J. 
a cut, a wound 1.177.57 (remedyfor); 177.61 

(remedy for pain due to); 

188.1 (remedyfor). 
a type of fever I. 147.33; 147.36 (description 

of). 

I. 146.4 (marked by the 

symptoms of a disease). 



genesis of a 
disease 
(previous 
symptom of ) 



Panicum 
Italicum 



I. 202.42. 

I. 169.3 (use of); 178.li (used 
in charm); 178.19 ( J} ); 179.5 
(use of); 180.1 ( ); 185.17 
(used in charm); 192.21 (use 
of); 193.4 ( ); 202.70; 
202,79. 



APPENDIX 6-NAMES OF HERBS AND DISEASES 
priyala (ka), 
priyals 



IN GP. 



163 



pliha 



phalafrika 

phalini 

phalguka 

phStjita 



badara (ri) 



badhira 



b'arhin 



bala 



bahupatra 



bahuvara 



the tree 
Buchanania 
Latlfolia 

spleen 



I. 169.27 (quality of); 172.35 
( ); 173.3 ( ); 170.27 (use 
of). 

I. 148.4; 170.62 (remedy for 
disease of); 170.64 (); 183.16 
(); 183,18 (); 184.36 (); 
190.5 (); 192.3 (); 192.46 
( i, ); 193.10 (remedy for pain 
in). 

See triphala. 
See priyarigu. 
I. 180.6 (use of). 



Ficus Opposite- 
folia. 

molasses (inspis- I. 169.51 (effect of). 
sated juice of 
sugarcane) 

Zizyphus Jujuba I. 



deaf 
peacock 

Grataeva 
burghti 



Rox- 



name of 

plants. 

Gordia 



many 



169.27 (effect of); 170.27 
(use of); 172.4 (use of the leaf 
of); 173.23 (use of); 177.9 
(use of the root of); 190.30 
(use of inceuse of); 192.48 
(used in decoction); 193.13 (use 
of). 

I. 174.10 (remedy for); see also 
badhirya. 

I, 193. 14 (use of the excrement 
etc, of). 

I. 170.11 (use of j; 170.14(); 
170.46 (); 173.2 (quality nf); 
173.21 (the use of two kinds 
of); 174.4 (the use of); 174.5 
(); 174.3 (}; 184.33 (J; 
190.29 (use of the root of); 
192.5 (used in decoction); 
192.8 (use of); 192.21 (>,); 
202,42. 
I. 202.44. 



Myxa I. 202.40. 



Iu4 
bakucl 

badhirva 



bsla, ixllaka, 
hala 



b:.lm 
bShuka 

bahiistambha 



GARUDA PUR Alii A A STUDY 



bibhTtaka, 
baibhitaka 

bilva(ka) 



Cyamopsis 

Psoralipides 

deafness 



name of 
plants. 



many 



arm 

a kind of rheu- 
matism 
numbness 
in the arm 
a kind of rheu- 
matism 
cat 



Aegle Marmelos 



bTjafca ? 
Citrus Medica 

nourishing food 



I. 184.31 (use of the root of ). 

I 19214 (remedy for); 192.10 
(); 192.45 (); 201.22 (of 
horses; remedy for). 
I. 173.23 (use of); 174.14 (); 
174.17 (,,); 177.21 (); IBO.U 
(>; 188. 3 (use of the root of); 

202.10 (fruit of). 

I. 190.2 (remedy for pain in). 
I. 166.41 (cause of). 

I. 176.16 (remedy for). 

See also bhujaslatnbha. 

I. 166.48 (also called Znts- 

tambha; remedy for). 

I. 178.9 (use of the blood of); 
193.14 (use of the excrement 
of). 

I. 178.4 (use of the root of ); 
185.33 (use of); 190.23 (.,); 
193.12; 202.25. 

I. 168.46 (use of the root of ); 
169.12 (effect of); 169.27 (); 

170.11 (); 175.14 (use of); 
177.11 (use of); 177.74 (); 
180.1 (); 184.12 (); 186.12 
(use of the fruit of); 190.32 
(use of the root of); 192.4 (use 
of); 202.73 (fruit of); 205.48 
(use of). 

I. 202.35. 
I. 169,24 
(use of ). 

I. 169.62 (to be used with 

flesh). 

T - 167.59 (use of); 1 68,47 (use 
of the root of); 170.2 (use of 
the 2 kinds of); 170-46 (); 
174,4 (use of); 176.15 (); 



(effect of), 176.8 



APPENDIX 6 NAMES OF HERBS AND DISEASES IN GP. 165 

176.17 (use of the fruit of); 
177.35 (use of); 177.40 (use of 
the fruit of); 177.48 (use of the 
root of); 192.4 (use of); 
202.5. 



brhatphala 


Luffa Graveolens 


I. 202.10. 




See kostaki 




brhannimba 


cf mahanimba 


I. 202.18. 


baibhitaka 




See bibhitaka, 


bodha 


Cardiospermum 


I. 202.82. 


(=jyotismatl?) 


Halicacabum? 




brahmadandl 


Echinops echina- 


I. 173.22 (quality of), 178.1 




tus 


(used in charm); 178.12 (); 






178.13 (use of); 182.20 (used 






in charm); 182.26 (use of decoc- 






tion of)] 184.11 (use of the 






root of). 


brahmayasti, 


Clerodendrum 


I. 188,5 (use of the fruit of); 


brshmana- 


Siphonantus. 


202.17. 


yastika 


or Ligusticum 






Ajowan. 




brahm asuvar- 


Helianthus or 


I. 174.1 (its use in the prepara- 


cala 


Clerodendrum 


tion of brahmlghrta). 




Siphonantus 




b rah ml (rhika) 


name of various 


I. 17036 (use of); 172.14 (); 




plants (e.g. Cle- 


174.1 (); 174.3 (ghrta); 




rodendrum Si- 


174.14 (use of); 192.34 




phonantus, Ruta 


(ghrta); 193.2 (use of); 202.5. 




Graveolens) or 






Hydrocotyle 






Asiatica. 




bhagandara 


a fistula in the 


I. 17L2 (remedy for; 171.23 




arms or puden- 


(),- 174.18 f,,); 184.4 () ; 




dum 


186.8 (). 


bhagastambha 




1. 180.12 (ointment which 






causes). 


bhagna 


fractured 


I. 171.9 (treatment for); 171.10 






(food and drink for); 171.12 






(remedy for). 



biiadra 

bhatlradaru 

bhaHaka 

bhaliflta (ta) 



bhavyodbhava 
bhSrgT 

bhiru 
( sats vari ?) 

bhujangavamm 
bhujasrarnblia 



bholaia 



bbfuga- 



GARUDA PURSJilA A STUbY 

name of various I. 179.10 (use of), 
plants 

Pinus Deodora I. 202 31. 
See D2ru etc. 

Semecarpus I. 177.56 (use of). See below 

Anacardium bhallstaka. 

Seraecarpus I. 158.14 (stone in bladder 

anacardium resembling fruit and seed 

of); 171.22 (use of); 171.27(,,); 
1 77.46 (); 177.83 (); 180.10 
(use of the flower of); J82.9 
(use of); 202.9. 

a type oUnkka I. 151.2; 151.3 (cause of). 
clerodendrum I. 170.31 (use of); 2O2.1 7. 
Siphonantds 

Asparagus I. 202.4. 

Racemosus ? 

? 1.18810. 

numbness (para- I. 171.63 (remedy for). Sec 
lysis) of the arm also bShustambha. 



Gentiana 
chirata 



- Eclipta prost- 
nita or E. 
Erecta, or 
wadeKa calen- 
dulacea 



bhrama 



giddiness 



I. 170.11 (use of); 170.12 (); 
171-6 (,,)i 171.8 (); 171.31 
(used in decoction); 171.36 (); 

192. 39 (use of); 202.85. 

I. ISO 12 (use of the curna of). 

I. J 67.60 (use of); 171.41 (); 
171.42 (): 171.58 (); 171 60. 
(); 172.26 (); J72.28 C)j 
172.43( )5 ); 174.14 (); 176.2 
f); 176.8 ( 53 ); 176.9 () 177.7 
()', 178.14 (use of the root of); 
182.15 (use of); 183 15 (use of 
the leaf of); 185.10 (used as a 
charm); 187.13 (use of the root 
of); 202.55, 

I- 147.10 (a symptom of a 
fever); 147.27 (cause of); 
1 47.28 (a symptom of fever); 
173.13 (things the excess use of 
which cause). 



APPENDIX 6 NAMES OF HERBS AND DISEASES IN GP. 167 



bhramanti 



rnakeruka 
maksika 



a kind of kidney 

bean or rice 

(Phaseolus 

Aconitifolius 

a type of parasiti- I. 165.13. 

cal worm 

fly 



I. 20243. 

I. 169.7 (properties of). 



mafjaii, majja pith of plants 



I 177.84 (inscense which 
drives); 18Q.11 (use of the 
fumes of; to drive away 
mosquitos); 191.17 (ointment 
for the poison due to). 
I. 171.42 (of mango; use of); 
1769 (); 173.2 (quality of); 
176.5 (use of). 





marrow of bones 


I. 173.25 (prescription for the 




and flesh 


growth of )., 


maiijistha 


a kind of climbing 


I. 159.2 (the meha resembling 


(sihikji) 


plant used for 


the colour of ); 174.5 (use of ); 




dyeing. (Rubia 


17731 () 177.33 (); 179.5 




Munjista). 


GO; 185.18 (); 191.22 (); 






192.31 (); 19244 (); 193.3 






U 




a kind of meha 


I. 159.2 (so called, on account 






of its resemblance with the 






manjistha plant). 


marj irparitha 


rock salt 


I. 202.60. 




(from Sindhu) 




ma IT da 


scum 


I. 169.54 (of fried rice; pro- 






perties of); 184.4 (use of); 


maijdaka 


a kind of baked 


I. 169.63 (properties of). 




flour 




mandala 


a kind of leprosy 


I. 164.8 (cause of); 16i.l7 


maeidukaparnl 
(=brahrru) 


Hydrocotyle 

Asiatjca or H. 
Rotundifolia, 


(symptom of). 
I. 172.25 (use of the juice of); 
173.15 (use of) 


mar^d ra 

matsya 


rust of iron 
fish 


I. 170.48 (use of). 
I. 177.75 (use of the flesh of a 
variety of). 



168 

matsyanrl! 

matsyapittaka 
(Katurohmi ?) 
mada 



inadana 
inadatyaya 

mrulya 
niaclhu 



GARUPA PURSlilA A STUDY 



inspissated juice 
of the sugar-cane 
cf. Helle borus 
Niger 
inebrity 



Randia Dume- 
torum 

any distemper 
due to in- 
toxication 
intoxicating 
drink 



honey 



I. 202.67. 
I. 180.5 (used as a charm). 

I. 147.23 (caused in certain type 
of fever); 155.5; 155.7; 155.9; 
155.29; 155.33; 191. 12 (remedy 
for). 

I. 172.37 (use of); 180.9 (); 
202.82. 

I. 155.1 (symptom of); 155.10 
(also caused by derangement 
of the three humours). 
1.155.2 (properties of ); 155.3 
( ); 155.4 ( ); 155.5; 155.14; 
155.17; 155.22; 155.34; 169.53 
(properties of ); 191.12 (remedy 
to wean one from using). 
I. 169.11 (use of); 169 49 
(properties of); 170.24 (as a 
remedy); 170.47; 170.48; 
170.61; 170.71; 170.74; 171.7; 
171,11; 171.14; 171.32; 171.34; 
171.55; 171.60; 171 66; 171.67; 
172 17; 172.23; 172.24; 172.27; 
172.28; 172.31; 172.39; 173 1; 
174.16; 175.8; 175.10; 175.15; 
176.15; 177.1; 177.3; 17721; 
177.24; 177.28; 177.32; 177.33; 
177.37; 177.41; 177.52; 177.65 
(sara); 177.67; 177.73; 178.5; 
178.12; 17823; 178.24; 179.7; 
179.11; 180.2; 180.5; 181.3; 
181.4; 182.8; 18220; 182.25; 
182.28; 183.4; 183.6; 184.18; 
184 19; 184.33; 185.16; 185.20; 
18528; 185.33; 185.34; 186;1 ; 
187.4; 188.11; 190.14; 190.26- 
(of yani); 190.31; 190.32 



APPENDIX 



madhuka (ka), 
madhQka 



madhuka) 



madhumeha 
madhura 

madhurika 

madhu&rava 
mana^ila 



inari (ri) ca 



sweetness 

Glycyrrhiza 
Glabra 



6 NAMES OF HERBS AND DISEASES I N GP. 169 

191.10; 191.17; 192.16; 192.35; 
193.2; 201.21; 202.66. 
202.18 (things which have the 
property of). See also maksika. 
I- 169,29 (properties of i ; 170.73 
(use of); 171.43 (use of the 
fruit of); 171.65(use of);172.I4 
(use of); 173.3 (properties of); 
174.5 (use of); 17740; (); 
179.5 (); 181.5 C,); 184.14 
(,,); 192.31 (used in decoction); 
192.48 (); 202.27; 205.49 (use 
of). 
I. 159.5-8. 

I. 173.1 (things which have the 
quality of); 170.60 (the effete 
of drinking water which is) . 
I. 202.53. 



diabetes 
sweetness 



Foeniculum 
vulgare or 
Anethum 
foeniculum 
Bassia 
Latfolia ? 

red arsenic 
(Arsenii disul- 
phidum) 



I. 202.5. 



I. 171.15 (use of); 171.18 (); 

171.59 (); 17 ' } - 9 ()' I76 - G 
(); 177.4 (); 177.5 f,,); 181.2 
(); 181.9 (); 182.10 (); 
182.24 (); 184.14 (}; 185.9 
(used in charm); 185.29 (use 
of); 185.31 (); 190.29 (); 
190.30 (); 191.15 (); 192.26 



blue vitriol 

(Cupric 

sulphate) 
Piper Nigrum 



(); 192.41 
I. 202.64. 
I. 202.51. 



202.64. 



I. 169.30 (property of); 169.31 
(use of); 170.21 (property of}; 
170.29 (use of); 170.43 (},- 



170 



GARUDA.-PURA"is!A A STUDY 



rnarut 

markati 

ma^aka 



mosquito 



170.45 (); 171.15 (}; 
171.57 (,,}; 176.15 (,,); 
177.4 (); 177.41 (); 179.9 
(); 182.14 (); 182.22 (); 
183.1 (); 1832 (); 183.3 (); 
185.26 (,.); 185.29 (); 188.10 
(); 188.11 (); 190.16 {); 
192.1 (); 192.26 (); 202 12. 
see maruta. 
I. 202.6. 

I. 171.39 (fumes driving); 
177.84 (,/; 180.11 ',,\ 



masQra 


Lense Esculenta 


I. 169.8 (properties of;. 




or Ervum Lens 






or Cicer Lens 




masurika 


one of the 1(J 


I. 159.12; 159.28 




kinds of diabetes 




masQrl 


see masura 


J. 202.46. 


mastaka 


hoad 


I. 176.10 (remedy for the disease 






of). 


mastu(ka) 


sour cream 


I. 169.42 (use of); 172.11 (). 


mahatl 


one of the 5 types 


I. 151.2. 




ofHikka. 




rnahfikala 


Trichosanthes 


I. 191.6 (use of the root of); 




Palmata 


202.57. 


mahsgho^a 


Boswellia 


I. 202-29. 




Thurifera 




tnahajambQ 


a spe cies of 


I. 202.10 




plant. 




mahan 


one of the five 


I. 150.3 




types of cough. 




mahfmimba 


Ailantus excelsa 


I. 202.18. 


mahap^tra 


? 


I. 202.45. 


mahr.n.uu^itika a kind ofSpha- 


I. 172.18 (use of decocation of ) 




eranthus ? 


See also muijdltaka 


mahafksa 


Bombax 


I. 202 35. 




Klalabaricum 




mahasysrnn 


Ichnocarpus 


1.202.46, 




Frutescens ? 





APPENDIX 6 NAMES OF HERBS AND DISEASES IN GP. 171 



mahSsaha 
mahSsugan- 
dhika 
mahisa 

mahisaksa 
mahausadha 

marrisa 



Gly.ine Labialis? I. 202.7. 

Piper Chaba? I. 178.10 (use of the root of). 



buffalo 

a k ind of bde- 
llium 

(an efficacious 
medicinal plant). 
Zingiber Offici- 
nale. 
flesh 



maruta 
(marut) 



I. 193.14 (use of the smoke 
from the dung and urine of ). 
I. 202.23; 202.78. 

I. 179.6 (those which are); 
202.12 (). 



I. 159.14 (as a cause of 
prameha}; 177.50 (use of); 
177.75 (); 178.5 (of khanjanta 
use of); 201.21 (use of); 
201.26 (J. 

I. 171.10 (of black-gram; 
use of *. 

I. 174.8 (use of); 176.3 (}; 
180.1 (); 180.6 (); 18f.lt 

,,}j 192.9 G0;192.26(,,); 201. 15 
f,,); 202.77. 

I. 171.23 (use of); 182.3 (); 
202.63. See also madhu. 

I. 169.29 (use of); 202.11. 



I. 159.2 (symptoms of). 

I. 169.21 (use of ); 172-17 (); 

173.6 f,,); 177.24 (use of the 

petal of );1 77.64 (use of the seed 

of); 178.25 '); 178.26 (); 

179.8 (use of the juice of); 

184.37 (use of the resin of); 

192.17 (use of the juice of); 

201.15. (). 

wind-one of the 3 I. 147.29 (effect of); 147.37 
humours in the (fever due to); 148.13; 150.6; 
the body. 151.3 (hiccough caused by); 





the fleshy part 
of 


I. 
us 


marr si = kak- 
kotl ? 


Nardostachys 
Jatamans! 


I. 
11 


maksika 


honey 


('. 
I. 

2C 


mSgadhika, 
ma gad hi 
manjistha 
matulur" ga 


Piper Longum 

a kind of meha 
Citrus Medica 


I. 

I. 

I. 



172 



GARUIJA PURXIA A STUDY 



malatl 



maiura 



ma?a, masaka 



masapanji 
misi 
(Satapujpi ?) 



mlnapitta 
mukha 



154.13 (heart disease caused by; 

symptoms of); 154.14; 15515 

(symptom of madatyaya caused 

by); 155.20 (); 156.17; 158.37; 

159.16 (prameha caused by); 

161.11; 166.19; 166.52 (pada- 

harsa caused by); 167.18; 

167.39; 173.62. (remedy for 

pain due to); 173.27 (remedy 

for deranged). 
a cat I. 1 77.82 (use of flesh of); 180.9 

(use of the excrement of); 

186.9 (use of the bones of). 

Jasmin urn I. 171.46 (used in decoction); 

Grandifiorum and 172.5 (use of the flower of); 
also other plants. 176.14 (); 185 18 (); 186.4 

(use of the roots of) ; 

the bilva tree I. 182.11 (use of the juice of ). 

(Aegle Marmelos 
or Fesonia 
Elephant urn), 
black gram 
(Phaseolus 
Radiatus). 



glycine debilis. 
Anethurn sowa 
and panmori 
(peucedanum 
graveolens 
p 

face 



1. 169. 5 (properties of); 169.21 
(); 171.10 (use of); 176.15 
(); 182.4 (); 185.19 {); 
192.4J? (used in decoction). 
1.202.7. 
1.202.53. 



1.185.11 (used as a charm). 

1. 171. 44 (remedy for the disease 
of); 171.46 (the decoction to 
be held in); 173.20 (remedy 
for dryness in); 177.20 (remedy 
for disease of); 177.21 (remedy 
for bad smell in); 177.22 (); 
177,33 ( prescription which 
adds lustre to); 184.26; 184.30 



AtPEJNDIX 6 NAMES OF HERBS AND DISEASES IN G.P. 173 

(remedy for the disease of ) ; 
191.21 (remedy for the pain in): 
192.19 (remedy for impurity 
in), 
mucukundaka Pterospermum 1.171.61 (use of the flower of). 

suberifolium 
muijdltaka sphaerantus 1.182.14 (use of j. 

hirtus 

mundlrikS a species of plant. 1.170.38 (use of the cfirpa of) 

mudga (ga) phaseolus mungo 1.156.45 (effect of); 109.5 

(use of); 169.60 (); 170.fi* 
(}; 172.13 fj; 172.33 !.,); 
173.19 (used in decoction); 
201.21-22 (used for diseases of 
the horses). 

phaseolus trilobus 1.202.7. 
erythrina stricta ? 1-176.3 (use ofj. 
Pcurculigo 1-174.15 (use of); 182.5 (,'; 

orchioioides ? 192.2 (use of ). 
CyperusRotundusI.170.il (use of); 170.12 (,.); 

170.13 (); 172.16 (-,); 173.1-' 
(); 175.3 (); 1754 (); 175. 
6 (); 175.7 (); 175.8 {); 
175.11 (); 175.13 U 177.21 
(); 177.40 {); 179.7 (); 

182.14 ( s) ); 192.16(,,); 192.39 
(,,);202.16. 

fornw 1 169.46 (use of ) ; 171.10 (as 
unneofacow U^^ ^ ^ y? 183 _ 

15 (). 

1. 176.1 3 (use of); 185.32 <uf a 

goat; use of ). 

1,170.57 (remedy for obstruc- 
tion of); 173.18; 
(remedy for pain connect 
with); 186.2 (remedy forobs- 
tructionof); 186.4 () 

'-.rV 170.55 



mudgaparnl 
mura 
musali (li) 
(mualiks) 

musta 



of a ram 
urine of men 



mutrakrcchra 



of urine 



(); 184.5 



174 
mutraksaya 

mutragranthi 

mutravighata 
mQtra'ukra 



rnGtrasula 
mutrasada 
mutrSghSta 



murccriS, 



murva 
mftlaka 



mDlarajika 

musalikS. 

musikaparij? 



GARUDA PURAljIA A STUDY 

insufficient 1.158.37 (cause of ). 

secretion of urine 

knot or induration 1.158.31 (description, of). 

at the neck of the 

bladder 

obstruction of 1.158.34 (cause of ). 

urine 

disease in which 1.158.33 (described). 

urine and semen 

are ejected 

together 

urinary colic 1. 193.10 remedy for), 

cessation of urine 1.158.39. (cause of). 

an urinary disease 1.158.1 (symptoms of ); 158.2-4 

(twenty kinds of}', 170.57 

(remedy for), 
fainting 1.147.9 (a symptom of a type 

of fever); 147.53 (a symptom 

of a different type of fever); 

147.31; 173.17 (remedy for); 

177.36 (,,). 

I. 202. 18. 



mrttika 

mTttikak?ara 
mrtyuraja 



Sanseviera 
Roxburghiana 
Raphanus 
Sativus 



Salvinia 
Cu cullata 
Helicteres 
Isora. 
lotus-fibre 
clay, earth 

ef. Sauvarcala 
synonym 
of jvara 



I. 169.16 (property of ); 169.59 
(use of); 173.12 (); 179.3 
(use of juice of ); 190.18 (use 
of the seed of). 

I. 192-24 (use of). 

I. 167.59 (used in decoction). 

I. 20243. 

I. 185.21 (use of). 

I. 202.31. 

I. 177.47 (of an ant-hill; use 
of); 177.53. 

I. 202.63 (from Saurastra). 
I. H7.1 



APPENDIX 6 NAMES OF HERBS AND DISEASES IN GP. 



175 



mrdvlka 

tnegha 

medas fat 



medhas 



moca 

( = kadali) 

morata 

moha 



bunch of 

grapes 

a kind of grass 



intellect 



mesairng! Gymnema 

Sylvestre. 
meha urinary disease 



Musa 
Sapientum 
Sansevieria 
Roxburghiana 
fainting 



mlecchamukha Cuprum 
yaksma a disease, 

synonym of 
vy.'idhi 
yaksma Consumption 



I. 202.30. 

I. 202.16 (also known as 

musta). 

I. 17061 (remedy to reduce). 

173.27 (remedy for disease 

related to). 

I. 173.25 (prescription which 

improves). 

I. 176.13 (use of the urine 

of). 

I. 173.21 (use of); 188.3 (use 

of the root of), 

I. 159.2 (symptom of a kind 
of); 159.3 (); 159.5-8 (); 
159.9 (); 159 17 (to know 
whether curable or not); 
159.18 (common indication 
of different types); 159.19 
(symptom of a kind of); 
159.20 (); 159.21 (); 159.22 
159.23 f )3 ); 159.24 (); 159.33 
(); 159.34-35 (symptoms of 
first stage of); 159.37; 170.58 
(prescription for allj; 171.23 
(,/; 185.28 (J. 

I. 169.28 (use of the fruit of); 
202,51 (the juice of). 

I. 202.81. 

I. 147.11 (a symptom of a 

type of fever); 191.10 (remedy 

for). 

I. 202-65. 

I. 146.2. 



I. 149.16; 152.1 (symptoms of ); 



176 
yamalS 

yamanika, 
yamani 
yava (vS.) 



? yavakola 

yavafcsSra 
vyavagraja) 



yavatikta 
yavagu 
yav3graja 
( = yavaks,5ra) 
yasti, yastika. 



ycka 



GARLI?A PURSiilA A STUDY 

atypeofhikka I. 151-2; J51.5 (cause of); 
(hiccough) 151.6-7 (symptoms of). 

Ptychotis Ajowan. I. 202.18; 169.32 (use of); 

174.17 (); 192.24 (,,). 

Hordeum I. 169.4 (properties of); 170.60 

Vulgare (); 173.2 (); 176.16 (use of); 

177.32 () 177.55 (}; 182.5 

(); 1847 (); 188.6 (); 

188.10 (). 
? I. 169.60 (use of); 170.75 (); 

173.22 () 

an alkali prepar- I. 170.50 (use of); 170.56 (); 
ed from the ashes 171.44 (); 172.2 (,.); 172.11 
of burnt green (used in decoction); 173,10 
barley corns. (use of); 177.45 (,,) 179.1 

(,,); 179.7 (); 182.9 (); 

184.5 (); 186.13 (,>); 192.16 

(); 202.61. 

a species of plant. I. 202.47. 
rice gruel I. 170.76 (use of) 

I. 202.61. 

Liquorice I. 170.35 (use of); 170.47 (,,); 

(Glycyrrhiza 170.48 (); 170.64 () 170.73 

Glabra). () 171. 32 ( t> ) ; 1 72 .5 (); 

174.14 (); 177.21 (); 177.24 
( 5 ,)ri77.32 (); 177.33 f,,); 
177.40 (); 178.23 (); 178.24 
(); 182.20 (); 
190.26 ( w ); 191.10 





(); 179.5 




184.33 (): 




(); 202.27. 


p 


I. 202.58. 


Alhagi Mauro- 


I. 202.54. 


rum 




louse 


T ifiS a. i 



soup 



176.6 (prescription, 
the use of which destroys); 

18 o-n (). 

I- 171.10 (of certain things); 
(the use of); 172.13 (), 



APPENDIX 6 NAMES OF HERBS AND DISEASES IN GP. 177 



yoni 



female organ 



rakta 



blood 



raktapitta 

rakta meha 

raktavikriya 

raktasSali 

raktafiga 

rajanl ( = gauri, 
rasSfijana 
23 



plethora, spon- 
taneous 
hemorrhage 
from the mouth 
or nose. 

the voiding of 
blood with 
urine 

deterioration 
of blood 

Oryza Sativa 
(red rice) 

the red pollen 
on the capsules 
of the Rottleria 
Tinctoria 

Curcuma 
Longa 



vitriol of copper 
or a sort of 
collyrium 
prepared from 



I. 172.1 (diseabe of); 172.3 
(remedy for disease of); 172.4 
(remedy to strengthen) ; 
(remedy for disease of); 172.5 
(); 173.29; 178.21 (a charm 
applied to); 180.12 (J. 
I. 148.4; 148.6; 171.13; 182.18 
(used as a charm); 182.26 
(remedy for obstruction of); 
182.28 (in atisara; remedy for); 
1 86.9 (remedy increasing the 
flow of); 188. 1 (flow; remedy 
for); 188.5 (remedy for defect 
in); 192.40 G,); 201.13 (use of 
boiled). 

I. 1481 (symptoms of ); 148.3 
(pittarakta) ; H8.15 (remedy 
for); 159.33 (a kind of meha); 
183.9 (remedy for); 190.26 
(); 19027 (). 
1. 159.3 (symptom of). 



I. 181.5 (remedy for). 

I. 185.13 (used as a charm). 

I. 202.49. 



I. 177.7 (use of); 183.19 (use 
of the 2 varieties of); 184.1 
(use of); 193.3 (use of the two 
varieties of); 202.32. 
1.171.60 (use of); 186,6 (); 
19?,41 (); 202 50. 



178 



A STUDY 



rasayana 



rajamSsa 

rajayaksma. 

raj aval lab ha 

rajavrksa 

(=aragvadha) 
rajadana 

rajika (ka) 

ratrija 
rfitrinamika 

ratryandha 

rSmatha 
rasnfi 

ruja 
rudhira 



I. 171.11 (use of); 201.10 (,,), 
I. 169.6 (property of). 



it or from caly 

of brass or from 

lead ore 
an elixir and I. 171.25 (use of); 172-13 (us 

also name of of); 172.22 (,,); 172.23; 179.< 

various plants (use of). 
Allium 

Ascalonicum 

Dolichos 
Catjang 
consumption I. 149.15 (description oi*); 

152.2 (synonyms of); 152.14 

(symptoms of). 

a kind of jujube I. 174.7 (use of), 
tree 
Cassia Fistula I. 202.83. 

Alstonia I. S02.45. 

Venenatus ? 
Sinapis Ramosa I. 169.14 (properties of); 

192.24 (use of), 
a type of fever I. 147,46. 
? I. 202.32. 

night blindness I. 171.75 (an ointment for); 

177.4( 3J ); 185.35 (). 
Asa Foetida I. 202-19. 

Name of various I. 170.42 (use of); 171.17 (); 

plants 192.5 (). 

pain (in I. 147;14; 147.25; 171.54- 

different parts (remedy for); 172.43 (,,) 

of the body), 
blood of different I. 177.74 (used in charm); 

animals and 177.77 (); 178.9 ( 35 ); 184.27 

birds ( )5 ); 188.6 (of lizard; use of), 

astringent I 169.52 (as a property of 

guqla); 173,32 (modification to 
be macle of). 



APPENDIX 6 NAMES OF HERBS AND DISEASES IN GP. i 79 



rupa 



recana 



retas 



roga 



rogapati 
rogarSI; 

rocana 
rocariS 



rodana 
ropai^a 

roma (hara, 
utthana), 



natural state or 
condition 

purging, aperient 



synonym of Vyadhi 
(disease) 



synonym ojvara 
synonym of ksaya 

stomachic 

an yellow pigment 

cf. previous. 

tears 

healing 

horripilation 



I. 146.3 (an essential category 
in respect of a disease); 146.5,6 
(difinition of). 

1.171.13 (as a standard preli- 
minary step in the treatment 
of ku$tha). 

1.189 8 (its use with the root of 
a plant to make one strong), 
(different) I.146J; 146.1-24 
(symptoms of all); 167.61 
(remedy for); 170.65 (); 168- 
69 (symptoms of); 168,16 
(cause of); 169.65 (of eyes; 
cause of); 170,67 (remedy); 
171.1 (); 171.44 (}; 171.45 
(); 171.51 (); 172.25 (); 
172.27 (); 172.28 (}; 173.1 
(); 174.1 (); 1 74.4 U; 174.11 
(); 174 15 (); 174.16 (); 
174.19 (); 177.20 f,,); 177.27 
(); 177.75 (); 184.30 (); 
185.36 (),- 187.1 (}; 187.10 
(); 190.10 (); 190.12 () 
192.3 (); 192.45 (); 193.16 
(,,); in horses 201.18 (remedy 
for); 201.23 (); 201.25 (); 
201.28. 
1.147.1. 

I.152.2," 152.3; (the reason for 
its being called so). 

1.173.17. 

I 178.7 (used as a (charm; 

178.19 (); 182.19 (} cf. next. 

1.202.49, 

1.147.26 (as a cause of a fever). 

1.174.19 (a property of a kind 

of taila. 

1.147.9 (a symptom of a kind 

of fever); 177,75 (sternutatory 

causing). 



180 

rohita 
Sakuca 



GARUDA PURAJilA A 



lak$maiia 

laugaka 
iailqhana 



lajjalul(krO 



lavai'jga 



a kind offish 

artocarpus 

lacucha 

symptoms; 
synonym of r upa 

smitbia 
geminiflora 
? 

fasting 



Mimosa 
Pudica 

Garyophyllus 

Aromaticus. 

salts 

(knca, 

saindhava, 

samudra, 

vida and 

sauoarcala) 



Allium 
Satlvum 

Cateria Lacca 
or Coccus Lacca 
Tachardia 
Lacca. 

Mfthonia 



1. 17 7. 75 (use of the flesh of ). 

1.169.24 (property of); 173.7 

() 

1.146.6; 147.12 (indicating the 

concerted action of the three 

deranged humours). 

1.172.7 (use of). 

1.202.70. 

1.147.42 (to be observed when 

one has fever); 171.51 (,,); 

175,2. 

I. 177.59 (use of); 184.8 (}; 
189.8 (use of the root of ); 191.4 
(); 191.8 (,J. 
I. 192-20 (use of the fruit of). 

I. 170.18 (the five kinds of) 
(use of); 170.46 (use of); 
170.57 (); 171.63 (); 173.10 
(properties of different kinds 
of); 173.21 (use of); 173.26 (); 

I 74 - 16 (); 180.5 (use of 
the variety called krspa); 
181.8 (use of); 183,15 (>; 
184.5 (); 185.23 (from the 
ocean, use of ); 190.12 (use of); 
192.44 (); 193.1 (); 1 93 . 13 
(); 201.32 (). 

I- 1 71.39 (use of ); 1 71.47 (..); 

I7 3.12( 33 ); 201.14(,,). 
I- 176.4 (use of); 177.33 (); 
1 ^7.84 (); 179.1 (); 179.5 (); 
^8 U; 192.22 (). 

1-172.10 (use of); 173.12 (); 
I73 -25 ()J 177.76 (use 'of 
the root of); 184.20 (use of); 



APPENDIX 6 NAMES OF HERBS AND DISEASES IN GP. 181 



lajambu 



ISmajjaka 



lalameha 

lalssrava 

liksa 



liuga 



luta 



rice-gruel; 
water with 
parched 
grain. 

Andropogon 
Iwarancusa or 

A. Muricatus. 

a kind of 

meha 

flow of saliva 

nit (egg of 

a louse) 

differentiating 
features 

male organ 



lona 



lodhra 



Ionian 



loha, lohaka 
lauha 



spider 

a kind of 

parasitical 

worm. 

a kind of grass. 

Dioscorea 

Aculeata ? 

Sympl cos 
Racemosa 

hair 



Ferrum 



183.2 (use of the root of); 

202.2; 202 13. 

I. 171.11 (use of). 



I. 202,31. 



I. 159.23 ^symptoms oi"'. 

I. 191.12 (remedy fer). 
I. 165.3 (disease caused by), 
176.6 (compound of' herbs 
which destroy). 
I H6.3; 146.6 (wku it is 
called npa); 147.8 (of a 
fever); 151.12. 

176.16 (remedy for disease- of 

176.17 (prescription for tiu- 
growth of); 180.2 (an uiniwent 
to); li)0.3 preicription to be 
applied to). 

I. 191.22 iremedy for poison 

due to). 

I. 165.13 (disease caused by). 



1.173.7 (properties of). 



1 171.45 (use of); 177.31 



181 9 



I,,); 192.47 U); 202 10. 

I 1817 (present which 

beautiBesJ; 181.8 (); 

Q ; J82.10 lJ- 

I. 171.42 (use of); 1N 



182 GARUpA PCJRAIilA A STUDY 

(); 175.16 (); 176.8 (); 
176.9 (); 177.31 (); 177.67 
(); 184.29 (,,)| 185.20 (); 
202.23; 202.66. 

va?ha, (si) Bambusa Arun- I. 170-74 (use of); 172. '11 (), 
dinacea; B. 202,30. 
apous; B. orient- 
alls; B. spinosa. 

? vakula Mimusops Elengi I. 169.24 (use of); 173.19 

(bakula) (used in decoction). See Bakula. 

vartjalocanS cf. Solangum I. 202.30. 
Melongena. 

v a c > 1 Aconis Calamus. I. 168.39 (use of ); 170.36 (,,); 

171.13 (); 172.2 (); 172.14 
(); 17219 (); 172.37 (); 
174.1 (); 176.11 (); 178.1 
(); 178.8 () 178.12 (); 
179.6 (,;),- 180.1 (); 180.0 
(); 180.9 (;; 181.2 (); 

182.14 (); 183.2 (); 135.36 
(); 190,3 (); 192.8 (); 

192.15 (); 192.32 (}; 192.35 
(); 192.37 (); 192.38 (); 
19240 (); 192.43 (); J93.1 
U; 193.3 (); 201.7 (); 

viinvrfc- a r* ~ 01<11 <)'' 202.15; 202.34. 

v^jj.urk.a Cactus Opuntia 1.202.35. 

name of various I. 202 9 
plants. 

Ficuslndica I. 173.9 (use of); 173.23 (} 

I7 4.15(,,) ; 185.24 (); 191.21 
(); J92.47(,,) ; 202.7; 205.48 
(use of). 

Pill (made of I. }7(X5I J? 

-^a 1 thi ngs) 174 . 15; 17 ^ ; ^^ 

185 -27; 186.10. 
wnghtia Antidy- 1.20215 
sentorica 



APPENDIX 6 NAMES OF HERBS AND DISEASES IN GP. 183 


Vandhya 


barren 


I. 172.8 (remedy for); 184.34 




woman 


(); 192.23 {). 


vam.ath.Uj 


vomitting, 


I. 147.23; 147,27 (cause of); 


vaniana, vami 


nausea. 


171.13 (prescribed in all 






kusthas); 172.37 (remedy for); 






172.40 (prescribed in certain 






diseases). 


vayastha 


Emblica Offiici- 


I. 202.29. 


( = Amalaka ?} 


nalis or Termi- 




(=Haritakl ?) 


nalia Chebula ? 




vara 


Panicum 


I. 202.4. 




Miliave ? 




varaha 


Pig 


I. 193.14 (use of the excrement 






and urine of). 


varuijaka 


Grataeva Rox- 


I, 173.16 (use of), ef. varuyi 




burghii. 




varunacchatra 


p 


I. 177.44 (use of). 


varunacchada 


p 


I. 191.23 (use of). 


varijayu 


? 


I. 172.14 (use of). 


vartula 


Pisum Sativum 


I. 202.71. 


vardhamanaka 


Ricinus Com- 


I. 202 3 




munis 




varsa 


rainy season 


I. 147.36-37 (fevers in); 172.23; 






172.32; 182.1. 


varftbhu 


Boerhavia Pro- 


I. 170.69 (use of); 17220 (); 




cumbens. 


17414 (); 202.3. 


valkala 


bark 


I. 176 17 (used as a remedy). 


valguji 


cf. Phaseolus 


I. 173.12 (use of the fruit of). 




Trilobus. 




valmlka 


ant-hill 


I. 177.47 (use of the earth 






from. 


vasanta 


spring 


1.147 36 (fever in); 147.38 {); 






172.32; 182.1. 


vasa 


the marrow of 


1.173.25 (things recommended 




the flesh 


for the well-being of); 184.27 






(use of J; 18428 (). 


vasameha 


a kind ofmeha 


1.159.3 (symptoms of ). 


vasuko^a 


? 


1.202,33. 



184 



GARUDA PURAiStA A STUDY 



vasti 



vSku (gu) clfji) vernonia 

anthelmintica 



v5jin 
vajikarnaka 

vajigandha 

vata 



horse 
p 

physalis flexuosa 
wind, one of the 
humours in the 
body. 



abdomen 1.147.6 (gets affected by fever); 

172.10 (an ointment for; for 
pregnant woman); 172.41 

(remedy for one who reclines 

having a raised). 

1.202.55; 171.18 (use of): 171. 

22(); 171.26 (); 174.2 (); 

1 92.33 (). 

I 147.3 (the fever manifest in). 

1.202.40. 

1.170.55 (use of). 

I. 147.10; 147.22; 147.76; 147, 

77; 149.1; 152.16; 153.2; 

153.6; 153.10; 154.2-3; 154.8; 

155.10; 156.9; 156.51; 156.52; 

156.57; 157.6; 15721; 158.5; 

158 11; 158.22; 158.24; 158.26; 

159.11; 160.28; 160.32; 160.33; 

160.37; 160.41; 160.52; 160.58; 

166.1; 166.25; 166.39; 166.50; 

167.2; 167,4; 167.12; 167.30; 

167.34; 168.9; 168.15; 168.32; 

172.38. 

168.37; 168.40; 168.46; 169.4; 
diseases caused by 169.9; 169.12; 169.15; 168.16; 

169.20; 169.21; 169.23; 169.24; 

169.26; 169.27; 169.30; 169. 

31; 169.32; 169.33; 169.36; 

169.40; 169.42; 169.45; 169.46; 

169.47; 169.48; 169.51; 169. 

52; 169.53; 169,55; 169.56; 

169.59; 161.61; 170.37; 170.42; 

170.46; 170.52; 170.55; 170.65; 

171.14; 172.1; 172.34; 172-40; 

173.22; 173.26; 173.29; 173,32; 

173.33; 174.7, 175.8; 177.14; 

177.35; 177.48; 177.50; 184.32; 

184.37; 192.11; 192.46; 201.18,- 

201.26. 



remedy for 



APPENDIX 6 NAMES OF HERBS AND DISEASES IN GP. 185 



v&tarakta 



vatala 



vayu 



vari 



vSrttska (ku) 
vaisira 

vasaka, v5s5 



24 



things which 
increase 

acute gout 
or rheumatism 



flatulent 



wind; one of 
the humours 
in the body 
as a cause 
of some 
disease 

remedy for the 

disease 
caused by 

water 



spirituous Kquor 
egg plant 
(Solanum 

Melongena) 
Lippia 

Nodiflora 



I. 169.19; 169.26; 173.8. see 
also marut above vayu below 

I. 167.1 

(symptom of); 167.46; 170.38 
(remedy for); 170.39 (); 170, 
40 (); 189.12 (). 
I. 160.49; 166.31; 167.3; 
168.31; 169.3; 169.7; 169.8; 
169.14; 169.34; 169.36; 169.49. 
I. 149.10; 149.15; 156.14; 
156.46; 158.6; 158.23; 158.35- 
36; 160.12; 160.22; 16).38; 
160.39; 160.51; 161.2; 166.7; 
166.21; 166.31; 166.36; 166.41; 
166.43; 167.19; 16730; 167-39; 
167.54; 168.2-3; 168.15; 168.17; 

I. 183.7. See also marut and 
vata. 

I. 169,38 (exposed to Sun; 
property of); 169.39 (effects of 
hot water); 170.60 (effects of 
sweat); 171,27; 175.14; 177.30; 
177.32; 177.36; 177.37; 177.45; 
177.46; 178-24 (use of hot); 
184.32; 185.22; 1R6.11; 186.14; 
188.3; 188.5; 190.15; 191.1; 
191.3; 191.5; 191.11; 191.19; 
201.18. 

I. 174.21 (use of) cf. Varunaka, 
I. 169 .1 7 (use of); 173.15 (). 
I. 202.33. 

I. 167.60 (use of); 170.27 (); 
171.13 (); 171.28 (); 171.81; 
C,); 171.32 (}; 17136 (); 
171.38 (); 171.66 (); 172,2 
( ;i )i 173.15 (); 174.4 (); 



186 



GARUI?A PURAlilA A STUDY 



vijnana 

vit 

vidam 
vidaiiga 



174,14 (); 190.26 (); 190.27 
(); 192.35 (); 192.39 (); 
201.38 (); 202.52. 



vSstuka 


stomachic or 


I. 169.15, 






Chenopodium 








Album 






vasya 


an axe ? 


I. 186.3 (use of); 189.7 


()J 






189.10 (). 




vahlika 




I. 202 22 (obtained 


from 






Kashmir). 




vikankata 


Flacourtia 


I. 202.83. 






Sapida 






vikSra 


synonym of 


1. 146 2. 






vyadhi 






vicarcika, 


a kind of 


I. 164.8; 171-29 (remedy 


for); 


vicarcl 


kustha 


183.15 (); 1 92.29 (). 




vijlrna 


digestion 


I. 147.7 (absence of; as an 



discrimination 



excrement 



Embelia 
Ribes 



vidslapadaka 
(bidsla ) 



a particular 
measure of 
weight. 



indication of a fever). 
I. 146.3 (one of the five essential 
categories in respect of a 
disease). 

I. 173.11 (remedy for any 
distress affecting). 
I. 179.7 (use of;; 192.16 (); 
193.8 (). 

I. 169,33 (use of); 169.34 
(effects of); 170 18; 170.33 (}', 
170.52 (); 371.18 (,J; 171.19 
(); 171.23 (); 172.27 (); 
172.28 (); 172.39 (); 176.6 
(); 177.84 (); 179.10 (); 
180.10 ()} 182.9 (}; 183.18 
(); 184.14 (); 188.6 (); 
190.10 (); 192.2 (); 197.24 
(); 197.36 (,^; 192.41 (); 
201.38 (); 202.19 (). 
I. 202.71. 



AtJPENDIX 6 NAMES OF HERBS AND DISEASES IN GP. 187 



? vitusa 
vidall 
vidSrika, 
vidarl . 
vida rl 

vidradhi 



vivarija, 

vaivaroya 

vissla 



unhusked I. 187.11 (use of ). 

? I* 202.46. 

a type of I. 159.29 (description, of); 

meha 159.3. 

Hedysarum I. 159.29 (a kustha resembling 

Gangeticum ? the root of); 172.13 (use of). 

a kind of I, 159.12; 159.30 (symptoms 

prcaneha of); 160.1 (); 160.3 (des- 

cription of); 160.12; 160.18; 
160.20; 160.21 (symptom of 
the external kind of); 160.54; 
160.55; 170.70 (remedy for); 
188.7 (); 190.6 (). 
I. 159.12; 159.26 (symptoms 
(of).- 

I. 147.6 (an effect of a fever). 
I. 164.8; 164.22 (symptoms of). 

I. 177.4 (use of). 



I. 148.9; 171.14; 172.30; 172. 
38; 172.39; 183.4 (a combi- 
nation which is); 183.5; 193.13 
(a combination which is). 
I. 147.10 (a symptom of a 
fever); 147.25 (). 
I. 175.17 (use of); 192.27 (); 
202,50. 



vmata 


a type of 


I. 




prameha 


(o 


vipaka 


restlessness 


I 


vipadika 


a kind of 


I. 




kustha 




vibhitaka 


terminalia 


I 




belerica 




vireka, virecana 


purgative 


I. 



vi^va (va) 



visVacxita 
visvabhesaja 



pale colour 

Gitrullus 
Colo-cynthis 
or Cucumis 
Trigonus. 
disunion, 
dislocation 
Piper Longum 
or Zingiber 
Officinale ? 

7> 

Zingiber 
Officinale 

a type of 
rheumatism. 



I. 173.10 (things which cause). 

I. 171.63 (use of); 175.13 (); 
193.3 (); 202. 12; 202.84. 

I. 170.15 (use of). 

I. 179.10 (use of); 201.9 (,.). 

I, 166.42. 



188 



GARUDA PURS^A A 



viftambhika, paralysis 
excrement 



visnukranta clitoria ternatea 
or evolulus 
alsinoides 

visarpa, vlsarpa a dry-spreading 
itch 



visttcika 

(vi^ucika) 
vispho^a 



vira (a) 



cholera 
blister 



name of various 
plants (terminalia 
arunja, Nerium 
odorum etc.) 



1.147.26 (as a cause of fever); 
147.27 (as a cause of atisara); 
169.64; 172-20 (remedy for); 
172.22 (); 182.21 (mantra 
for the removal of); 182.22 
(remedy for); 182.23 (); 182, 
24 (); 182.25 (of a scorpion, 
remedy for); 184.32 (remedy 
for); 189.7 (); 189.9 (); 
189.14 (); 191.5 (); 191.7 
(); 191,8 (); 191.9 (); 191. 
16 ( } J; 191.17 (}; 191.19 ( H J; 

191.20 (); 191.21 (pain due 
to; remedy for); 191.22 
(remedy for); 191.23 (); 193, 
5 (); 202.6 (). 

as a remedy 

I. 172.16; 183.19; 192.27; 

202.43. 

1.182.21 (remedy for) 

1.177.82 (of a cat; use of) 180. 

9 (}; 184.6 (of ahorse, use of). 

1.184.10 (use of); 189.16 (). 

1.163.1 (symptoms of); 163.5 
(description of a type of); 163. 
90,); 163.13 (); 163.16 (}; 

163.21 (); 171.37 (remedy 
for); 171 .39 (}. 

1.168.39 (cause of); 179JO 
(remedy for); 185.27 (). 
1.147.31 (precedes the fever 
caused by magical spell) ; 164. 
9; 171.36 (remedy for); 171.39 
(); 192,29 (); 192.40 (). 
1.190.24 (use of); 202.29. 



APPENDIX 6 NAMES OF HERBS AND DISEASES IN GP. 189 



vlsarpa 
vrksaka 

vrksapadi 
vrksSdani 
vrddhiroga 
vr^cika 



vrsya 
venu 



j vetra 



vela 
vaikrta 



vodra 

vyangakus^hin 

vyafijana 

vyatha 
vyaghranakha 

vyaghr! 
vyadhi 



see visarpa. 

wrightia 1,202.15 

Antidysenterica ? 

? 1.202.46. 

vanda Roxburgh!* 1.202.33. 

1. 170. 67 (remedy for), 
scorpion 1.182.25 (prescription to 

remove the poison due to); 

191.14 (remedy for pain due 

to) 191.17. 

T.I 89. 6 (use of the root of). 
202.6 (ka). 
aphrodisiac 1. 169. 4 (things which are); 

171.22 (); 173.8 (). 
bambusa 1202.71. 

arundinacea. 
calamus Rotang or 1.173.7 (properties of); 173.14 



fasciculatus 
Mangifera 
Indica ? 



a kind of snake 



one who has a 

kind of kustha 

synonym oirupa I. 146.6. 

of a disease, 

(distinctive traits) 

pain 



(); 202.44. 

I. 202.57. 

I. 147.33 (one of the two kinds 

of fevers); 147.36 (on the 

nature of fever called). 

I. 191 6 (remedy which 

removes the poison due to). 

I. 174 10 (remedy for). 



tooth of a tiger 
and also the name 
of a root. 
Solanum 
Jacquini 
disease 



I. 147.25 
fatigue). 
I. 202.78. 



(in a fever due to 



I. 171.62 (use of the root of); 

202.78. 

I. 146.2 (synonyms of); 1465 

(the description of those 

which offer no symptoms of 



190 



GARUDA PURA^A A STUDY 



vyana 



vyosa 



vrana 



s"akra 



latlkarlvartti 



^ankhanSbhi 



pu?pa 
(PI) 



one of the winds 
in the body 

the three hot 
substances (viz, 
Zingiber offici- 
nale, Piper 
Longum, P, 
Nigrum) 
wounds 



an excrement 

especially of 

animals 

Wrightia Anti- 

dysenterica or 

Terminalia 

Arjuna,- 

an incense 

called. 

conch-shell 



a kind of shell ; 
a kind of plant. 
Canscora 
Decussata, 



diagnosis); 146.7; H6.8; 

146.12 (way to determine the 
periodicity of); 186.7 (remedy 
for). 

L 156.56 (carries the phlegm 
and makes it appear outside 
the skin as arias, 
I. 170.61 (use of); 171,12 
(); 171,22 (,,); 171,44 (); 
172.8 (); 172.17 (); 173.12 
(); 173.25 (,0; 17327 (.,); 

174.13 GO; 181.2 (,0; 201.18 
GO; 202.13. 

I. 170.71 (remedies for) ; 170.72 
GO; 170.73 (,0; 170.76 (); 
170.77 GO; 170,78 GO; 171.51 
GO; 173.18 (,0; 177.56 (); 
177.60 GO; ifis.i (,0; 188.2 
(); 192.48, GO; 201.7 (two 

kinds of; in horses); 201,9 
in horses; remedy for; 201.10 

GO; 201. 14 (); 201.26 GO- 

I. 192-27 (use of). 



I. 202.15. 



I. 1 79. 1 1 (as a remedy for eye 

diseases). 

I. 176.7 (use of); 177.5 (); 

I8I.7 GO; 181.9 (); 181.10 

GO; 182. 10 GO; 192.40 GO, 
I. 171.59 (use of); 177.4 (}} 
185.32 GO. 

I. 170.36 (use of); 173.16 GO; 
174.1 GO; 180.6 GO; 183.8 



APPENDIX 6 NAMES OF HERBS AND DISEASES IN G.P. 191 



s"ankhinl 
ia.il 



s'atapuspa (pa, 



s"atavarl 
(sSatamuli) 



s*anairmeha 



sambuka 



(); 183.12 (); 192.32 (); 
192.36 (). 

same as I. 173.14 (use of); 202.48. 

previous ? 

Curcuma Zedo- I. 202.52. 
aria or Salvia 
Plebeia 

hemp (Cannabis I. 177.63 (use of the root of ). 
Sativa or 
Crotolaria 
Juncea) 

Anethum Sowa, I. 173.25 (use of); 174.8 (); 

or A. Graveolens 176.11 (); 179.6 (); 191.18 

or Peucedammi (); 192.8 (); 192.15 (); 



Graveolens 
Asparagus 

Racemosus 
Dalbergia 

Ougeinensis 
a kind of 

leprosy 
Asparagus 

Racemosus 



202.53. 

I. 171.62 (use of) See below 

JsatSvarl. 

I. 202.53. 

I. 164.9 (cause of). 



^arapunkha 



I. 167.58 (use of); 167.59 (); 
172.26 (); 172.27 (); 172-29 

(); 172.43 (); 173.21 (); 

1 73.23 ();! 74.4 (); 174.8(,,); 

174.13 (); 178.21 (); 192,7; 

192.36 (); 201.29 (); 201.38 

(). 

atypeofmeha I. 159.23 (symptoms of ). 
Prosopis Spici- 1.191.21 (use of the bark of); 

gera or Mimosa 192.31 (use of the leaf of). 

Suma 
a species of I, 185.21 (use of the juice of). 

plant ? 

a kind of tree ? I. 202.81. 
the autumn I 1 47,36 (fever that comes in); 

147.37; 172.32; 182.1; 201.17; 

201.27. 
Galegea Purpurea I. 170.71 (use of); 177.59 (); 



192 



GARUDA-PURAlsIA A STUDY 



b f arTra 
barkarS. 



ballaki sallakl 



saskuli 



b'aspS 



^astra 



s'akhotaka 



a kind of 
prameha 
body 

sugar 



Boswellia 
Thurifera 
(Olibanum) 

a large round 
cake (ground 
rice, sugar and 
sepsamum and 
cooked in oil) 

young or 
sprouting grass 

weapon 



184.8 ( >3 ); 184.36 (). 

I. 159.12; 159,25 (symptoms 

of). 

I. 173.9 (effect of certain things 

on). 

I. 169.53 (effects of); 170.24 

(use of); 171.22 (); 171.66 (); 

172.2 (); 172.6 (); 172.23 
(); 172.29 (); 172.39 (); 
177.67 (); 177.73 (); I 81 - 5 
(); 181.6 (); 182.2 (); l82 - 8 
(); 182.28 (); 184.20,); 184.5 
(); 184.13 (); 184.33 (); 

186.3 (); 186.4 (); 190.26 (); 

191.9 (); 191.12 (); 193.12 
(,,);201.18(,,); 202.67. 

I. 170.27 (use of); 173.19 ()', 
173.21 (); 173.23 (); 202.24. 

I. 169.61 (properties of ). 



I. 202.46. 

I. 177.58 (remedy for wounds 
inflicted by); 177.59 (J; 201.9 



grain I. 169.10 (properties of 

different). 
Trophis Aspera I. 178.4 (use of the root as a 

magic spell). 

Hemidesmus I. 192.5 (use of); 192-31 (). 
Indicus or 
Ichnocarpus 
Frukescens or a 
kind of grain 



APPENDIX 6 NAMES OF HERBS AND DISEASES IN GP. 193 



lalaparn! 

sali (tandula) 

balisastika 

6s.lm.ali 



bigru 

( sobhanjana) 



Desmodium 
Gangeticum or 
Hedysarum G. 



paddy growing 

in 60 days 

Bonabax 

Malabaricum 

or B. geptaphylla 

Moringu 

Pterygosperma 



iira. 



(ka) 



head 



Acacia 
Sirissa 



red arsenic; 
camphor, 



1.168.47 (use of the rootof); 
170.13 (use of); 202.2. 

1. 172.12 ^use of); 202.21 

(ana). 

I. 173.1 (property of); 201.19. 

1. 182.12 (used in a magic 
spell); 191.3 (,,); 202.51 (the 
resin from). 

I. 169.11 (use of); 170.58 (use 
of the root of); 170.69 
(use of); 171.47 (); 171.52 
(); 172.33 (); 173.12 (use of 
the root of); 179.6 (); 
185.37 (use of the root of); 

192.15 (use of); 193.6 ( 3< ); 
202 80. 

I. 147.9 (aching of; as a 

symptom of a fever.); 147.10 

(); 147.16; H6.27; 147.28 

(aching of; as a symptom of 

a fever); 171.61 (remedy for 

pain in); 171.64 (); 172.34 

( 53 ); 173.18 (); 173.29 (); 

174.11 (,,); 176.3 (remedy 

for) ; 1 76 6 (ointment to kill 

louse etc. in); 177.42 (an 

ointment to; induces sleep); 

178.3 (_an application to; as a 

charm); 184.33 (remedy for the 

diseases of); 184.35 (). 

I. 172.20 (use of the rootof); 

177,26 (use of the seed of). 

177.83 (use of); 189.10 (use 

of the root of); 191,18 (use 

of the seed of); 392,48 () 

193.3 (use of); 205.49 {)- 

I. 202.64. 



25 



194 



GARUDA. PURA\A A STUDY 



bilajatu (ka) bitumen 

(asphaltum) 

ilbira cold season 

isi&umara propoise 

(a sea animal) 

? ai (ii) IhikS. Liquidambar 
Orient ale 

sita cold 



bukta 

^uktinakha 

^ukrameha 



bunthika . 



a kind of 
meha 

astringent 

p 

a kind of 
meha 

dry ginger 

(Zingiber 

Officinale) 



sapindus 
detergens 
cuprum 
hog 



I. 170 54 (use of); 185,28 (). 

I. 172.32; 182.1. 

1.184.28 (use of) the marrow 

of). 

I. 190,18 (remedy for); 190.19. 

I, 147.10 (as a symptom of a 

fever); 147.11 () ; 147.12 ( J: ); 

147.15 (). 170.74 ("kriya, cold 

remedies); 177.43 (use of the 

water which is); 190.2 (,,); 

202.28. 

I. 159.23 (symptom of). 

T. 192.16 (use of). 

I. 202.78. 

I. 159.22 (symptoms of). 

I. 167.59 (use of); 169,30 
(); 170.29 (); 170.31 (use 
of white variety of); 170.45 
(): 170.42 (use of); 171.49 
(use of); 171.54 (); 172.16 
(); 172;23 (); 172.27 (); 
173.7 (); 175.4 (); 175.5 U: 
175.6( J} ); 1772 (); J 77.24 (); 
177.3* (); 177.40 (); 177.44 
(); 177.62 (); 177.67 (}; 
179.6 (); 181.6 (); 182.6 (J; 
184.34 (); 184.37 (); 185.22 
(); 185.26 (); 186.13 (); 
188.6 (); 191.17 (); 192.1 
(); 192.12 (); 192.13 (,,); 192. 
15(,,); 192.45 (); 193.11 (}; 
202.12. 
1.202.30. 

1.202.65. 

1.186.15 (use of the flesh of). 



APPENDIX 6 NAMES OF HERBS AND DISEASES IN GP. 195 



sukabimbi 
suraiia 



srgclla 

srfigavera 



spugStaka 

srrigl 

bephalika 

saila 



bailey a (ka) 

saivala 
boka 



soija 
sotha 



cowach (mucuna 1.190.2 (use of ). 
pruritus). 

a kind of edible 1.192.1 (use of ). 
root (tacca aspera) 

pain in different 1.168.42 (indication and 

parts of the body remedy for); 170.42 (); 170 46 

(); 170.47 (); 170.55 () ; 

171 2 (}; 172.9 ()-, 172.11 

(); 177.35 (); 184.35 (); 

184.37 (); 185.21 (); 185.22 
'(); 188 10 (); 189.3 (); 

192 10 (); 193. 10 (). 
sharp weapon 1.170.72 (to be used on newly 

sustained wounds), 
jackal I 193.14 (use of the excrement 

of), 
zingibet officinale 1.170.13 (use of); 182.22 (); 

183.1 (); 183.6 (,,1; 183.7 (); 

184.4 ( s> );201.11 (). 

1.173-2 (property of). 

1.193.11 (use of); 202.29. 

1.177.25 (use of the root of ). 

1.202.40. 

1,202.50 



trapa Bispinosa 
a kind of plant, 
vitex negundo 
cordia Myxa 
benzoin or storax; 
bitumen 
see previous 
see saila 

cerasus pudduin 
grief 



bignonia Indica 
swelling in 



1.177.44 (use of ). 
1.174.8 (use of); 185.13 (used 
as a charm). 
I 177.44 (use of). 
1.147.25; 147.26 (as a cause of 
a type of fever); 147 2 (sym- 
ptom of a fever due to) ; 153.3 
(as a cause of a type of loss of 
appetite). 

1.168.46 (the use of the root 
of). 
1.162.22; 162.29; 162.30; 162. 



different parts of 40; 163.1; 163.5; 17043 
the body. (remedy for); 170.65 (); 171. 



196 



GARUIJA PURAJjIA A STUDY 



^odhana, purifiyi 



ng 



sobhanjana (ka) Moringa 

( = iigi u) Ptery gosperrna 



synonym of 

ksaya 

dryness and also 

ksaya 

Piper Chaba or 

P. Longum 

Panicum Fru- 

mentaceum 



saundl 



(ka) 



syonska 
(cf. Sous 
^rarna 



Bignonia Indica 

m 

exhaustion 

Gmeline Arborea 
elephantiasis 

phlegm 



54 (); 172.15 (); 201.25 (). 

1.173.10 fprescription which 

Is); 273.13; 173.17 (,,); 174. 

19 (). 

I. 170.70 (from Sindhu; use 

of); 177.1 (use of the leaf of ); 

177.44 (use of the root); 184 6 

(use of); 188.7 use of the root 

of); 202.80. 

I- 152.2; 152.3; remedy for 

1.177.36; 185.16; 185.34. 193.5. 



I. 202.11. 

I. 169.3 (properties of); 170.24 
(use of); 170.60 (); 173.33 
(); 202.79. 
I. 192.4 (use of). 

I. 147.25 (as cause of a type 
of fever); 177.36 (remedy for). 
I. 202.24. 

(remedy for); 



I. I 70i70 
173.5 (). 
i. 146-19 

enragement 



( reasons for the 

of); 146.23; 
147.10 (symptoms of a type 
of fever due to); 147,11 (}; 
147.37 (); 147.78. as cause 
of different diseases: 
I. 147.34; 147.79; 149.1; 
155.13; 156.9; 156.37; 158.8; 
(things which produce) 
I. 148.10; 

(symptoms of different diseases 
caused by)^ 

I. 154.5; 156.37; 156.57; 
157.23; 158,8; 



slesmataka 



(a) 



(use of); 170.74 
192 5 (); 



^vitra 



sarhsth&na 

saktuka 

satata 
satina (ja) 
santata 

santapa 



APPENDIX 6 NAMES OF HERBS AND DISEASES IN GP. 197 

(remedy for) I. 171.34; 
171.62; 172.34; 173.24; 173.27; 
173.33; 175.5 (fever due to); 
201 8 (for wounds in horses; 
due to); 201 12. 

(characteristic features of man 
in whom slesma is predo- 
minant) 
I. 168.34. 

Gordia Latifolia I. 202.40. 
Asteracantha I. 170.14 

Longifolia (,,); 173.22 (); 

202.4. 
swelling I- 192.25 (remedy for). See 

also botha, 

breathing I. 147.10 (ifweak 3 it indicates 

a type of fever); 150.1 (symp- 
toms of diseases pertaining to); 
150.4; 151.1; 152.13 (ivasa- 
kasa, one of the forms of 
rsjayaksma); 173 5 (&vSsakasa., 
remedy for); 181.2 (); 181.3 
(); 181.4 (); 184.12 () ; 
185.33 (remedy for); 185.34 (). 
white leprosy I. 164.36; 16439 (curable or 
otherwise); 171.26 (remedy 
for); 192.30 (). 
name of various I. 202.15; 202.48. 

plants 

fixity, synonym 
of rupa 

barley meal 



sVayathu 



svasa 



a type of fever 
Pisum. Arvense 
a type of fever 

great heat 



I. 146.6 (symptom of a disease) 

I. 169.61 (properties of); 

177.51 (use of); 201.10 (). 

I. 147.67 (cause of ). 

I. 171- 10 (use of); 202. 71. 

I H7,44 (marks of); 147.45 

(cause of). 

I. 177.43 (ointment for) ; 177.51 



198 GARUQA PURStilA A STUDY 

sannipata a kind of fever I. 147.18 (symptoms of); 

147.19 ( ; 147.30 (caused by 
spell; the nature of); 160.9; 
175.10 (remedy for), 



saptaparna 


Alstonia I. 174.17 ( 




Scholaris 


saptala 


name of several I. 202.47. 




plants 


samauga 


bengal madder I. 202.27. 




(name of several 




plants) 


samirat) a 


wind, a humour I. 146.16 | 




in the body ment); i 



sarhpaka 



sarhprapti 


location an 




essential 




category in 




respect of 




a disease 


sarala( kslra) 


Pinus Longifolia 


sarja, sarjaka } 


Vateria Indica 


sarjiks 


or Vatica 




Robusta ? 



sarpa 
sarpis 



serpent 
clarified butter 



sarsapa 



Brassica 
Nigra 



160,49 (causes false 
pregnancy in woman); 168.18 
(things which enrage). 
I. 202.82. 
I. 146.3; 146 9 (definition of). 



I. 192-22 (use of); 201.6 (), 
I. 171.20 (use of); 173.10 ( J} ); 
177.19 (); 177.42 (); 177,54 
()! 177.84 (); 1797 (); 
180.11 (); 184.14 (); 192:48 
(); 202.61 (); 202.79. 
I. 172.20 (remedy for the bite 
of), 

I. 169.45 (use of); 169.46 
(merits of that of a goat); 
170.48 (use of); 170.73 (); 
171.10 (}; 171.37 (); 171.50 
(); 171.64 (}; 172.14 (,J; 
173.25 (); 173.26 (); 177.57 
(); 180.5 (used as a charm); 
187.4 (use of). 

I. 169.13 (bad properties of); 
169.48 (use of); 170,69; 171.18 



APPENDIX 6 NAMES OF HERBS AND DISEASES IN GP. 199 

(); 171.19 (use of the variety 
obtained from sindhu); 171.49 
(use of); 172.33 (); 174.21 
(,,); 176 15 (use of the white 
variety of); 177.64 (use of 
root of the white variety of); 
178.3 (use of the white variety 
of '; 180.9 (use of ; 180.11 (); 
183.18 (); 184.23 (); 185.18 
(use of the white variety as a 
charm); 1888 (use of); 198.10 
(); 190.10 (use of the white 
variety of); 190.22 (use of) 
191.23 (); 192.12 (); 193.6 
(,,); 201.6 (); 201. 14. 
I. 159.12- 



sarsapika 



a type of 
prameha 



sallaki 




see Sallaki. 


savidarikS 


a kind of 


I. 159.12. 




prameha 




sabtila 


a kind of 


I. 165.13. 




parasite 




? sasarja 




I. 177.52 (use of the juice 






of). 


sahadevl 


Vernonia 


I. 1535.10 (used as a charm). 


(ardhaprsa- 


Ginerea 




dana) 






satmya 


agreeable to 


I. 146.8. 




natural 






constitution 




sandrarneha 


a kind of 


I. 159.20 (symptom of). 




meha 




s3.mu.dra 


the salt 


I. 170.18 (use of ). 




obtained from 






ocean 




sara 


a kind of iron ? 


I. 202.31. 


saravaka 


? 


I. 202.10. 


sSrsapa 




see sarsapa. 



200 

sirhhasya 

sirhhl 
sikatameha 

sikthaka 

sitacandana 

sita 

sit&tulya 

sitopala 

sidhma (ma) 
sindura 



PURAlilA A STUDY 



Gendarussa 

Vulgaris or 

Bauhinia 

Variegata or 

Adhatoda Vesika. 

name of various 

plants. 

a kind of 

meha (gravelly 

sediment in the 

urine). 

boiled rice 

from which the 

water has been 

poured off 

Santalum 

Album. 

sugar 

crystal 
sugar 
a kind of 
kus^ha 



Plumbi 

Oxidum 

Rubrum. 

sindhuvSra (ka) vitex negundo' 

(nlrgujjdi 

ilephalika) 

sihlika ? 

slsaka lead 

sukumarl Jasminum 

sambac or 
grandiflorum 

sugandha cf. next 

sugandhika ? 

sugandhika ? 



I. 202.52. 

I. 2G2.5. 

I. 159.22 (symptom of). 

I. 177.19 (use of); 177,54 {). 



I. 202.28. 

See also candana. 

I. 171.32 (use of ); 202.67- 

I. 17056 (use of). 

I. 202.67. 

I. 164.8; 164.21 (symptoms of); 
171.21 (remedy for); 184.1 (>,\> 
190.19 (}. 

I. 174.20 (use of ); 185.29 (); 
190.16 (,,). 

1.172,43 (use of ); 202,37 (); 
202.81 (). 

1.190.18 (remedy for). 
1.176.7 (use of); 184.20 (). 
1.202.48, 



1. 1 78.20 (used as a charm), 
I. 178.20 (used as a charm). 
202. i 9, 
1.202.37; 202.53, 



APPENDIX 6 NAMES OF HERBS AND DISEASES IN GP. 201 



sugandhiparnl 


? 


1.202.36; 202.37. 


(nika) 






sudar^ana 


tlnospora 


1.177.80 (use of the root of); 




tomentosa cf. t. 


189.13 (). 




cordifolia. 




sudha 


calcti oxidum 


1.171.17 (use of); 181.9 (); 






202,35. 


sunandaka 


aristolochia indica 


1.202.41. 


surang! 


? 


I 202.56. 


suradSru 


pinus deodara 


1.175.7 (use of ); 192.44 (). 


surabhika 


name of various 


1.184.32 (use of); 202.24. 


surabhi 


fragrant plants. 




surasa 


vitex trifolia 


1.202.35. 


(jalanirgundi) 






sura 


wine 


I.159.H (as a cause of prameha), 


suvarcala 


ruta graveolens 


1.192.32 (use of ). 


suvarcika 


natron 


1.174.17 (use of). 


(cf. varjika} 






sucaka 


a kind of rice ? 


1.202.34. 


suti (roga) 


puerperal sickness 1.173.2 (remedy for) 


supa 


soup 


1.159.14 (as a cause of prameha}; 






169.58 (use of). 


suryavasta 


gynandropsis 


1. 171. 64 (use of). 




pentaptylla or 






heliotropium 






indicum 




seka 


sprinkling water 


1.177.14; 177.61; 190.25 




(shower bath). 




saindhava 


rocksalt 


1.169.32 (use of ); 170,18; 170. 



22 (use of ); 170.45 (); 170.67 
(); 170.75; 170,76 (use of); 
171.48 (); 171.52 (}; 171.54 
()? 171-58 (,,1; 171.59 (); 
171.63 (); 171.64 (); 172.2 
00; 172.39 0,); 176.11 0,); 
176.13 {); 176.16 (); 177.5 
{}; 177.7 {); 177.9 (); 177. 
150.-); 77.I9 (); 177.400,); 
177.52 (); 177.62 (); 177.67 



202 



GARUI?A PURA^AA STUDY 



somaraja (jt) 



somavalli 



somavrkja 



soma 



Vernonia 
Anthelminthica. 



Cocculus Gordi- 
folius 



(); 179.7 (); 180.5 (used as a 

charm); 181.9 (use of); 182.9^); 

182.22 (); 182.25 (); 183. 

18( }J ); 185.l6(usedas a charm); 

185.30 (use of); 185.34 (); 

186.10 (); 186.14 (); 188.11 

(); 190.10 (); 190.13 (}; 
190.28 (); 191.14 (); 191.18 
(,); 192.7; 192.9 (use of) 1 ; 
192.16 (); 192.35 C,,)i 192.40 
(); 192.43 (); 192.45 (}; 
193.8(,,);20J.10(,,); 202.60. 

I. 180.6 (use of); 182.7 (); 
183.18( 5; ); 190.10 (use of the 
root of); 190.11 (use of the 
seeds of); 190.14 (use of); 
202.55. 

I. 202.55. 



name of various 1.202.53. 
plants (Acacia 
Arabica etc.). 

Sarcostema 
Vimijjaldis or 
Asclepias Acid a. 



I- 174.1 (use of ). 



saugandhika 

saugandha- 

parrjika 

sauvareala (la) sochal salt 



sauvlra (ka) Zizyphus 
Vulgaris 



see sugandhika. 

see sugandha parnika. 

! 170.18; (use of) I. 169.33; 

17053; 170.61; 171.65; 179.7; 

182.6; 184.37; 185.22; 186.2; 
192.16; 192.24 

I. 202.67; 169.54 (properties 
ofijuseof: I 171.20; 180.5; 
180.11; 187.13; 192.46. 



a type of parasite I. 165,13. 



APPENDIX 6 NAMES OF HERBS AND DISEASES IN GP. 203 



stana 
stanya 



slambha 



sthirS. 

sthaulya 

snayu 
smihl 

sncbana 
srava 

sruk 
svara 

svarabhedt 
svadhu 

svinna 
sveda 



breast I. 190.3 (remedy for pain in). 

mother's milk I. 172.3 (prescription to 
purify) 172.15 (prescription to 
remove abhnva). 

numbness (para- I. 147.4 (cause of); 147.6 (as 
lysis) an effect of a fever); 147.11 

(a symptom of a fever); 173.20 
(remedy for); 180.12 (prescrip- 
tion which causes). 

Desmodium I. 202.2. 

Gangeticum or 
Salmalia Mala- 
barica. 

stoutness I. 170.59 (prescription which 

causes); 173.13 (prescription 
which reduces). 

muscle I. 174.11 (remedy for the 

diseases of); 202.56. 

Euphorbia 1.202.85, I. 170.68 (use of); 

Antiquorum 171.48; 177.28; 185.20; 186.10; 

anointing I. 173.32 

flow of (discharge I. 179.8 (remedy for), 
of; (miscar 
riage ?) 

an implement I. 202.35. 

vo i ce I. 190.28 (remedy for defect in). 

? I. 170.32 (use of). 

I. 173.14. 



sweetness 

causing to 
perspire 

sweat, pers- 
piration 



I. 169.16 (use of); 169.58 () 

I. 147.11 (as a symptom of a 
fever); 147.13 (); 172.15 (a 
course of action which causes); 
173.33 (when it is not 
recommended to be caused). 



204 
haibsapadi 

hanustambha 

hayagandhs, 

hayamSraka 
(=karavlra \ 

haritala 



GARUDA-PURA"MA A STUDY 



haridrS 



( = abbaya) 



barepuka 



liallmaka 



Adiantum 
Gapillus 
Vencris ? 

jaw seizure, 
lock jaw 

Physalis 
Flexuosa 

Nerium 
Odorum 

Arseiiv. 
Trisulphidum 



I. 202.5 (use of). 



1.173.18 (remedy for); 173.20 
(the things, the excess use of 
which causes). 
I. 185.18 (use of). 

I. 174.17 (use of). 

I. 202.64 (use of). 

I. 174.20; 177.82; 178.3 (as a 

charm); 179.1; 



181.7; 181.8; 

181.9; 182.24; 190.13; 191.15; 
192.26. 

Curcuma Longa 1.202.32. use of:- I. 171.17; 
171.53; 173.14; 173.21; 173.24; 
175.11; 177.12; 177.26:177.64; 
178.20 (as a charm); 179.9; 
183.14; 183.17; 184.14; 185.27; 
185,36; 186.8; 186.10; 190.10; 
190,13; 190.19; 190.20; 191.22; 
192-26; 193.6; 201.9. 

Terminalia I. 202.35; 169,22 (description 

Chebula of ); use of: 1. 170.22; 170.29; 

170.49; 170.50; 171.50; 172.39; 
175.9; 177,15; 177.17; 177,54; 
179.2; 181.2; 183.4; 183.6; 
183.10; 185.13; 185.28; 186.6; 
186.14; 190.10; 193.13; 201.31; 



a kind of pea 
or pulse 



a type of 
p&nduroga 
(jaundice) 



201, 32. I. 202.16. 



I, 202.13. 
I. 162.20. 



APPENDIX 6NAMES OF HERBS AND DISEA.5ES IN GP. 



205 



hastikarna 



hastidanta 

hastimeha 
haridrameha 
hikka . 



Colocasia 

Macrorrhiza 

cf. Monier 

William Bokea 

Frondosa ? 
radish ? or 

tusk of an 

elephant 

a kind of meha 



I. 170.69 (use of); 187.1 (). 



I. 176.1 (use of). 



I. 159.5 (symptoms of 



hii'igu 



hii'igula 
hijjala 



a kind of meha I. 159.2 (symptoms of), 
hiccough I. 151.1 (symptoms of); 151.2; 

151.3; 151.4; 151.5; 151.7 (a 
type of); 151.9 (); 151.13 
( effect of ) ; remedy 
170.31; 172.17 181.2; 
184.12; 186.2. 

Ferula Asa I. 202.19 ; 202.59. 

Foetida. use qf1. 168.43; 16941; 

170.46; 170.70; 170.75; 176 11; 

177.45; 179.6; 181.2; 182.6; 

184.37; 185.22; 188.10; 192.12; 

193.3; 201. 7. 

red sulphide ash I. 192.13 (use of). 
Barringtonia T. 188.2 (use of ). 



(=dhatrlphala) Acutangula 
hrcchula heart pain 



hrdaya, hrd heart 



hjilasa 



palpitation 
heart; also 
hiccup. 



remedy for I. 172.11; 177.56: 
182,21; 185.21. 

I. 154.1 (symptoms of); 154.6; 
154.7 (effect of disease of); 
170.53 (remedy for the diseases 
of); 172.3 (remedy for); 
177.37 (}; 184.37 (remedy for 
the diseases of ). 

of see also hikkS. 

I. 147.4 (cause of); 147.7 
(an effect of a fever). 



206 GARUDA PURXtfA-A STUDY 

hetu Me I, 146,4 as one of the ailgas 



in the diagnosis); H6.7, 
hemakflri \ y^,^, 

hemanta winter season I, 182,1 (curd recommend 

ed in). 

hemsbha 1 205,22 

taimavatl T onojc 

i, 6,\Jt,i(Ji 

brivera j 202 .2i. 



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ut ilie obscure esoteric symbolism of legends and myths of the 
The editors invite contributions from all those scholars 

e interested in the culture of the Piirana literature in which 
tliewligionand philosophy of the Vedas have fowl the fullest 
expression, 



Vol XIV. No. 2 ] 




PURANA 



[ Half-yearly Bulletin of the Purana-Department } 

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Padrna-Bhushan Dr. V. Ra-havan, M. A., Ph. D. ; 
Rtd. Professor and Head of the Sanskrit Dept., 
Madras University, Madras. 

Dr. LuJwik Sternbacb, LL. D., Prof, of Indology, 
University of Paris, Paris (Sorborme). 

S1 p;! n !!t SWarUPGUPta ' M - A " ShaStd; Asstt. Director, 

t., All-India Kashiraj Trust. (Edttor-in-Charge} 



f L 

for their views, which, da not 
the Tmst. 



.'J^* J 5 "? * ' E "V"f ^^ , ^ 



Vol. XIV., No. 2 ] SSTHlqinSf t [July 26, 1972 

r Contents 

Pages 

91 

[ Brahma-para Eulogy of Siva ] 92-93 

3. Textual and Historical Analysis of the PurSjja- 
Gommentary Relating to Maurya Dynasty 



94 _ 106 

By Dr. 5. JV. Roy; 

Reader, JDeptt. of Ancient India History and 

Culture, Univ. of Allahabad. 

4. Some Problems Regarding the Brahma-vaivarta- 
Purana 

[^t^cfj^Tirf^TiRTT: %=^T ^Roftzrf^rqT:] 107-12-1 

By Dr. AnantarayJ. Rawal; 

Deptt. of Sanskrit, Jayendrapuri Arts and 

Science College, Broach (Gujarat), 

5. Problem of the Extent of the Kfirma-Purana Text 

[cjvqt^finqTSFST Tf^nrfoq-zT^t F*np?f:] 125-136 

By Sri Anand S war up Gupta; 
Asstt. Director,, Puraija Deptt. 

Notes and Comments 

1. Did the Author of BhSgavata know KalidSsa 

[^TTT^cr^TJ^TOIFT ^ff: ^ftT^TH STRICT T Wf] 137-140 

By Dr. Shiva Shanker Prasad; 
Deptt. of Sanskrit, L. S. College, Muzaffarpur. 

2. Propriety of using Umbrella and shoes by VSmana 

as a Brahmacarin 



By Dr, Ganga Sagar Rai; 
All-India Kashiraj Trust. 



li 



3. The Position of Brahmanas and Commoners 
under the rule of a Tyrant Monarch 



Retd, Principal, Patna Law College 
Activities of the All-India Kasblraj Trust 



GaruijaPurSija.A Study 

(Appendix-Wndex of the names in OP,) 207-387 
ty A ftp/fas, 



ifcT 



JT: 



, ? 



-(Asiatic Society Catalogue, V } 3404) 




1 1 v i 

* The word 'Brahma-para* literally means the highest object of the 
aacred knowledge aa contained in the Brahma or Veda. The Saiva 
Puranas regard Siva as the Brahma-para, while according to the 
Vawjava Puranaa Vianu is the Brahma-para. An eulogy in praise 
o Swa or Visnu with the epithets 'Brahma-para', <Apara-para> 
Para-para* etc. ia termed as Brahm*>f5n,stava (or ...jorJ. The 
Kurma-Purana, being prcdominently a Saiva-Puraiia, eontaina 
Siva's Brahma.para.stMa (as given here) tittered by sage Sadku- 
t while the Visnu,Pur-na (I. 15 54-59) contains Vifnu'a 



ra-stava uttered by sage Kaneju. Another Brahma-para-stava 



8age N3rada is also 8 iven in th c Varaha-Purana 

* 



The Kurma-Purana gives the above Brahma-pHra-stava in 
connection with the glorification of Siva's Kapardisvara-liAga 
eBtabhahcd near the Pi'Xca-mocana-tlrtha in VarEnaai. This sMra 
andT Tt ^ I - P S SC f SivE in hi8 ^"rt-form (wearing braided 
31r ' 



t 

7 f 31r - lC a ^ flrrf r wri*-kdl). In fact, va's 
; f tl" ? ^^ u eymboliacs th flnei of fire and the rays of the 
SUn b " ng the tW f the c * h * 



"" Pr-i*- first the immanent 
(gls. 4QffO 

A. 5. Gupta 



JULY, 1972] 



93 



TOT 



: JTT^ft fTOT^i ^f 



c 



f^Pff 



fit 



i ivy. 



I |Yvs 



TEXTUAL AND HISTORICAL ANALYSIS OF THE 

PURANA-COMMENTARY RELATING TO 

MAURYA-DYNASTY. 



BY 

S. N. ROY 



am 



srcrM i ] 

la view of the accumulated treasury of our knowledge about 
the history of Maurya and in view of the fact that mostly speaking 
materials relating to this topic have been subjected to competent 
analysis at several times 1 ., any further attempt at their interpreta- 
tion can hardly lead to the emergence of fresh conclusions. This 
remark accord well with the problem relating to the origin of the 
Mauryan rulers, which is so very well examined by the scholars 
that out of the known stock of sources, it can not be reopened for 
the relevant garb of sober history. [Despite this apparent con- 
sideration for the old and trodden topic, fresh analysis of the 
Puranic material can well be presented in consequence of its varied 
forms preserved in the passages of the available texts. Keeping 
fully into account these essential points, it is proposed here to 
make scrutiny of the textual features of the Purana-Commentary on 
historical framework of Ancient India], 



I. R.K. Mookcrji, Ghandragupta Maurya and His Tiisea; C. D. 
Chattel, Observation on the Bjhat-katha in Indian Culture, 
PUrSa TCX f 4 ^ ^nasties of The Kali 






JULY, 1972] MAtFRYA-DYNASTY 95 

Well evidenced and much commendable suggestions have 
often been made that any line relating to udra-origin of the 
Mauryas does not occur in the Purana-text, the general purport of 
which is in no way intended for any reference either to the noble 
or ignoble lineage from which these rulers hailed. Emphasis has 
also been laid on the broad fact that the original Puranic lines 
concerned with the topic were subjected to an abrupt formation 
and misinterpreted rendering in the Commentaries of the Purana- 
text, written comparatively at a much later date." In their own 
way these suggestions do not admit of any objections and un- 
doubtedly these are pointer to a correct scrutiny of the state of 
affairs brought out by the PurSna-text on one hand and the 
PurSna-Commentary on the other. Despite the soundness and 
accuracy contained in such remarks, there is, however, one serious 
consideration to which adequate attention has not been paid by 
the scholars so far. Ever since the beginning of the studies in the 
dynastic account of the Pur anas, no serious effort has been made 
to clarify as to which extent and due to which particular factor 
there could exist textual disparity, explanatory inconsistency and 
contradictions between the early and late informations emerging 
from the same school of works and converging on the same subject, 
The particular PurSnas on which some noteworthy com- 
mentaries were prepared in later times are the Visnu and the 
Bhagavata 3 , whereas the commentaries which refer to the lineage 
of the Mauryan kings either directly or indirectly are those explain- 
ing the extracts; viz. 'Kautilya eva Candraguptamutpannarh 
rajye j abhiseksyati', of the former text. As the general wording, 
description and intended sense of these commentaries are significant 

' 2. R. K. Mookerji, Ibid, pp. 9 & 10. 

3. No leas than seven commentaries were written, on the text of 
Vignu Purana. These are attributed to the following authors ; 
(1)' Citsukha, (2) Jagannatha PSthaka, (3) Ntsiriha Bhatta, (4) 
Ratnagarbha, (5) Visnu Citta, (6) Sruiharasvamin, (7) Surya- 
kara Misra. To the text of Bhagavata are appended as eleven 
commentaries. Among these Citsukhiya and Srldhariya figure 
most prominent. Other nine are ascribed to the following 
authors : 

(1) Sudarsana Suri, (2) Vira RSghava fS) Vijayadhvaja (4) 
Vallabhacarya, (5) Sukadevacarya, (6) SanStanagosvamm, (?) 
Jivagosvamin, (8) Visvanatha Gakravartin (9) Sridhara. 



96 g^ran* Pi [VOL, xiv, NO. 2 

in context of the present discussion ; some of these may be 
illustrated in their original forms as under : 

(1) Candraguptamutpannam Nandasyaiva BhSry5yam 
Murayam Jatam (Com. of Citsukha) 

(2) Candraguptam Nandasyaiva Patnyarhtarasya MurS- 
sajilyasya MaurySnSm Prathamam (Com. of Ratana- 
garbha, noticed by Dr. R. K. Mukerji in Chandragupta 
.Maurya And Hjs Times, p. 9). 

(3) Candraguptam Nandasyaiva SudrSyam MaurasajMyam 
Jatam MauryanSm Prathamam; (Com. of Visnucitta). 

(4) Candraguptam Nandasyaiva Patnyariitarasya MuraySrh 
Jatam MaurySjjam Prathamam (Com, of isrldhara SvSml). 

A glance over these quoted extracts clearly shows that pri- 
marily these are all concerned with describing the metronymy of 
Candragupta, andj while their general reference is to Mur5 being 
mother of the first Mauryan king s one of these goes a step further 
and does not fail to mention her Sudra-caste. The question as to 
uho invented the theory of the udra origin of the Maurya king 
was earlier taken into full account by late Dr. R. K. Mookerji, 
who concluded in the most categorical fashion that the PurSna- 
(.'oramentator cannot beheld responsible for it. He has made a 
pointed reference to the 'silence' of the PurSn.a-Commentator 
about the caste of Alura in as much as in the concerned line there 
a no statement to the effect that she was a udra woman 4 . It goes 
without saying that the basis of this conclusion is one single 
commentary of the Visnu Purana text, whereas for its proper 
survey the present serious point has to be enlightened by the set of 
the commentaries appended to the original passage of the text. 
How far this PurSna-Commentary has its relevance to the meaning 
of the original Purana.p assage wm be analysed subsequently , 
Here ,t would b c proper to lay stress on the following three main 
atpccts of the reports contained in the Commentaries on the con- 
cerned Puran,i-pa!sage: 



, been des ibed in them as a lawfully 

wedded queen of the Nanda king. 

(21 That Mo* has a l so been described in their Unes as 
Bother of Candragupta who founded the dynasty after 
... *_Mffleofhinnothep. 
* K. K. Moofcerji, Ibid, p . 10. 



JULY, 1972] MAURYA-DYNASTY 97 

(3) That the tradition relating to the udra-caste of the 
Mauryas was getting distinct publicity in these later 
writings. 

Before considering the problem of consistency of these Com- 
mentaries with the original PurSna-texts, in relation to which these 
are explanatory notes, it seems worthwhile to point out that in a 
numbei of cases due to the revisionary role of the later copyists the 
passages construed in the original Pur ana- Compositions could not 
remain intact and undisturbed at the later stages. Revisions were 
often effected in their passages with a view to making them 
adaptable to the later social and religious developments, but no 
less frequently these were also brought out as a result of the 
Compiler's ignorance of the historical matter contained in them 
at the original stage of their compilation. One suitable passage 
illustrating the latter case may be quoted from the dynastic account 
of Vayu Purana. The passage in question relates to the history 
of the Suuga dynasty after the death of Fusyamitra. Most of the 
copies of Vayu PurSna describe that he was succeeded by Agnimitra, 
who continued to rule f.ir eight years. Similar information is 
supplied by the text of Brahinanda-Purana. The original Samskrit 
line running in these texts may be quoted as under: 

(A) Tatsuto' agnimitrSstau Bhavisyati Sama Nrpab. 

(Vayu Purana, Uttara BhRga, XXXVII. 332) 

(B) Agnimitro Nrpaiac3stau Bhavisyati Sama Nrpah 

(Brahmanda Purana, III. 74,151} 

But one of the Vayu copies 5 reads this line a bit differently 
in the following words: 

'Pusyamitrasutascasljau Bhavisyarhti Sama Nrpah 5 

The present reading is a clear testimony to the fact that the 
compiler had hardly any knowledge of uuga-history and accord- 
ingly he mistook the word Sam5 for the meaning similar to that 
ofSamana. He also made other changes in the sentence, which 
he deemed essential from the point of view of grammar without 
realizing its significance intended in the original account of the 

5. This variant reading has been noted by Pargitcr, Ibid, p. 31, fn. 
10. He rightly remarks that here 'singulars have obviously been 
converted plurals through misapplying a ? t a u to suta instead of 
to *sama. 



98 S*TIR PURSJJIA [VOL. xrv> NO. 2 

text. As a result of its tampering the sentence preserved in the 
present copy of Vayu supplies a thoroughly fantastic information 
to the effect that Pusyamitra had eight sons and that they 
simultaneously ruled over the eight territorial divisions of his 
empire. Surprisingly enough some scholars have attached undue 
importance to this version and have made a use of it in the 
reconstruction of uuga-history. 8 

It may again be observed that as a result of ignorance of the 
later copyists the original PurSna-parsage was bound to get altered 
and consequently its meaning in conformity with the actual state of 
affairs could not well be carried out in the commentary work. A 
testimony to this type of disappropriation between the original text 
and its later commentary is found in the account of Visnu Purar^a 
concerning the confused order of the society stated to have been 
due to the barbaric invasions. The passage of Visnu PurS#a runs 
as under : 

"Tairvimi&a Janapadastacchllavartino Rsja^rayasusmirAO 
Mlecchasciitjasca Viparyayena VartamSnSb. Prajah Ksapayisyanti"' 
In the present passage 'Mleccha^cas'caryasca Viparyayena Varta- 
u.&nah' deserves special consideration. This expression, no doubt, 
Jiives the stamp of distinct status to the Visnu-PurSna's text, 
because in their similar account the texts of Vayu", Brahmanda" 
and Bhagavatai" have almost a different reading. The passage 
occurring in Vayu and Brahmgnda PurSnas is identical not only in 
form but in meaning also. It reads : "Tairvimra JanapadS 
Wtcchi.rtrKca Sarva^ah/Viparyayena Vartatante Na%isyanti Vai 
Pjab'\ IntheBhagavata, on the other hand, the passage is no 
doubt d M n,tor in form to those of these two texts yet it shares in 
common Wjlh them in regpect of ^ meaning> The Bh5gayata 

passage reads : "Prajaste Bhafrsayisyanti Mleccha Rajanyarupi^aW 
lannathaste ^pzte.stacchllacaravadinah. The purport of these 
ay be related here with a view to evaluating 




Visnu PuKtaa, IV. 24,72. 
V "> ' u Purtna, XCIX. 384. 
J** 1 * 1 * 1 '^ Prana, III. 74, 20 3. 
Bhagavata, XII. 1.42. 



JULY, 1972] MAURYA-DYNASTY 99 

their significance in comparative set-up and to ascertaining the 
persistent factor, which could be responsible for the distinct 
element contained in the Visnu PurSna passage. The texts of 
VSyu, BrahmSnda and Bhagavata aim at narrating that during the 
foreign invasions people will begin to follow the practices of the 
barbaric intruders, and this will lead to their decay. The text of 
Visrjiu Puran.a because of employment of the expression Mleccha- 
bcaryasca for Mlecchacarabca of the other three texts remains 
unintelligible unless otherwise it is studied with the help of the 
Commentary-notes on it. The commentator explains Mlecchascar- 
ya^ca etc. as under : "Mleccha Madhye Aryas'cante ityetadrupena 
Vartamanah. As shown by Wilson the commentary means 'that 
the unbelievers are in the heart of the country and the Hindus on 
the border 511 . The literal meaning of the commentary is 'the 
Mlecchas will be in the centre and Aryas on the borders'. As far 
the question of chronological sequence, it has to be admitted that 
the texts of Vayu, BrahmSnda and Bhagavata are early in date 
not only because of unanimity of their account, but also because 
of the fact that the Visrjm-PurSna account reveals political order 
of India relating to a much later period. It points to the beginning 
of muslim rule in India, when the Sultanate hegemony was being 
deeply rooted in the centre, whereas borders were still under the 
rule of the Hindu chiefs. The passage of Visnu Purana has in it 
an echo of political condition of India of about 13th century A.D., 
when the Sultanate rule established in Delhi was facing constant 
resistance of the Senas, the Candelas and the Cauhanas holding 
their political sway respectively over the eastern, southern and 
western frontiers 12 . The Commentator of Visnu-Purana as we shall 
subsequently notice belongs to the same general period i. e. 13th 
century A. D. It is, thus, not improbable that the expression 
Mlecchas'caryaisca is a later substitute of the original MlecchScarS- 
ca and that the substitution seems due to the revisionary role of 
the commentator for making the original account uptodate in 
later times. 

One pertinent example showing how the original meaning 
of the PurSna-term and even the original term itself was subjected 
to severe revision may again be cited from the text of Visnu-Pur5na. 

11. Translation of Visnu Purana, p. 387, fn. 

12. A.B.M. Habibullah in Struggle For Empire, pp. 145-147. 

2 



ioo swa; PURX^A [VOL. xiv, NO. 2 



The Parana-text refers to the Patumitras among the people ruling 

over the Vindhyan regions during 3rd century A, D. 1M . The fact 

which is of special note in the present context is that the text of 

Visnu Purana does not preserve in it the original terra indicative 

of the land over which the Patumitras ruled. Similar is the case 

with the text of Bhagavata 14 which, while, mentioning the people 

called Patumitras makes the reference to the land under their 

jurisdiction. That originally a reference to the above effect had 

been made in these two texts is attested not only by the general 

make-up and the style of their passages but also by the fact that 

the texts of Vayu and Brahmanda 15 specifically mention the terri- 

tory in relation to the Patumitras in their respective verses. It 

may also be pointed out that the texts ofVisn.uand Bhagavata 

replacing the term under reference by the term of different conno- 

tations are those which contain explanatory notes of the Commen- 

tators mentioned above. This seems to be a fact of special signi- 

ficance in as much as it tends to show that the commentators were 

no less responsible for the additions or alterations in the passages 

originally composed in the Puraija- texts. The variant readings of 

the available texts of Visnu and Bhagavata are listed by Pargiter, 16 

a. careful reconstruction of which does not fail to prove the original 

unity of Visnu and Bhagavata in respect of the passage under 

reference with the texts of Vayu and Brahmanda. The reconstruct- 

ed form of the passage out of the different versions of all these 

four texts assumes the following reading : 

'Pusyamitra bhavisyanti Patumitras trayodas"a MekalaySm 
nrpah sapta bhavisyanti-iha saptatim 1 

The altered form of the passage in the respective texts of 
Visnu and Bhagavata runs as follows : 

Tatah Puspamitrah PatumitiSstrayodas'a Ekalaca Saptan- 
dhrah/Tata^ca KoiSalayam tu nava caiva bhupatayo bhavisyanti'// 



'Puspamitro'tha rajanyo Durmitro'sya tathaiva ca Ekakala 
jme bhupah saptandhrafr sapta kosSalah.' Bhagavata. 

13. Vitjiiu Purlin a, IV, 24. 58. 

14. Bhrtgavata, XII. 1.34. 

15. Vayu Purana, XCIX, 369. 
Brahmtlnda Puriuja, III. 74.187. 

16. Pargiter, Ibid, p. 151. 



JULY, 1972] MAURYA-DNAYSTY 101 

From these quotations it is quite evident that the basic 

difference between the reconstructed passage and the passages of 

Vissm and BhSgavata is that the term Mekala of the former has 

been replaced by Ekala and Ekakala in the respective readings of 

the latter two texts. There can not be any doubt about the fact 

that Mekala points to au ancient geogiaphical division of the 

country so very well known to thp Purana-writers and as D.G. 

Sircar 17 proceeds to explain 'the name Mekala is still preset ved 

in that of the present Maikala range which is the connecting link 

between the Vindhyas and the Satpuras and stretches from the 

Khairagarh area in M.P. to the Rewah region'. Similar is the note 

of V,S. Agrawal 18 , who on the basis of Vamana Purana XIII. 53 

describes Mekala as one of the Janapadas of Vindhyan region. 

It seems quite convenient to conclude that Mekala was changed 

into Ekala and Ekakala due to the ignorance of the later compilers 

about the geography of the area concerned The fact, however, 

remains that if we analyse the problem from a more suitable angle 

it will appear that the substitution. was in all probability effected 

with a view to adjusting the passage according to the prevalent 

set-up of the later times. In the commentaries of both these 

Puranas the term Ekala/Ekakala is explained as Khandamandalesu 

Bhupah i.e. rulers of Mandala-sub-divisions. Consideration of the 

following evident fact seems essential before the analysis of this 

term and commentary-meaning on it is finalised. In the ancient 

Hindu political organization Maijdala-division can not refer to 

the general period in which the historical account of the PurSna- 

text is placed by the scholars. There is no doubt that the term 

Mandala occurs in early texts like Artha&stra" and Manusmrti"''. 

But in these works it is employed in a much different sense. It 

has been rightly remarked that Manila of these texts refers to a 

diplomatic circle of neighbouring kings in relation to a king 

desirous of conquest. Later on, the term came to be used for a 

circle of feudatories headed by a chief and paying allegiance to an 

17. D. G. Sircar, Geography of Ancient And Medieval India, p. 
34, n. 

18. V. S. Agrawal, Vamana Purana-A Study, p. 32; See also 5. 
Chaudhuri, Place-names in the Vamana Purana iu Indian Histo- 
rical Quarterly, Vol. XXXIX, No. ) & 2, p. 48. 

19. Arthasaatra, VI. 1.2. 

20. Manusm^ti, VII. 155-157. 



102 straps; PURSi^i A [VOL. xiv, NO. 2 

overlord 21 . The term of the PurSjja-text as also the commentary 
on it seems to carry the meaning and sense of almost similar 
terms employed in the texts and inscriptions of still later periods. 
Among such texts mention may specially be made of ManasSra 22 , 
which is said to be a work of early medieval period The present 
work not only makes use of Mandalevara 3 but also explains it as 
Kudra-BhupaJa. An identity can well be established between 
Ksudra-BhttpSla and Khanda-Mandala-Bhupa in so far as the 
historical interpretation of the two terms is concerned. Both these 
terms seem to refer to rulers of smaller area or to governors of terri- 
torial divisions or subdivisions. The commentary-term Kb.aijd.a- 
Mandala-Bhupa seems more akin to Khanda-PSla and Khar^ida- 
Raksa, the former occurring in the Ramagunj inscription and the 
latter in one of the Pala grants of the time of Devapala datable 
in 9th century A.D. 2H These terms are taken to denote an officer 
put in-charge of a comparatively small area. These parallel 
references leave little room for doubt that the commentary-term 
Khanda-Mandala-Bhupa has in it the sense of a much later period 
and that the original Purana-term Mekala was changed into 
Ekala'Ekakala by the Purana-Commentators evidently with a view 
(o making the passage upto the changed order of their own times. 

Sectarian bias and religious rivalary had a dominant role in 
the revision of the Purana-texts and in the distortion of some 
elements of great historical value contained in their original make- 
up. An Instance may here be given for illustrating that the text 
of VisnuPurana betrays the influence of this trend in its account 
relating to the dynasties of the Kali age. Thus the list of the 
Mauryan rulers, which is available in its different copies supplies 
three variant forms of Afoka's name, which are as under: AiSoka, 
Afakavardbana and AyoSokavardhana." Of these three forms the 
last one i. e. Ayoaokavardhana seems specially noteworthy and 
deserves serious consideration. Pargiter has made special note 
of this variant^ reading, but he is inclined to explain it in veiw 

21, B.N.S. Yadava, Some Aspects of Society of Northern India in 12th 
century A.D., pp. 185- 189. 

K.K. Gopal Administrative Divisions in the Inscriptions of Early 
Mcdiewl India i n I, H Q, Vol. XXXIX, No. 1 & 2, p. 83. 

23. M-njs-ra, (Ed. by P.K. Acharya) Chap. 42, 282. 

3. B C. Sen, Historical Aspects of B enga i Inscriptions, p. 561. 

24. For these variant readings See Pargitcr, Ibid, p. 28, fn. 28. 



JULY,, 1972} tfAURYA-DYNASTY 103 

of palaeographic ignorance of the copyist who prepared the version 
of the text at some late stage. 25 The sum and substance of Par- 
giter's comment on the present term may be noted as follows: 

(1) That the original account of Visnu PurSna must have 
been prepared in Kharosthi. 

2. That Kharosl;hi happens to be the only ancient Indian 
script which maintains very little difference between the 
forms of the letters Sa and Ya. 

(3) That the copyst of the text misread Sa for Ya and at the 
time of correction Sa was inserted without cancelling its 
incorrect substitute. 

The suggestion made - by Pargiter seems hardly tenable in 
view of the obvious consideration that practically speaking there 
is no evidence to prove the use of Kharosthi script in the original 
account of Visnu Purajja. Again, the scholars who have examined 
the internal form of the Kharosthi are of definite opinion that this 
script was used for writing Prakrits which avoid long vowels, big 
compounds and difficult literatures. These are the well-known 
features of Sanskrit language for which the most commodious and 
eminently convenient script was BrShml. It has rightly been 
remarked that Brahml was a sacred script invented by the Aryan 
priests out of the Indian hieroglyphics. It was originally and 
mainly employed by the Brahmanas whose duty was to conserve 
the vedic literature. 28 The PurS.na-authors, at least in early stages, 
must have employed BrShmi in place of its sister script, because 
augmentation of the vedic tradition and preservation of sacred 
elements of the past formed the most predominant and basic 
objectives of the Purana-Compilation. Moreover, it seems difficult 
to understand as to how the incorrect letter was left uncancelled, 
if a correction of the term was at all made by the copyst of the 
text. The possible factor to which the reading Ayos'okavardhana 
seems to be due can be traced out, if the term is comparatively 
studied in the light of other Pur5na-versions supplying fanciful 



25. Pargiter, Ibid, pp. 84 & 85. 

26. R. B. Pandey, Indian Palaeography/ 
Cunningham, Coins of Ancient India, Vol. I, p. 52, 
Dowson, J.R.A.S., 1881, p. 102, Indian Antiquary, 

Vol. XXXV, p. 253, Lassen, Indischi Alterthumekundc, 2nd 
edition, i, p. 1006 (1867). 



104 s^rcN; PURA^A [VOL, xrv, wo. 2 



readings for the name of As"oka. Thus in one of the BhSgavata- 
copies Asoka is called Alokavardhana, while reference is made to 
Ab'okSnam trptidah in the text of Brahrnarjda Purana.* 7 The real 
import of the references contained in these Pur5nas can not be 
brought out into proper relief unless without admitting the role of 
sectarian trends at the late stages of their compilation. The Visnu 
and Bhagavata are essentially Vajsnavite PurSnas and in a similar 
line falls the text of Brahmanda, which happens to be one of the 
versions of the original VSyu Prokta Purana. 28 Keeping in view 
this predominant feature of the Purana-compilation, we may now 
analyse the meaning and the broader implication of the PurSna- 
terms in question. The term Ayob'okavardhana literally means 
one who increases the grief of irons (iron-made weapons). It 
seems to be a sarcastic remark on the non-militant character of 
A^oka's policy. Alokavardhana refers to a similar remarks meaning 
thereby that Asoka was unsuccessful in enhancing the welfare of 
the world. Asokanam trptidah seems to have been an attempt 
made by the compiler to drop out the very name of Ab'oka from 
the list of kings mentioned in the text. It is thus evident that these 
tamperings in the original text have their reference to the sectarian 
bias of the Vaisnavites, and consequently the Pura"na passage in 
the present context bears witness of rivalary which they had against 
the religion patronized by the Mauryan monarch. 

The various examples put forth in the foregoing analyses are 
suggestive of some notable points mentioned as follows. In the 
first place reliance on a single PurSga-text can not be made with- 
out testing its historical accuracy in the light of the passages of 
other Purana-texts dealing with the same topic. Secondly, one 
single Purana-text is apt to reveal an erroneous conclusion, the 
correction of which can be evaluated only when other available 
copies of the same text are also put to proper analysis. Thirdly, 
the imports of the PurSna-commentaries are sometimes misleading 
and hence the notes on the Pur^a-passage contained in them-as 
also the passage of the particular Purana containing these commen- 

27. Brahmr;n4aPur3aa ) IV.74.U5; For the reading of Bhagavata 

^ee Pargjter, Ibid, p. 28, fn. 28. 
2o. The available texts of VHyu and Brahmanda seem to be r c sp c c- 

tu elyfcuvite and Vaijnavite forms of the original VSyu Prokta 

Ur^a See writer's articles in Pu^na, Vol. V. No. 2 pp. 305 ff 

and Vol. VI. No. 2, pp. 366 ff. 



JULY, 1972] MAURY A- DYNASTY 105 

tarles have to be checked up before making their use for historical 
analysis. Taking into full account all these points it may be 
indicated that among the PurSnas dealing with the dynastic 
account only the text of Visnu Purana happens to relate its extant 
text to the main problem being discussed in the pages of the present 
note. Other PurSna tests no doubt, narrate the account of the 
Mauryan kings, but in them we de not get any such passage throw- 
ing light on the origin of the Ivlauryas either directly or in an 
indirect manner. The text of Visnu Purana, too, concerns itself 
with the narrative of the kind only in one of its copies, whereas 
other copies even of this PurSna have nothing to do with it in their 
extant passages. 2<! The particular text of Visnu Purana, againj has 
in its passage the reference to the origin of the Mauryan king in a 
very general way, 80 It does not speak either of the mother of 
Gandragupta or of the concerned caste. The line of the passage 
contained in the Visnu Puraija text runs as follows : 

' Kautilya eva Candraguptamuipunnani Rnjye 1 abhiseksyaii' '. 
It would be seen that in the entire sentence 'utpanna' is the only 
word which has its reference to the origin of Candragupta; while 
the sentence as such is simply intended for refering to the coro- 
nation of Gandragupta under the competent care of Kautiiya. 
As the texts of other Puranas on the dynasties of the Kali age and 
especially the other copies of Visnu Purana do not have in their 
passages either the word 'utpaim.-,' or any other word of similar 
connotation, one is confronted with the obvious question whether 
the word in question belongs to the original form of the Visnu 
PurSna text or not. The possibility of its non-occurrence in the 
original text is also shown by the consideration of the simple fact 
that the word does not at all fit in the sentence, and its superfluous 
character is further proved by the fact that in the entire sentence 
there is no such word employed as Apadana Karaka to which the 
word 'utpanna' can be related from grammatical point of view. 
Now, if the word 'utpanna' does not belong to the early form of 
Visn,u- Purana, then question is who could have possibly inserted 
it and under which particular pressure this insertion was effected 



29. For example Jibananda Edition reads 'Kautilya eva Candra- 
guptam Raj ye 'abhiseksyati'. The reconstructed text listed by 
Pargiter has a similar reading. Ibid, p. 28, fn- 22. 

30. The text reads 'Kautilya eva Candraguptamutpannam Rajye' 
abhiseksyati'. 



106 3*mn? PURSijiA [VOL. xiv, NO. 2 



in the original text. Before giving answer to these queries, it 

seems proper to point out that the texts of tht Candragupta traditions 

exhibit two trends corresponding to the periods of their composition. 

The texts of earlier periods have nothing in them with reference 

to the origin of Gandragupta Maurya, while origin of disreputable 

nature is invariably ascribed to him in the texts of later periods. 

The Kautilya's Arthas'Sstra, Puranas and MudrSrSksasa belong to 

the former category; and the commentary on MudrSraksasa and 

the passages of works like Brhatkathamanjari and KathSsarita- 

sSgara are attributable to the latter one 31 . None of the latter 

texts can be placed earlier than eleventh century A.D. This 

shows that about the beginning of the medieval period, when 

Buddhism had lost its age-old popularity and possibly it had also 

fallen into disuse in major part of the country, contempt against 

it was being reflected in the current texts especially in the Brah- 

manical compositions. Since the most outstanding royal patron 

of Buddhism was born in this dynasty, contemptuous expressions 

with regard to it came to be employed in these texts as far as it was 

possible according to the context. 

It is noteworthy that while the inserted word c utpanna* is 
hardly adjustable in the text of Purana., it is eminently consistent 
in the concerned PurSna-commentaries written on the Parana- 
passage at the later stages. Thus the earliest among these, ihe 
CitsukhTya and the rldhariya make a pointed reference to 
'utpanna' and proceed to explain it as e one who was born of the 
wedded queen of Nanda 5 , known as Mura. From this it naturally 
follows that the word r utpanna' was inserted in the original text 
by these commentators in all probability by Citsukha, who is 
known to have flourished in 12th century A.D. 33 . His period, 
thus, falls in close proximity to the time of the authors in whose 
writings the fabricated Mur5-episode finds its publicity beyond 
measure, and which also aim at propagating fsudra-origin of the 
Mauryan dynasty in utter contradiction with the earlier and more 
reliable sources, 



31, R.K. Mookerji Ibid, pp. 8 3. 

32. B.D, Upadhyaya, Ibid, pp. 572 & 578, 



SOME PROBLEMS REGARDING THE 
BRAHMA VAIVARTAPUKANA 

BY 
ANANTRAY J, RAWAL 



srref 



?7fq- 

i sf^rt^ef'TTunw f^ft 

77101 qfq- 



mTrraT^f 



Introduction 

"The PuiSijas occupy a unique position in Indian literature, 
both sacred and secular. After the MahabhSrata they have been 
the main sources of inspiration in the life of our people for over 
1500 years. 1 

The PurSnas are of inestimable value for the history of 
Society, philosophy and religion and are a veritable store house for 
getting insight into all aspects and phases of Hinduism s 



1. Munshi K.M. Forward to the Studies in the Epics and PurSnaa 

by Pusalker A.D., P. VII. 
Puaalker A.D. Studies in the Epics and PurSnaa p. 22. 

2. Ibid p. 22. 



108 3*TCR PURAtjIA [VOL. XIV, NO. 2 

Not a single PurSna can be found to contain all these parti- 
culars, however, "taken collectively they may be described as a 
popular encyclopaedia of ancient and medieval Hinduism, religious., 
philosophical, historical, personal, social and political. 11 

"At the starting of the Indie studies in the last decades of 
the eighteenth and beginning of the nineteenth centuries, the 
Puranas were regarded as of no historical value on account of the 
confused conglomeration of legendary and historical events in the 
Puranas, as also their peculiar ideas of Cages' ' and "Cosmogra- 
phy". 4 There may be some exaggeration in fhe descriptions of 
Puranas fl though there are some important facts. 6 

But now the attitude is changed and they are accepted as 
one of the important sources of Indian histoiy and culture, as they 
throw a flood of light on the various aspects of the life of the time. 7 

The Problem of the Original BVP and the extant BVP 

It was H.P. Sastri who started first the problem of the inter- 
relationship of original BVP and the extant BVP. He remarked 
that "the Brahmavaivartapurana in the present shape cannot be 

very old there seems to have existed a Brahmavaivartapurana 

very different from the one which we now posses. 8 

Dr. R. G, Hazra is also of opinion that certain genuine 
PurSnas were later on replaced by spurious works bearing the 
same title and one of such works^ he mentions, is the BVP also. 9 

A number of Nibandha works e.g. SmrticandrikSj Smrtitattva 
and Gatuivarga-cintam ini etc. have drawn upon a BVP. About 



3. Pargiter F.E. "Putuna 1 ' ERE, Vol. X, P. 448. 

4 PusalkerA.D. Presidential Address, History section, proceedings 
and Transactions of the All India Oriental con- 
ference XVIII Session Annamalainagar December 
1955 part I, p. 61. 

!i. Upadhyava Baladeva. Puranavituaraa p. 22. 

0. Pusalker A.D. Op. Git. p. 6] . 

7. Ibid. p. 61. 

Vide also Dikshitar V.R.R. PurSna. 

Index Vol. I Introduction pp 33 ff. 

B. Sastri H.P. Descriptive catalogue of Sanskrit Manuscripts vol. 
V Asiatic Society of Bengal. 

9. Hazra R.C. "Studies in the genuine Xgneya Pur3na'. Our 
Heritage, Vol. I, 1953, pp. 210-245. 



JULY, 1972] THE BRAHMAVAIVARTAPURA^A 105 

1500 lines of that BVP have been quoted in these works but only 
30 of these lines are found in the extant BVP as pointed out by 
Dr. R. G. Hazra. 10 These remarks of Dr. Hazra tend to suggest 
that the absence of the remaining lines in the present BVP shows 
that it was not the work from which those Nibandhakaras quoted 
in their works, so this BVP was not known even to the Nibandha- 
karas of the sixteenth century A.D. 11 

The Asiatic Society of Bengal has two DevanSgari manuscripts 
of the BVP: no. 3820 and 3821, both of which are fragmentary 
and incomplete. Some of their chapter-colophons show that both 
the manuscripts belong to a different BVP called 'Adibrahma- 
vaivartamahapurana j which is quite different from the extant 
BVP." 

Dr. H. P. Sastri, Dr. R. G Hazra, J. C. Roy and A.S. Gupta 
hold that the extant BVP is not the original one but there was an 
original BVP before ninelh century A. D. which is now lost and 
about the tenth century A. D. it began to be changed by the 
interfering hands of the Bengali authors who recast it to its present 
form and contents in the sixteenth century A.D. 13 

The arguments for and against this problem are as follows:- 
According to the MP (53.33 35) the original BVP was 
narrated by Savarni to Narada and contained the mahatmya or 
glorification of Krsija and a repeated account of Brahmavaraha 
with a reference to the occurrence of the Rathantara Kalpa. Now 
it should be pointed out that the extant BVP is narrated by 

10. Hazra R.C. Puranic Records on Hindu Rites and customs 

p. 167. 

11. Vide for the date of these Nibandha-works, Kane P. V., HDS 
Vol. I. 

12. Vide A. S- Gupta's article "The Apocryphal character of the 
extant Brahmavaivarta purana 13 Purana, Vol. Ill No. I, January 
1961 p. 99, 

13. Saatri H. P. "Mahapuranas". JKORS 1928 Vol. XIV p. 335. 
Hazra R.G. Puranic Records on Hindu Rites and customs 

p. 167. 
Vide also "Some Minor Puranas" ABORI Poona, XIX 1938 

p. 76. and cultural Heritage Vol. II p. 263. ^ 
Roy J. G. Bharatavarsa a Bengali journal. Bangabda As3dJ ia 

1337 Quoted by Hazra R. C. in PRHRC p. 106. 
Gupta A. S. Op. Git. p. 101. 



j I0 Strcn* PURXJ^A [VOL. lV, NO. 2 

Naiayana to Narada and has no reference to the Rathantara 
Kalpa. Further the MP (53. 67-69) divides the purSnas into 
four categories viz. 

1. Sattvika which glorifies Hari 

2. Rajasa which glorifies Brahma 

3. Tamasa which glorifies Siva 

4. Samklrna which glorifies Sarasvati and manes. 

The PP (Uttarakhanda 264, 84) spates that the BVP is a 
Rajasa PuiSna having Brahma as its highest deity. 

In the extant BVP BrahmS is shown as inferior to RsdhS 
and Krsna who are said to be superior to one and all other gods 
(1 3 30, 1 2.20-27). 

Thus the data in the extant BVP do not support the des- 
cription of the BVP as given by the MP and PP. 

According to the SKPj the sun is the highest deity of the 
BVpn, but in the extant BVP, the sun is not the highest but 
Krsna is the highest deity as noted above. 

According to the MP (53.35), SP (9.27) and the SKP 
(7.1.2.53), a person who gives a copy of the BVP to a worthy 
Brahmin is said to attain the Brahmaloka. But according to the 
extant BVP the Brahmaloka is far inferior to the Goloka, the abode 
of Krsga and is never the goal of a devotee of Krsna (1.12.33; 
1.14.58). 

It should be noted that the word Vaisnava in the BVP 
(1.11.39, 4.1.65) is not a general term for a devotee of a god, for 
this PurSna is very explicit in defining a f Vaisnava J . A 
'Vaijoava' is one who belongs to the Vaisnava sect and who has 
bet > n duly initiated by a preceptor into the Vaisnava fold by 
imparting to him the Vaisnava Mantra. Such an initiated Vaisnava 
is extremely pure and jlvanmukta (1.11.41-42) and he certainly 
attains the Goloka (1.12.23). This position tends to suggest 
further that Brahma is not the supreme deity in the extant BVP. 

In almost all the PurSnas the list of the eighteen Mahri- 
jnuayas i s g i ven w h ere the extent of the BVP is mentioned 18000 
14. Gupta A. s. Op. Git. p. 96. 



JULY, 1972] THE BRAHMAVAIVARTAPURXlvIA Ill 

s'lokas, 1 " But the present available Ananda^rama edition Vanga- 
v5sl edition and the Venkate^vara edition of the BVP contain 
nearly 22000, 22000 and 25000 verses respectively., so it follows 
that the extant BVP contains about 4000 or 7000 verses more as 
the case, may be. These are later additions and hence its remain- 
ing portion is also a completely revised work. 13 

The NP (Purvakhanda 101) described the BVP containing 
four Khandas i.e.: Brahma; Prakrti; Ganesa; Krsna; and gives 
the description in brief of each Khaijda. The extant BVP contains 
four Khan^as as stated by the NP but it does not fulfil in detail 
complete description as given by the NP. 

In the library of Oriental Institute Baroda, there are twelve 
manuscripts of the BVP and some of them are incomplete. The 
manuscript of the BVP, No. 2544 is quite different from the extant 
BVP and it has three parts without any specific name or title. 
The total number of the chapters in the said manuscript is as 
follows: 

Part I Gh, 28 

II 117 

III 26 

171 

and generally each chapter-colophon reads 'Adimahapurane- 
brahmavaivarte' and hence it follows that the extant BVP is 
different from this 'Adibrahmavajvartapurana. The several 
mRhatmyas which are noted under the authority of the BVP 17 are 
not found in the extant BVP. 

From the above mentioned arguments it follows that the 
extant BVP is a different or an enlarged one and not the same as 
described in various works, but A. S. Gupta further states that it is 
an apocrypha] one 18 but from the foregoing facts it may be said 
that the extant BVP is not totally an apocryphal work but it 
might originally be a work of Brahma -cult and containing 18000 



15. MP 53.34 
BhP 12.13.6. 
BvP 4.133.16, 

NP Purvakhanda 1.01. 

16. Sastri H.P. Op. Git. p. 335. 

17. Hindwisvakosa, Part 7 p. 237. 

18. Gupta A,S. Op. Git. P. 101. 



li2 3?nfa( PURSJJJA [VOL, xiv, NO. 



verses before seventh or eighth century A D. and after tenth 
century A. D. when Krsna and Rsdha worship became popular, 
the original BVP underwent change, was enlarged and revised in 
the sixteenth century A. D. by the followers of Radha and Krsjj.a 
sect in the eastern part of India, specially in Bengal where Radha 
and Krsnn worship was popular. 10 

Date. 

Various scholars have tried to handle the problem of the date 
of the BVP but they have not stated its precise date except by vvay 
of general remarks that it is a late one. Hence an attempt is m ide 
to fix its precise date as fkr as possible. 

Before going into the examination of the date for fixing the 
date of the BVP, the views of the different scholars on this problem 
may briefly be mentioned here below : 

1. Roy J. C. 20 16th Century A. D. ; 2 Hazra R. C. 21 
16th Century A. D. 3. Wilson H. H. 22 16th Century A. D. : 
4. Kane P. V. 23 16th Century A. D, : 5. Dutta N. K. 2J 15th 
Century A. D. ; 6, Maity P. K, 35 15th Century A. D. ; 7. 
Upadhyaya Baladeva 3 " 15th Century A. D. ; 8. Sen S. K. 37 
15th Century A. D. ; 9. Shastri D. K. 2S llth Century A. D, : 
10. De S. K. I0th Century A. D. 11. Chatterjee B. C. 
10th Century A. D. 

10. It may be noted that A.S. Gupta also expresses a similar opinion. 

Vide his above mentioned article. 
20. RoyJ. C. Bharatavarsa, Asadha, BangSfada 1337 quoted by 

Hazra R.C. in PRHRC p. 166. 

?!. Hasra R. C. 'Some Minor Puranag' ABQRI Poona Vol. XIX 
1938 p. 76. 

22. UilsonH.H. Essays p. 120. 

23. Kane P. V. HDS Vol V Part II p. 895. 

24. Dutta N.K.. Origin and growth of caste in India, Vol. II P. 131. 
=5. Maity P.K. Historical study in the cult of the goddesa Manasa 

p. 217 

58. Upadhyay Baladeva. Puranavitnarsa p. 558. 

27, Sen S K. Peraonal letter to Dr. S G. Kantawala Dt. 29.4.70 

^- Shastri D.K. Puranaviveeana p. 219. 
2. DC S K. Early History of the Vaianava Faith and Movement 

m Bengal, p. j.0 ff. 

20. Chatt^iBC. K t? n a carit a . tranalated into Gujarati by K. M. 
Jnaveri p. 27. 



JULY, 1972] THE BRAHMAVAIVARTAPURX&A 113 

From the above survey, it is clear that the scholars assign 
either 10th, llth, 15th or 16th Century A. D. 

Out of the above 11 scholars the following three scholars 
i. e. : Shastri D. K. ; De S. K. : Ghatterjee B. G. argue that 
the first verse of the Gitagovinda of Jayadeva (1 162 A. D.)" might 
be influenced by the verses of the BVP (4. 15. 4.ff) so the BVP is 
compiled before Jayadeva. But ihe learned scholars do not give 
any argument to prove their ihesis. It is quite possible that the 
Parana and Jayadeva might have borrowed from a common source. 

D. K. Shastri states that in the BVP there is a great influence 
of Radha and hence an unknown Nimbarkaite might have written 
the present BVP because Nimbarkaiies worship Radha with 
Krsna. 32 To this observation of D. K. Shastri it should be pointed 
out that it is not in the Nimbaika sect but it is the Radhavallabha 
sect wherein Radha has a predominant position over Krsna hence 
his argument docs not stand to reason. Hence D. K. Shastri's 
implication about the date i. e. llth Century A. D. is unacceptable. 

Now let us examine the date of the BVr 1 on the basis of the 
inner data of the BVP. 

The BVP and the PP give ihe various names of Radha and 
Salagrama stone. s;1 This enumeration in the BVP seems to follow 
that of the PP and Wilson remarks that "no portion of the PP is 
probably older than the twelfth century A. D. and the last parts 
may be as recent as the fifteenth or sixteenth. M Hence (he BVP 
might have been compiled in C. fifteenth century A. D. 

Dr. R. C. Hazra opines that ihe DbhP follows the BVP and 
states that almost all the chapteis of DbhP IX have been taken 
from the BVP II and the Prakrtikhanda i. e. BVP II in its present 
form can not be dated earlier than the tenth century A. D.^ 5 

Now the BVP contains 67 chapters in its second part (i. e, 
Prakrtikhanda which describes the Caritras of various goddesses 
viz. : Sarasvati ; Vasudha : Ganga ; Tulasl ; Savitri ; LaksmI ; 
Svaha : Svadha ; Daksina ; Sasthi ; Mangalacandl ; MTanasS ; 
Surabhi ; Radha ; Durga. The DbhP IX. 1-50 are borrowed from 

31. Keith A.B. Classical Sanskrit Literature, p. 103. 

32. Shastri D K. Op. Git P. 219. 

Ch. V. 

34. Wilson H. H. Visnupurana Engli&h Translation preface p. XX. 

35. Hazra R. C. Studies in the Upapuranas, Vol. II p. 343. 



114 stmrq puRAtjiA [VOL. xiv NO. 2 



the BVP II as stated by Dr. R. C. Hazra and the said portion of the 
DbhP describes Garitras of SarasvatI ; VasudbS; GangS ; Tulasl ; 
Savitrl ; Laksmi ; Svaha ; Svadha ; Daksina ; Sasthi ; Maugala- 
caijdi ; Manaaa ; Surabhi ; Radha ; Durga. It should be noted 
that the DbhP, IX 48 deals with Mariasa in chapter one only while 
the BVP II. 45, 46 devotes two chapters to ManasS. The DhhP 
(IX. 50-1-52) devotes only 52 verses to RadhS with DurgS while 
the BVP devotes nine chapters to Rsdha. This goes to prove that 
the BVP II i. e. Prakrtikhanda is an elaboration of the DbhP IX 
and hence it follows that the BVP has based its chapters of Prakrti- 
khancja on those of the DbhP IX. 

It may also be noted that Dr. B. Kakati holds a similar 
view." 6 According to Dr. R. G. Hazra "it is highly probable that 
the DbhP was compiled in the eleventh or twelfth century A, D.* 7 
and hence it follows that the BVP might be compiled after the 
fourteenth century A. D. when the DbhP had become popular. 

The BVP often mentions the worship of SjrlSyatana which is 
definitely of later period than the worship of the PancSyatana. :w 
The DbhP (XI 17. 35ff) mentions the PaficayatanapOja while the 
BVP reft is to the Sadayatanapuja which is naturally of a subse- 
quent period. 

Apararka (1200 A.D.), the commentator of YS and Ballala- 
sena (1135-1 180 A. D.) give the quotations from the PurEpas but 
they do not refer to the BVP this suggests that even up to the 
twelfth century A.D. the BVP was not known. 

In the description of Kaliyuga in the BVP (2.7.25), the 
Parana states that the people would learn 'mlecchas'Sstra' which 
suggests that the BVP might be referring here to some Persian 
scriptures like Quran etc. as, Bengal came under Muslim rule from 
1203 A D, 40 Prom this reference it follows that the BVP is com- 
piled after 1203 A.D. 

S6. KakatiB. Female Initiative in Courtship Prin, Karmarkar 

Gomin. Vol. P. 71. 

37. Hazra R.C. Op. Git. p. 347. 

38. Kane P.V. HDS Vol II P. II P. 717. 

39. Upsdhyaya Baladeva PurSnavimarsa, p. 120 ff. 

40. Hindi visvakosa Part 9 p. U9. 



JULY, 1972] THE BRAHMAVAIVARTAFURXljIA 115 

CandidSsa (1385 A.D.) 41 is said to be a founder of ParakSyS- 
RSdha-Vsda. The BVP seems to Synthesise the theory of Paraklya- 
RadhS-Vada and Svaklya-RSdhS-Vada and this synthesis theory 
tends to suggest that the BVP would have been composed after 
Candidasa, about, say 100 years or so after, if due allowance is 
made for the popularity of the Paraklya vada and the consequent 
arising need for synthesis. 

The BVP described some folk goddesses viz. Manas5, 
MaiigalacandT and Sasthl. The folk songs regarding ManasS, 
Marigalacandi and Sasthi were written in the times of Canctidasa 
(1385 A.D.) and Manika Dutta (1300 A.D.). 43 Hence it follows 
that the BVP is compiled after this date, as the folk songs precede 
their acceptance and inclusion in the official religious books like 
Puranas. 

It is a current belief of Indians that on particular lunar days, 
particular dishes of food prove uncongenial to the human system. 

Raghunandana Bhal;tacarya (1510-1565 A.D.) devotes an 
important chapter of his work Astavirhs'atitattva, to a considera- 
tion of this point; for instance one should not eat a pumppin or 
its gourd, on the second day of a Lunation Brhati on the third, 
Patola on the fourth, Radish on the fifth, Nimba on the sixth 
and so on.' H The BVP also prescribes such things on particular 
days and it is probable that the BVP is indebted to the Astavirh- 
^atitattva of Raghunandana. 

The philosophical thought in the BVP reflects the influence 
of philosophy of VallabhacSrya (1479 A.D.) 45 and Caitanya 
(1485 A.D.)." In the BVP the position of R5dhS is superior to 
Krsija and this situation is found in the RadhSvallabha sampra- 
daya whose founder Hitaharivarhs'a flourished in 1484 A.D. 4T 

While describing the residence of RSdhS, the BVP mentions 
that there were other 33 Vanas in Vrndavana (4-28. 165) which 



41. Sen D. C. History of Bengali language and Literature p. 39 ff. 

43. Sen D.C. Op. Git,, p. 335. 

44. Ibid P. 74. 

45. Bhandarkar R.G. Vaignavism Saivism and Minor Religious Sys- 

tems, p. 77. 

46. Ibid p. 83. 

47. Snataka Vijayendra. Radhdvallabha SampradSya ; Siddhanta aur 

Sahitya p. 96. 
V 



116 3*rora: PURStiiA [VOL. xiv, NO. 2 



was situated in the residential area of Rsdha. Now the tradition 
runs that it was for the first time in 1535 A.D. Hitaharivarh^a 
built the temple of R&dha in Vrndavana where he laid out the 
other Vanas which still exist today. 48 

The BVP (4.73.79) mentions that amongst all the PurSnas 
the BhP is the best which shows its influence and popularity. Now 
the BhP is assigned date ranging from 9th century A. D. to 
12th Century A. D. 40 - 50 Even accepting the latest date of the BhP 
it is obvious that the BVP is later than the BhP. the influence and 
indebtedness of which is noticed in the enlargement of the topics 
handled by the BhP and also by its advancement over the BhP 
by introducing Radha who is missing in the BhP. 

The BVP gives the description of the Goloka, Vrndavana, 
Vaikuntha, Kailasa and the city of Ssaiikhacuda in an artificial 
manner with architectural details which reflect the architectural 
school of Mughal period. 01 

1 he BVP categorically states that the month of Caitra 
is the last and Vaisakha is the initial of the year (4.96.60;. It is 
only in the Bengali era that the year starts from the month of 
Vaitakha and this Bengali era is a revised form of the Fasali era 
which was started by Akabara BS 

None of the manuscripts of the BVP, recorded in the various 
Descriptive catalogues of Sanskrit manuscripts'" is prior to 1692 



48. Upudhyaya Baladeva Bharatiya Vaugmaya men 'Sri Radh^', p, 92. 
-49-50. Kane P.V. 9th Century HDS Vol. V Part II p. ' 99. 

Upadhyay Baladc va Cth Century A.D. Op. Git- P. 548. 
Wilson H.H 12th Century A.D. ViianiipurZaia P. XXX 
Shastri D.K. 9th Century A.D. Pur'navivecana p. 207. 
Hazra R.C. 6th Century A.D. PRHRC p. 55. 

51. Shastri K. K. Vallabhtictlrya p. 8. 

52. Oza G.H. Bharatiya Practna LipimSlTl p. 192. 

53. Vide 1. Descriptive catalogue of Sanskrit manuscripts 

Oriental Institute Baroda. 

2. Catalogue of the old manuscripts in Sanskrit 
in the collection of the San^tana Dhartna 
Sabhti, Ahmednagar. 

3. A catalogue of the Sanskrit manuscripts at the 
D H.A.S. Department of Historical and Anti- 
quarian studies in Assam Gaqhati. 

4. A Descriptive catalogue of Sanskrit Manus- 
cripts Vol. IV Government Sanskrit College 
Varan asi. 



JULY, 1972] THE BRAHMAVAlVARTAPURA'JvIA 117 

A.D. and hence the lower limit of the BVP is 1600 A.D. and from 
seeing the above points its upper limit can be put as 1400 A.D. 

Home 

Regarding the home of the BVP there is no controversy and 
scholars like Dr. R.G. Hazra, 5 ' 1 A.S. Gupta, BB Baladeva Upadhyaya 56 
and D.K. Shastri 57 hold that Bengal is the home of the iiVP. The 
following data which is available in the BVP also lead to the same 
conclusion. 

The BVP describes various aspects of Krsna's life and in this 
connection it mentions various geographical place-names ranging 
generally from MathurS to some eastern parts of India. The 
geographical knowledge of north India is extremely poor in the 
case of the author of the BVP, whereas he has good aquaintence 
with the geography of eastern India and this suggests that probably 
he might be a resident of any place ranging from MalhurS to the 
eastern, parts of India, mostly of Bengal . 

The BVP mentions two significant Ethnical names viz. 
Rasljdya and Virendra (3.36.12) which are the Sanskritised forms 
of Radhlya and Varendra respectively which were the provinces 
of Bengal. This suggests that th 1 ? author might be aware of these 
provinces of Bengal as P.G. Sen remarks ''towards the close of the 
pre-Muhammadan period Radha and Varendri were well known 
divisions of Bengal. " ns 

The BVP uses the word Ballava (1.5,42; 2.49.42; 2.48,43,53) 
for the word Gopa. The caste Ballava is one of the subcaste of the 
caste Gopa by name and it is prevalent in Bengal even today. M 

The BVP mentions the two, castes Jola and Vaidya and 
traces their origin as follows: 



5. Catalogue of the Sanskrit and Prakrita Manus- 
cripts in the Library of the India Office Vol. V. 

6- A Descriptive catalogue of the Sanskrit Manu- 
scripts. Gujarat Vidyasabha Ahmedabad. 

54. Hazra R.C. Cultural Heritage of India Vol. II P. 263. 

55. Gupta A.S. Op, Git. p. 95. 

56. Up ad hy ay Baladeva Purdijavimarsa p. 555. 

57. Shastri D.K. Op. Git. P. '^ 18. 

58. Sen P.O. "Janapadas of Ancient Radha" Indian Historical 

quarterly, Vol. VIII p. 523 March 193.! No. 1. 

59. Hindwisvakosa, Part 3 p. 213. 



1 18 gWj;- PURSlvIA [VOL. XIV, NO. 2 



By the union of a Mleccha man and a Kuvindaka woman, 
Jola was born (1.10.121) and Vaidya was born by the union of 
AJvinlkumSra and a Brahmin woman (!. 10. 123). These two 
beliefs are still prevalent in Bengal. 00 

Dr. Sukumar Sen holds 61 that the vocable Jola (BVP 1.10.121} 
is a Bengali word from Persian Jullah, Julflh 'weaver'. JuIabS is 
the Hindi (Btiojapun etc.) adaptation of Persian Julian, JulSh. 
Bengali drops the final 'h' so the original word Jullah or Julah is 
Sanskritised as Jola. 

The worship of folk goddesses: ManasS, Sa&thl and Mangala- 
caiidl is prevalent in Bengal only and the BVP (2.43-46) has 
described their stories at great length. 

The BVP (4.3,23; 4,31.53; 334,33) uses some phrases which 
reflect the influence of Persian which was spoken in Bengal then 
and Assamese" 3 which prove that the author of the BVP might 
be aware of Persian and Assamese languages. 

The BVP (2.27(79) states that one should perform 6ivapGja 
in the month of Magha or Caitra a practice which is prevalent 
in Bengal only. 6 ' 

As we have noted earlier, the BVP states that the month of 
Caitra is the last and Vais"akha is the first month. Bengali era 
starts from Vai&kha and this era is another form of Fasali era 
started by Akabara. This shows that the author of the BVP might 
be aware of the Fasali or Bengali era. 

The BVP states that Sarasvati, Gauga, TulasI and Laksml 
ate i\aiayr:na's wife .2 12 1) and this belief is still prevalent in 
Bengal. ' 

According to the direction of the BVP (2.27.87) one should 
petlorm LfbmlpajSin the month of Bhfidrapada which is still 
prevalent in Bengal. 65 

tO. TJpadhyaya Baladeva op, cit. p. 555; Gupta A.S- Op. Cit. p. 92. 

6J. Sen S K. A personal letter to Dr. S.G. Kantawala dt. 29.4.70. 

02. Kakati 11, Op. Cit. P. 71. 

t)3, ha^ra R.C, Studies in the UpapurSnas Vol. lip. 319, 

4 Jauj A. N. Naisadhacaritam-a critical study p. 270. 

Ux Hazra H-G. Op. Git. P. 357. 



JULY, 1972] THE BRAHMAVAIVARTAPURXlilA. U3 

According to the BVP (2.11.7) Ganga was born from the 
fluid, as the result of Krsna's and Rsdha's mutual merging as a 
consequential effect of music. This belief is popular in Bengal. 66 

The BVP (2.30.162-163) states that one should perform five 
Parvans viz. : JanrnastamI ; Raman vaml; Sivai5trij Ekada^t; 
Sunday; and it also states that one can take fish in one's meal 
except on these five Parvans. This belief is only prevalent in 
Bengal. 87 

From the above mentioned data it may be concluded that the 
home of the BVP is Bengal. 

The Title of tho Brahmavaivartapurana 

As noted earlier there was another BVP named Adibrahma- 
vaivartapurSria. The extant Brahmavaivartapurana is known 
simply as "BrahmavaivartamahapurSna". The BVP itself gives 
its explanation as follows: It has been called the BVP by the 
knowers of the past because it is in it that the modifications 
of Brahman brought about by Krsna are described. 68 

The BVP praises itself and states that amongst all the 
PurSuaSj the BVP is fulfiller of all hopes and giver of wealth 
(1.1.59; 4.133.32). It further states that this PurSna was handed 
over first by Krsna to Brahma who gave it to Dharma who gave 
it to NarSyana who told in turn to Narada who in turn gave it to 
Vyasa (.1.1. 62-64; 4.133,28-29). 

There is also another title of the Brahmavaivartapurana as 
Brahmakaivartapurana which is prevalent in South India. 63 
Nothing can be said regarding this title whether there might be 



66. Ibid. p. 357. 

67. Ibid. P- 357. 

68. Cf. 1. 1. 61. 4.133,31. 

69. Winternitz M. History of Indian Literature Vol. I Part II p. 230. 

On examining the MSS. position, Dr. V. Raghavan 
finds that the name Brahmakaivarta is confined 
to South Indian MSS and Brahmavaivarta is uni- 
formaly found in all North Indian MSS. Letter of 
Dr. V. Raghavan- Dt. 12.8.1970 to Dr. S. G. Kanta- 
wala. My greatful thanks are due to him for 
supplying this information. 



12Q 3*W3 FURXtfA [VOL. XIV, NO. 2 

a Parana different from the present BVP or the title is only 

different. 70 

Lagbu Brahmavaivartapuraija 

Karnalakara Bhatta, in his Ninjayasindhu, quotes two verses 
from the Laghubrahmavaivartapurana with the remarks that "atra 
mulam cintayet". As these two verses, dealing with the praise of 
gifts made at Benaras during ecjipse etc. do not occur in the 
present BVP. Dr. R._.G, Hazra remarks that ec the Laghubrahma- 
vaivartapurana if at all there was any work of this title must 
have been a separate work written before 1400 A.D. It should be 
also mentioned here that we do not know any second author who 
refers to or draws upon this work,'-" 71 

The BVP and the Pur art a Pancalaksarta. 

The classical definition of the Purana enumerates the follow- 
ing five characteristics. 78 

1. Sarga creation 

2. Pratisarga dissolution 

3. Vamia genealogies 

4. Manvantara -agesofManus 

5. VarhbSnucarita genealogies of kings. 

(4. 133. 6-7) 

But according to the BVP, above mentioned five characteris- 
tics are of the Upapurana and states that Mah5pur3na has ten 
characteristics as follows: 

* Srsti = Primary Creation 

2. Visrsti = Secondary creation 

3 - Sthiti =StabiIity of creation 

4. Palana = Protection 

5, Karmavasana = Desire for work 

6 - M a uvarta = Information about the Manus. 

70. Ha.-ra R.C. Some Minor p ur3l}aa ,, A BQRI Poona, Vol. XIX 

1938-39 p. 76. 

71, Huzra R.G. Studies in the Upapuranas Vol. II P. 506. 
T2. Ct BVP. 4.133.6 

MP 5365 

Kl> 1.1.12 

B P 1.37-38 



JULY, 1972] THE BRAHMAVAIVARTAPUR.;^ 121 

7. Pralayavarnana = Description of the final destruc- 

tion 

8. Moksanirupana = The way to release from rebirth 

9. Harikirtana = Discourse on Hari 

10, Devaklrtana = Discourse on other gods. 

(4.133.8-10) 

Generally the definition of PurSna Paficalaksana is old and 
that of ten characteristics is of very late origin because it is only 
stated in the BVP and in the BhP (.2. 10. 1-7; 12.7.8-10). 

The BVP (4.133. 6-7) simply mentions the names of ten 
characteristics while the BhP (12.7.11-20) explains each and every 
one laksana- 

The names of ten characteristics given in the BVP and BhP 
differ in some cases but they may correspond as follows:- 71 

BVP BhP 

1. Srsti Sarga 

2. Visrsti Visarga 

3. Sthiti Vrtti or Sthana 

4. Palana RaksS or Posana 

5. Karmavasana Hetu or Oti 

6. ManuvSrta AntarEiji or Manvantara 

7. Pralayavarnana SamJtha or Nirodha 

8. Moksanirupana ApSrsraya or Mukti 

9. Harikirtana Varh^a or As5raya 

10. Devaklrtana Varhisanucarita or I^anukathg. 

(12.7.9:2.10.1) 

It is significant to note that the BVP fulfils the above men- 
tioned five and ten characteristics thus e. g. 

Five characteristics: 

1. Sarga (1.6, 7, 8 etc.) 

2. Pratisarga (1.5) 

3. Vamsa (1.22) 

4. Manvantara (4.51) 

5. Vams'anucarita (2.13) 



73. Hazra R.C. Op, Git. Vol. I. p. 2. 

74. Upadhyaya Baldeva Op. Git. pp. 128 ff. 



122 gifTO** PURS^A [VOL. XIV, NO, 2 

Ten characteristics: 

1. Srsti (1.6, 7, 8 etc.) 

2. Visrsti (1.5) 

3. Sthiti (1.6) 

4. Palana (LIB) 

5. KarmavSsana (2,25, 26) 

6. Manuvarta (4.41) 
1. Pralayavarnana (1.5) 

8. AloksanirQpana (4.10, 11 etc ) 

9. Hariklrtana (2,34) 

10. Devaklrtana (2.10, 13). 

Over and above these, the BVP describes caste, Ayurveda, 
diseases, Ac? ra and Ahnika (1.10, 1.16, 1.26). 

It is strange to note that the BVP tries to fulfil itself accord- 
ing to five and ten characteristics of Parana but even though 
MM. Dr. P. V. Kane 75 and H, H. WiJson remark without giving 
any argument that the Brahmavaivarta-pura"na has not the 
slightest title to be regarded as a PurSna. 

The position of the BVP in the Different Classification of the 
Puranas. 

The PmSnas can be classified into ancient and later accordin g 
as they conform or not strictly to the Pancdlaks ma definition. 

Dr. A. D. Fusalker states that the Vayu, BrahmSnda, Matsya 
and Visnu arv ancient Puranas. 77 

The Mahapuranas have been divided into Sattvika, Rajasa 
and Tamasa according to their preferential treatment of Visiju, 
Siva and other deities 

The PP(Uttara, 263.81-84) classifies them in three categories 
as follows ; 

1. Sattvika VP, NP, BhP, GP, PP, VRP. 

2. Rajasa BRP, BVP, MKP, BP, VMP, BSP 



_ 

Kane P.V. H D S Vol. V part II p. 895. 

^ Eng.Tran.Pref.ee p. XLI. 



JULY, 1972] THE BRAHMAVAlVARTAPURXlsIA 123 

The SKP enumerates ten PurSnas describing the greatness of 
iva, four of Brahma and two of Devi and Had. 78 The MP (53. 
68-69) regards the PurSnas glorifying Agni as rajasa and those that 
glorify Sarasvatl and Pitrs as Samkirna. 

On the authority of the Tamila works, V. R. R Dikshitar 79 
classifies the Puranas into five groups as follows : 

1 , BrahmS Brahma and Padma 

2. Surya Brahmavaivarta 
- 3. Agni Agni 

4. iva &va, Skanda, Linga, Kurma, Vs.ma.na., 

Varaha, Bhavisya, Matsya, MSrkande- 
ya, Brahmanda, 

5. Visnu Narada, Bhagavata, Garuda, Visnu, 
Kara Prasad Sastri RO gives the following classification on a 

thorough and critical examination of the contents of the PurSnas 
as follows : 

1. PurSnas of encyclopaedic character = GP, AP, NP. 

2. Puranas dealing with Holy Places and 

religious vows = PP SKP. BSP, 

3. Puranas which underwent to general 

revisions = BP. BhP, BVP. 

4. PurSijas revised out of existence = VRP 5 KP, MP. 

5. Historical group = BRP, VYP. 

6. Sectarian works = LP, VMP, MKP. 

Now according to the MP a Purana which deals with Brahma 
as its highest deity is a Rajasa Purana and one which deals with 
Hari is a Sattvika PurSna, According to PP the BVP is a rajasa 
PurSna but the extant BVP does not mention BrahmS as its highest 
deity but Brahma is described inferior to Krsna (Hari) who is 
mentioned as the Supreme deity in the BVP and hence the BVP 
is a Sattvika PurSna end not a Rajasa one. 

According to V.R R. Dikshitar, the BVP deals with SQrya 
but this is far from the truth; so far as the extent BVP is concerned 
Surya is shown as inferior to Krsna who is the major deity of 
description in the BVP. 

78. Ibid p. 26. 

79. IHQ, Vol. VIII p. 766. 

80. SastriH.P. "Mahapuranas" JBORS, Vol. XIV pp. 330-337. 
5 



124 g^TCR PURAJilA [VOL. XIV, NO. 2 

Influence of the BVP on other works 

It is known that the BhP has a great influence over Vaisnavas 
of India. In this PurSna Krs$a's Ills or divine sports are des- 
cribed, Rsdha is connected with Krs^ia but even then she is 
missing in the BhP. To fill up this desideratum; some Vaisoavas 
might have thought to compile the BVP. It can be said that 
Radha is the main character of this PurSiin and hence the BVP 
5s the chitf authority on the neo-school of VaisnavJsm or the 
Radh.'-Kysna cult, 81 

The BVP has influenced later writers 82 also eg. Gaurikanta 
Dviji, an Assamese writer, wrote the drama f 'Vighneb'a Janmo- 
daya" confining three sets in aka year 1721 i e. 1*799 A.D. and 
this is insj ired by the story of Gar^esakhanda of the BVP while 
.-mother Aijamese \vrjter-Dina Dvija wrote the drama "arhkha- 
cudnvadha'' containing three acts in Saka year 1724 i.e. 1802 A.D. 
and this is }>ased on the story of amkhacuda of the Prakrtikhapda 
of the &VP. 

ABBREVIATIONS 

BVP = BrahmavaivartapurSna 

MP = MatsyapurSna BhP = BhSgavatapuraigia 

PP = Padmapurana BP = Brahmapurana 

SKP = SkandapurSna Brp = Brahmandpurana 

vSP - Saurapurana VP = Visnupura^ia 

NP = Naradapurana VRP = VarahapurBria 

DbhP - D^vibbagavatapurana VX!P= Vamanapura^a 

YS - Vsjaavalkyasmrti VYP = Vayupurgr^a 

MKP = MarkaudeyapurSaa AP = AgnipurSr^a 

KP = Kurrnnpurana LP = LiflgapurSna 

GP ^ = Garudapurana B SP = Bhavisyapurana 

HDS - History of Dhannas&stras 

PRHRS -Piwavic Records on Hindu Rites and Customs 
ABOR1 - Annals of Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute Poona 
Jt-ORS -Journal of Bihar and Orissa Research Society 
,^ Indian Historical quarterly 



81. lattvabh^ana.SUanath. Krsna and the Pur^n 
fc.- Rup,kai,,yam Ed. by Sarxua, Sa t ye ndra Nath p 



inaa p. 68. 



PROBLEM OF THE EXTENT OF THE 
KUR MA-PUR ANA TEXT* 

BY 

ANAND SWARUP GUPTA 



I 5rf**?q; 



i 
vaft, 



T *r?s?r i 
f??nf' 5 ^ 



: tffTT: 



i ] 



The extent of the Kurma-Purana text has also been discussed in 
my Introduction (pp, v-vii) to the Critical Edition of the Kurraa 
Parana. The present article is supplementary and revision al. 
The references to the Kurma-PurSna are from its Critical Edi- 
tion, 1912. 



126 SfPIW PURSJsIA [VOL. XIV, NO. 2 

The problem of the extent of the text of the Kurma-Pura't.ja 
is somewhat intricate. In the lists of the MahS-puranas given in a 
number of the PurSnas themselves, 1 the extent of the text of the 
Kfirma-Purana is mentioned as ISOOOj 17,000 and 8000 ^Jokas* 
while the available extent of the Kurma-Puraina text contained in 
the manuscripts and the printed editions is about 6000 (5925 In 
Venkt. edn.) s'lokas, which (6000 slokas) seems to have been the 
extent of the Kurma-Purana text (extant now and called as the 
Brahm'i'Saihhita) since the time of the Naradlya PurSna which also 
gives this same extent of the Brahrm-Sarhhita (I. 1O6.22), or since 
the redaction of the present text of the Kurma-Purana itself 

t ''raffa-qefl^fT%55f^T5ninf?ff!nn" Kurma-P. I. 1.23cd.). 

The Naradiya-Purana (I. 106) has tried to remove this 
discrepancy between 17000 g'lokas (the extent mentioned in the lists 
of the PurSnas) and the 6000 biotas (the extent available at tho 
timeoftheNaradlya-P. also) by stating that the Kurma-PurSna 
comets of the four Samhitas viz,. Brahml-Sarhhita of 6000 ftokas 
Bh S g a vatT-San,hitaof4000 biotas, Saurl-Sarhhzta of 2000 biotas 

', f""" S hit& f 5 ' ^kas-the total coming to 
bkas.H Not only this, but the present text of the KQrma- 
also makes a mention of these very four Sarhhitas of the 
Pu,a.' Where then, one may ask, is the problem of the 
theKarma - Pura ^ as i^aa already been solved? But 
there may not be any serious problem about the extent of 
f f KQrma - Pur ^^ Vet the problem still 
' Gal ri ^ al -'ent of the Korma-PurSna and 
extent of its present text. 



d* 
f d thc,r Rcfere^ng* in Pur - a!}a> VII> 2 (July> 

- giVeninthePri 



f the Mats ^ a d also in the 
s 17 ' 00 ' ^ Agni-P^a 

i>. N.;: ! ; ;, ;: ent f thc ^^^ as 8 ,ooo &*. 

. . U-2., W here it gives thenan.es and tho contenta 
of the f OUr Salfihi t-, a and ^ 



xtent 

. , ( g LM ^ - 

Kurra-P. 1. 1.22 :- 



JULY, 1972] KURMA-PURSlilA TEXT 127 

Theory of the four Samhita-s of Kurma-Purana examined 

The theory of the original Kurma*Pur5na having four 
SarhhitS-s is briefly mentioned in the Kurma-Purana itself 
(I. 1.21-22) and given in a detailed form in the N3radiya-Pur5na 
(I. 106 1-12), as already mentioned, seems to be an attempt to 
remove the discrepancy existing between the extent of the Kurma- 
PurS^a given in some of the older lists of the MahSpuranas such 
as the Matsya-Purana (53.47) and the Bhagavata-Purana (XII. 
13.8) as 18,000 or 17,000 s"lokas and the extent of the available 
text of the K.urma-Purana as 6000 slokas by amalgamating or 
mat-adjusting the extents of the Karma- Mahapurana and the 
then available Kurma-Upapurana. In this connection the follow- 
ing reasons may be given for consideration 

1. Besides the Kurma-PutSna the four Sariihitas of the 
Kurma-Mah&puiana are mentioned in the Naradlya PurSna alone 
and in no other Puruna. But the authenticity and the correctness 
of the statements of both these PurSnas (fCurma and the Nfiradlya) 
may be quite doubtful as will be shown here. 

2. No other Mahapurana divides its text into Samhitas', but 
in the case of many of the Upa-puranas we find Sarhhita-division 
of their texts, e. g. the Siva- PurSna (an Upa-PurSna) divides its 
text into seven Sarhhitas, the Sk-mda-Purzln;?. mentioned in the 
Sata-Samhita. (I. 1. 19-21) and considered by scholars as an Upa- 
pur2na s divides its text into six Sariihit5s e ; the Brhad-Vamana- 
PurSna which,, if it ever existed, was really an Upa-purSna (for a 
Vamana-purSna is also mentioned as an Upa-Purana in the lists 



5. e/. The preface of the Sanskrit Catalogue of the Asiatic Society, 
Calcutta, Vol. V, by Dr. Haraprasad Shastri. 

6. cf. Suta-Samhita I. t. 19-21 : 



n 

srtoO sfr^r ^,ff ^^ ^ar i 
^r^r wT^ft gV^rsfOTT ^ffcfT *rar n 

The Skanda-P., Venk. Preas edti., is divided into seven Khand,a-s 
(also mentioned by the Naradiya-P. I. 1"*) and ia regarded as a 
Mahapurana. 



128 3?I?R PURS^IA [VOL. XI V, WO, 2 



of the Upa-pura$as) 7 and its text was also divided Into four Sarii- 
hitSs viz, Mahesvarl, BhSgavatI, Gaurl and GanesVarl. (Nar. P. I. 
105, 13-14), though the Ngr.-P. wrongly (?) mentions it as the 
Uttara-Bhftga of the Vamana-PurSna. 8 Similarly the Saura- 
Purfiija (which calls itself as an Upa-Puratja and a Khila or supple- 
ment of the Brahma-PurSpa) mentions that its text has two 
Samhitas." Thus the SamhitS-division of a Pur2na text probably 
belongs only to an Upa-purSpa and not to a Maha-purana. 

3. In the two lists of the Upa-Purapas contained in the 
Revn-khanda of the Skanda-PurS^a and the Rev&-Mahd,tmj>a ascribrd 
to the VSyu-Puraiia, a Kurma-Puraoa (Kaurrna) is mentioned as 
the eighteenth Upa-purafla, besides a Kurma-MahapurSjia. 10 

'. cf the lists of the UpapurSnas given by Dr. Hazra in hia Studies 
in the Upaparanas, Vol. I, pp. 4-13. See also my Introduction to 
the Critical Edition of the Vamana-Purana. 

. cj. Nar.-P. I, 105. 13-14 : 



fnaf 



-(Saura-P. 9. 13 f.) 
. /-^ Skanda-P., Reva-kh. of the AvantJ-kh-, I. 40-52: 



ffefkr 







JULY, 1972] KURMA-PURAisIA TEXT I 2 g 

A list of the Upa-purSnas is also given in the Kurma-Pur5na 
(I. 1.19-20), which is quoted by Hemadri in the Da na -Kh. 
(p. 531 f.) of his Caturvarga-cintSmani, and also in Vrata-Kh. 
(p. 21). In both the places the Kurma-Pur5nn is mentioned as 
the eighteenth Upa-purSna and the division of the text into the four 
SaihhitSs is said as belonging to this Kurma-Up-purana. 11 

Thus, besides in Hemadri's quotation from the Kurma- 
Purana, a Kurma-UpapurEna is mentioned in the two lists given 
in the Reva-Khanda and the Reva-mcihatmya , which shows that the 



zrs?r=fitTJi 1 1 

A Kurma-Mah-purana is also mentioned separately here in the 
Revu-kh. in the lists of the Mahripuranas as '^ffjf tf 



(SI. 42 ab). 

The text of the Rtv'T.-M'aKatmya its almost similar ; </. Aufrccht : 
Bod. Cat., p. 65 ; Hazra, op. fit., p. 8. 
11. cf. HemSdri: ^^rr^j-A _ 

: aFFrarfa 



-CHemHdri : Dana-kh., pp. 532 f.) 

Here in the two lines preceding the last line HemTIdri's lext 
(13th century A.D.) differs from the available text of the Kurma- 
P. (I. i.20 cd.21 : iRTCrfrTRq^ 3TKH TT^T^r^ I & g q^^TJT 
S^TO ^fW^TCT^ 11 ). Hcm~dri Omits the names of the two Upa- 
puranas, Manca and Bh~rgava 3 and substitutes in their place the 
two-Bhagavatas (taken as one) andthe Kaurma, Dr. Hazra, op.cit., 
in hia VI liat of the Upapurtinas has taken '^liMtfsiJiR^ as 
the two UpapurSnas, and so has omitted the name of the Kaurma 
from this list, which, however, in the quotation by Henwdri is 
clearly mentioned as the eighteenth Upapurana, and so '^FTqTcf CT ' 
should be taken as the one Upapurana (No. 17) consisting of the 
two Bhagavata-s as its two parts. Dr. Hazra also in his VII list 
(Kurma-P. quotation in the Sabda-Kalpa-drum') is inclined to take 
the 'SF^t^g'H 1 '' as constituting one Upa-purTina (No. 7 in 
this list). 



130 3*rom PURXtfA [VOL. XIV, NO. 2 



Kuima-Upapurana remained confined mostly to the region near 
the Reva (Narmada). Many of the Upa-puranas, generally those 
of a local character, became extinct in course of time; the Kurma- 
UpapurSna also might have met the same fate. 

4, The Kurma-Upa-PurSna might have been available at 
the time of the redaction of the text of the extant Naradlya-P. and 
as in the case of the VSmana-P. the two extents of the texts of the 
Kurma MahSpurana and the Kurma Upa-Purana might have 
been amalgamated in order to make up the given extent of the 
Kurrna-Puraija as 17000 Slokas. The actual extent of the Kurma- 
Upapurniia is not definitely known, but the extent of the Kurma- 
Mahapurana (known also as the Brahml-Samhitci) was of 6000 Jalokas 
at the time of the NaradTya-Purana also. The Agni-Purajja 
(272 ) gives the extent of the Kurma- Mahapurana as 8000 Slokas 
only. The Saura-Purana mentions only the two Parts of the text 
of the Kurma-Purana ( vrRSq-fq^f^ra'l" 9. lib), which division is 
still available in the extant text of the Kurrna-Purana. It also 
does not mention any Sarhhita- division of the Kurma-PurSna. 

5. The internal evidence gathered from the extant text of 
th Kurma-PurSna itself shows that (he division of the text of the 
Kurma- Mahapurana into four Sarhhitas does not hold good. The 
whole of the Kurma-Purana (and not only the Brahml-Sarhhita) 
is said to be narrated by Visnu-Kurma to the sages and the gods 
in the Rasatala (the nether worldj : _ 




(Kurma-P. I. 1.122-123) 
The Xfatsya-Purruja also confirms it:- 



(Matsya-p. 53. 46-47) 



JULY, 1972] KDRMA.pURSJsIA TEXT 131 

Other PurSnas also, including the Naradiya-P., 12 corroborate 
it. Thus, all the PurSnas are unanimous in regarding the whole 
of the text of the Kurma-P. as narrated by Visnu-Kurma. Now 
compare the following Sloka of the Kurma-PurSna (II. 44.68); 

cf fesrr ^rVr (v. i. 



This l. is followed by a list of the contents (Purana-samksepa) 
or (Anukramam) of the Kurma-PurS^a from &1, 69 to 119. and there 
is no indication at all that these contents are only of the Brahmi- 
sarhhitn of the Kftrma-P. and not of the whole of the Kurma- 
PurSna. These contents are exactly the same as are treated in our 
text of the KQrma-P. This Anukramanl (list of contents) is im- 
mediately followed by the following &lokas : 




(Kurma-P., II. 44. 120-122j. 

These Slokas clearly show that on]y the present text of the 
Kurma-PurSija (often called as the Br&hml-Samhitti) was spoken by 
Visiju-Kurma., after which Vi'snu renounced his Kurma-form and 
left for his own Loka. Thus there is no possibility of the SamhitS- 
division in the Kurma-XTaha-purana, which supposes that there 
were three other Samhitas of the Kurma-PurSna, which were 
also spoken by Visnu-Kurma, besides the extant text of the Kttrma- 
Purana called as the Brahml-Samhita. 

6. The epithet 'Brahml' in ihe case of the Kurma-PurSna 
has the double meaning: (1) 'BrZhml' was the name of one of the 
fo ur S a rh n i tSs of the Kurma-Upapur5na as the quotation by 

12. s/. Nar-P.I. 105. 1-3 : 



132 s^mra; PURSJiiA [VOL. xiv, NO. 2 



HemSdri (referred to above and quoted in fn. 1 1) indicates, and 
(2) the whole of the Kurma-Maha'purana text (as it is extant now) 
is also called the Brfthml -Samhita, because it describes the highest 
Brahman, the Absolute Conscious Principle, in accordance with its 
rea] or true nature: 



(Kurma-P. II. 44-132) 

Thus, in the case of the Kurraa-MahapurSija the Word 
is a qualifying epithet of this Paurnniki Samhit a (i. e, the 
Kurma-MahSpurana) and not the name of a particular Sarhhita 
of the Kurma-Purana. 

The word Samhita also is applied (1) to a part of a PurSna- 
text, if it has a Sarhhita-division, ES in the case of the iSiva-Puraija 
and the Skanda-UpapurSna, and also (2) to the whole of a PurSna- 
text, which is also called a Pur ana- Samhita 1 ^ or the Pauraniki 
Samhitn; e. g. cf. : 




i ?tf^rrt 

(Knrma-P. I. 1.2, 5) 

In the SI. (11,44.132) quoted above the Kurma-[MabS] PurSna 
has been called as the 'sf r^ft qf\KTfor^ ^ g'F|cn' which clearly 
indicates that the word 'Brahml' here is only a qualifying epithet 
used for this whole PaurSnikl Samhita (i e. the Kurma-PurSnaJ. 

7. The Naradiya-Purana in order to make up the number 
of the 6lokas of a MahapurSna given in the older lists of the 
MahSpurSnas has in some cases mixed up the extents of a MahS- 
purana with the extent of the Upa-purSna bearing the same or the 
similar title, in which case the Upapurana is assumed as the 

13. SofthifS is a methodically arranged collection or compilation of 
texts or veraw. The texts of Vcdas, Sm t tia, Epics and Puranaa 
ar Cl therefore, called SaMita-s. Vy.sa is said to have compiled a 
Parana Samhita. 



<Bd,-P. II. 24.21 ; C f. also Vis-.P. III. 6. 15). 



JULY, 1972] KURMA-PURXyA TEXT 133 

Second Part (Uttara-bhaga) of the real Mah3-Pur3na, The case of 
the Vamana-PurSna has already been cited above. The Visnu- 
Purana is said to have an extent of 23,000 Slokas '(^tfi^TtcRrT^r' 
cr<2*T"f faf^STT:' Matsya-P. 53.16} and as spoken by sage 
Para^ara: 



-(Matsya-P. 53.16) 

The Visnu-PurSna (I. 1.30) also corroborates this statement of the 
Matsya-Puraija when it says that the whole ( 5T^tw ) Visnu-Puiana 
was spoken by Para^ara to Maitreya: 

sr' cf ^2? qf^-^rT I 

^rt f^t^r 'TSTTcrsT'T 1 1 

But the Naradiya-Purana, in order to make up the number 
of the alokas of the Visnu-PurSija as 23,000, says that the Visnu- 
Pur&ija spoken by ParS,bara and consisting of the six Aiiisas is the 
Adi bhaga only and the Visnu-dharmottara narrated by the Suta 
to aunaka and other sages is the remaining text of the Visnu- 
Mahapurana ( t^ !^ T^ ) : 





: II \^ 
IRo ^o 
(N5r.-P. I. 94) 

The Visr^u-dharmottara, however, is not spoken by ParS- 
ara, it is in the form of an Interlocation between the Yadava 
King Vajra (the son of Aniruddha and the great-grandson of 
{5rT-Krsn.a) and sage Markandeya. This PurSija therefore, cannot 
form a part of the Visnu-Purana, Moreover, the Visnu-dhar- 
mottara is included in the list of the Upa-Puranas (as the eleventh 
Upa-Pura$a) given in the Brhad-dharma-PurSna (I. 25. 23-26). 
The statement of the Naradiya-Purana combining the extents of 
the two PurSn.as (Visnu-MahapurSna and the Visnu-dharmottara 
Up-purSna) and regarding them as the Adi-bhaga and the Uttara- 



PURSJsIA [VOL. XIV, NO. 2 

respectively of the whole Visnu-MahSpurStfa is quite mis- 
leading. More-over, the extents of the Visnu-pura"#a and thu 
Visnu-dharmottara-purana as available now are, by counting, 6373 
and 21,694 i'lokas respectively and the total comes to more than 
28,000 &okas. 

The same might have been the case with the Kurma-Pur5i?a 
also. The Kurma-Purana of the four Sariihitas might have been 
an Upa-purana as may be inferred from Hemadri's quotation 
referred to above (and given in fn. 11); and the Narad lya-Pura'n.a 
combined it with the Kurma-MahapuiSna as a part of its Uttara- 
bti3ga in order to make up the total extent of the Karma-Parana 
as 17,000 ^lokas. 

8. The gokas of the Kurma-^ViahaJPurajja (I. 1.21-22) 
mentioning the four SarhhitSs of the KQrma- [MahaJPurana 
probably belonged originally to the Kurma-Upa-pur3i.ia, but later 
on, somehow, might have been (ransferred to or interpolated in the- 
!hcn extant (ext of the KQrma-Mahapurana with some adjustment 
of reading; e. g. Hemadri's reading "^rrgt^sf sft'cK S^f ^W'%^^" 
referring to the Kurma-UpapurSna having been modified as 
"** 3 (v. 1. *) r*nf juof ^f^^" (Kurma-F. I. 1.21ab) 
and thus making it refer to the Kunna-Mahapurana which is 
mentioned as the fifteenth Mahapurana in the lists of the Maha- 
purSnas. The Naradiya-PurSna perhaps on the authority of the 
then extant Ktlrma-Mahapurana mentioned the four-Samhitas 
originally belonging to the KQrma Upapurana as belonging to the 



Jnte d 



^-^ur^a, but the 
***^ P. 533) mig ht 
t8d ^ W- No m anus- 



- 

T,-App. 129 ff of h p '". l Va-uran a ia prOved by Dr . Hazra 
And according to hJ-thT! /? "^ " ^ WK ^" aiuf ^stoms). 
evident br th. Xt th t ^^ ^ T> 45 ' 125 ^Btolx, 
ba^*en found to q uote e ^n n " C , f , the numerous Srarti-writers 
q C CVen a 8in S' c "" f^o m them." (p. 12 2 > 



JULY, 1972] KURMA-PURA'JVIA TEXT 135 

(i) This Sarhhita (i.e. the Kurma-Purana-Sarhhita) is Brahml, 
for it deals with Brahman, the Highest and Absolute Reality; it 
contains six thousand slokas, or (ii) this is the Brahml-SamhitcL (out 
of the four SamhitSs of the Kurma-[Maha] Pur ana mentioned in 
the preceding dloka), which only (and not the whole Kurma- 
Puraija) has an extent of 6,000 slokas. In my opinion the first 
interpretation is more reasonable and therefore preferable, and 
SI. II. 44.1 32 ( JTTlfr ifklftpfit %*T <Ef%TT TR?TT?Fft I S15T fl^. qitf ^ tft^ ff 
W'fe: Ii) fits more with this interpretation. 

10. How then can we account for the discrepancy in the 
two statements the one mentioning the original extent of the 
Ktirma-PurSfla as 17,000 Slokas i Matsya and other Puranas) and 
the other mentioning the extent of the Brahmi-Sarhhita (an epithet 
of the Kurma-PurSna 1 ! as 6,000 6lokas (Karma-P. I. 1.23) ? In 
reply it may be said that the original extents of many of the 
Puranas as mentioned in the Matsya and some other Puraijas do 
not at all tally with the extents of the available texts of those 
PurSijas; e.g. consider the case of the following PurSnas : 

MahSpuraijas Extent given in Extent available 

Matsya (Adh. 35) 

Padrna 55,000 48,452 (An. ed,) 

Vayaviya 24,000 10,991 (An. ed.) 

Naradiya 25,000 17,549 (Venk. ed.) 

Bhavisya 14,000 25,936 (Venk. ed,) 

VarSha 24.000 9,720 (Bibl. ed.) 

Skanda 81,000 93,343 (Venk. ed.) 

Garuda 19,000 8,738 (Venk. ed.) 

The extents of the Vamana and the Visnu have already been 
discussed. The present texts of the Bhavisya and Skanda have 
increased in their bulk, but the other Puranas have now much less 
extant than mentioned in the PurSnic lists. This may be explain- 
ed by supposing that either the present texts are the latest revised 
and redacted texts of these Puranas, or their original extent have 
undergone a change during the course of their oral and written 
transmission. Some of the original MahSpura$as have also been 
superseded by the apocryphal Puranas or the UpapurSr>as bearing 
the same title; e.g. Dr. Hazra thinks that the present NSradlya- 
PurSna is an Upapura^a and not the original Naradlya-Maha- 



PURSisIA JVOL, XIV, NO. 

purana 16 . The present Brahma-vaivarta-PurSna also may not be the 
original MahSpurSjja, but only an apocryphal PurSrj:a 16 . Similar 
might be the case with some other extant PurSnic texts. 

IncaseoftheKurma-PurSna the original extent of 17,000 
Slokas was reduced to 8,000 Slokas at the time of the compilation 
or redaction of the present Agni-PurSna, and it was further reduced 
to 6,000 Slokas as given in the extant text of the Karma-Purana 
(I. 1. 23 quoted), and which is still available. This gradual 
decrease in the extent of the KGrraa-Purapa may not be possible 
to be accounted for at present, but it is certain that the Kurma- 
Purana has lost some of its text, for a large number of quotations 
from the KSrma-Purana given in the Dharmas'astra-Nibandhas 
are not traceable in the extant text of the Karma-PurS^a. 17 

The available text of the KGrma-PurSga is that of the 
Kfirma-Mahapuraoa and not of the Kiirma-Upapurana, as I have 
already discussed in my Introduction to its Critical Edition. So it 
may be asserted that the present Kurma-Puraria is the same Purana 
as has been mentioned in the list of the Mahapura^as, but with 
a reduced extent of 6j OOO Sbkas only, and that the division of the 
Kurma- Purana text into four Sarhhita-s really belonged to the 
Kurma-Upapurana which however, is not available now 



Cf. a a : *,,. ,-, th( 



. Eda. of the Ku r 



Notes 



DID THE AUTHOR OF THE BHAGAVATA KNOW 
KALI DAS A ? 

BY 

SHEO SHANKER PRASAD 

wtar: 



srepffFgcf TI *rft*rq sre^ 



Kalid5sa is the greatest poet and dramatist of Sanskrit litera- 
ture so it is but natural to assume that his successors tried to 
imitate him and Kalidasa exerted a great influence on them. 

In course of my research work on the Bhagavata I came 
across some words and ideas similar to those of Kalidasa. 

In the Chapter 69 of Book X of the BhSgavata we find a verse 
which describes the harem of &rikrsna. In the palace of Lord 
Krija darkness is done away by the lustre of precious stones 
and peacocks scream loudly in the beautiful house-roof and dance 
thinking that clouds are up when they see the mass of smoke of 
burning Aguru rising out of the windows. 

ratnapradipanikaradyutibhirnirasta- 
dhvSntarn. Vicitravalabhisu Sikhandino^nga / 
nrtyanti yatra vihitSgurudhupamaksair 
niryantamiksya ghanabuddhaya unnadantatjt // 

BhSg, X69.12 

The verse instantly reminds us of a verse of the P urvamegha 
of Kalidasa where Kalidasa says to the cloud-messenger that his 
body will increase in volume by the incense-smoke of the toilet 
coming through the windows and he will be welcomed with the 
gift of dances by pet peacocks due to friendly affection for him :- 

jalodgirnairupacitavapurji Ke^asamskSradhupair 
bandhu-prltya bhavana^ikhibhirdattanrtyopaharah / 

(Purva Meg ha 32) 

Here we mark that there is much similarity in ''vihitSguru- 
dhupamaksair niaryantamiksya ghanabuddhaya unnadantah/' and 



138 SfrcrJ* PURS^A [VOL. xiv, NO. .1 

"jSlodgirnairupcitavapuh ke/asarhskaradhiipaih." and "in Sifchap- 
dino'i'iga, nrtyanti yatra" and ''bhavana&khibhirdattanSrtyopah.v 
rah". 

Again when we proceed further in the Meghaduta we find a 
verse where the poet advises the cloud -messenger to pass the nigfu 
on some house roof ''tSrh kasySiricidbhavanavaJabhau suptapSr.1- 
vatayam', (Piirva Megha 38). 

Here we also find some similarity in "vicitravalabhlsu" (of 
the verse "Ratnapradlpa ..") and "bhavanavalabhau" 

(P. Megha38) 

In addition to these similarities when we compare 
pSdanySsair bhujavidhutibhih sasmitairbhrCivilasair 
bhajyanmadhyai^calakucapatail? kundalairga^dalolaih. / 
Svidyanmukhyah KabararasanSgranthayati Krsnavadhvo 
gSyantyastam tadita iva ta meghacakre virejuh, // 

(BhSg. X. 30.8} 
and 

padanyasakvanitarasanastatra lilavadhii tai 
rantnacchaya-khacitavalibhi^cSmarait ksmahastab. / 
veiySstvattonakhapadasukhan prapya varsagrabindu- 
nsmoksyante tvayi madhukara^renidTrghan KatSksan // 

(Piirva Megha 35) 

We notice that some phrases like "padanySsa", "bhuja. 
" "Saimitairbhravitoaip", "Svidyanmukhyafe" and 
P arallels in 



kin? f S l nar ^" -apectively. Besides this, the most 
" b t f the VerS6S 3 

so f B k x 



metre ^ " 

"ieire i. e, mandafcrSntS 



ure such a S 

t-W-t - 
verse of the Purvamegha:- 



JULY, 1972] DID BHXGAVATA KNOW KSLIDSSA 139 

sa pratyagraih kutajakusumaih kalpitgrghaya tasmai 
pritah pritiprarnukhavacanam svagatam vyajahara // 

(Purva Megha, 4} 

The author of the Bhagavata might have got the idea from 
the Cloud messenger tMeghaduta). 

On the basis of these similarities we can say that the author 
of the Bhagavata imitates Kalidasa. But one thing goes against 
this assumption. When we survey the episode of 6akuntala 
(Sakuntalopakhyana) of the Bhagavata we find that the story as 
narrated in that Purana in the Chapter XX of Book IX is quite 
different from that of the poet Kalidasa. It is totally based on 
some ancient source, it may be the MahabbSrata. In such a 
condition one is led to think that the AbhijnStia-akuntala of 
Kalidasa is unknown to the author of the Bhagavata. But that this 
is not correct can be realised when we go through the Purana and 
appreciate the fact that the author has tried his best to give his 
Purana an archaic form. 

It might be said that KalidSsa has imitated the author of the 
Bhagavata and not the vice versa. But this assumption has no 
weight at all. 1 he Bhagavata knows the Amarakosa, a renowned 
book on lexicography; It makes use of a part of a verse of the 
Chapter I of the AmarakosV in one of the stanzas of the Bhagavata 
which runs like this: 

Ksetrajna Stma purusah pur5$ah / 
s5ks5t svayarn jyotirajah pares'ah" 

(Bhag. V. II. 13) 

The Amarakosa is placed in the 4th century A. D. 

The Bhagavata clearly mentions that the Hunas* accepted 
Vaisnavism. Hujias came to India during the reign of Kumara- 
gupta i. e, in the 5th century A. D. Hence the Bhagavata is a 
creation of the fifth century A. D. 

1- Amarakosa 1.4.29 Ksetrajfia Stma purusah 

2. Bhugavatall. 4.18 Kiratahunandhrapul'indapulkasd 

abhiraka&kH yavanah khasadayah / 
ye 5 nye ca papa yadapasrayasrayah 
Sudhyanti tasmai prabhavignave nama^.// 



HO 3?rarq ruRAijiA [VOJL. xiv, wo. 2 

Kslidasa is roughly placed at 400 A, D. 3 whereas Pargiter, 1 
J>r. Hjizra'"' and Durgashanker K. ShSstri place the Bhagavata 
somewhere after the 5th century A.D. So Kalidasa is a predecessor 
of the author of the Ehagavaia. Now it will not be unreasonable to 
assume that the author of the Bhagavata is well acquainted 'with 
the works of the great poet 



D " 8UP " ,. 



PROPRIETY OF USING UMBRELLA AND SHOES BY 
VAMANA AS A BRAHMACSRlN 

BY 
GANGA SAGAR RAI 



*nr*?fr ^TR^T ^ faqRof sri^ ifa 

?ftcl ?fr 
JT^TRTT 



In the PurSijaSj epics and classical literature the form of 
Lord Visflu in His dwarf incarnation is described as that of a 
BrahraacSrin or a Vedic student. 1 This idea is also corroborated 
by Art and Iconography. 3 At many places Vamana is described 
as batu or mnnavaka. Description of his form and articles wore 
by him show that he was in the garb of a brahmacdrin. Some 
of the passages available in the Puranas and Epics are noted 
below which mention his form as that for a Brahmacarin : 

?: Bhagavata P., IIX. 18.12 

and 
f f^ST WFTTOT'WF f?TT I 

2. 



1 "ft ^Icdl ^T^TT'T ^TfT^%: 1 1 

KQrma P., I. 1 7.49 
3. *T ^TTft ^ ^sV t^t ^Fr"So|: I 

^Nf^rift %sft ^^Rs^TTf^ra; u 

M. P. 246. 46 cd-47 ab 

4. 



II 

padrnaP. VL 267.3 
5. ^T ^c!T qfr ^ | I S. K. P. I. 1. 18. 150. 



1. For the Varaana legend in Vedaa, Epics and Puranas see my 

article in Parana, Vol. XII. No. ], pp. 102-140. 

2. For details see VSmana in Literature and Art by B. N, Sharaa, 
Puraria XII No. 2 pp. 54-64 



142 Sprara. PURAlilA [VOL., XIV, NO. 2 

6. sftftcRRfasnt: <M: Sffe<<mfcr: 

1 1 



Visoudh. I. 55,17 

7. ^ferpRfteSRsft ^terrsft 



1 1 
Mbh III. 273.63-64. 

These references clearly show that Vamana was in the 
garb of a Brahmacarin. Besides this, the Vamana Pmvlga clearly 
mentions that Lord Vamana was initiated and that various gods 
and sages presented to him different articles as Bhiksa (alms) at 
the time of his initiation. The different articles presented to 
Vamana are mentioned as follows: 




n 

-s 

Vsm. P. (Saro-mahStmya) 9.36-9. 

At another place (ch. 62) too this Puraya mentions the 
upanayana of Lord VSmana and the various articles presented 
to Him : 




From the above mentioned references it is obvious that 
Lord Vamana was a Brahmacarin and was duly initiated. The 
word Batu and M&navaka used for Him are in this context 
synonyms of a Brahmac&rin, According to Hemacandra and 



FkOPRIETY OF USIISG UMBRELLA AND SHOES BY VSMANA 143 

fcabdaratntivall the word Batu, Varni and BrahmacSrin are used in 
the same sense. 1 

This idea contained in the PurSnas and Epics is corroborated 
by sculptural references to VSrnana. The image of V&mana is 
generally shown in the DaiSavatara panel or on the stele of 
Vinu image along with other incarnations. In such images 
Vamana is shown as a Brahmacarin holding an umbrella and 
a Danda (staff). The description of Vamana's image contained 
in the Vaikhanasagama also describes VSmana as a B rahmacarin : 




[ The image of Vamana should be made five Tula high, 
having two arms, bearing umbrella and staff, wearing a, Kauplna 
and with lock of hairs (f?T<3r), girdle, book, and sacred thread, 
a boy endowed with the Brahma-tejas ] 

In the Visnudharmottara PurJSpa also He is said as engaged 
in studies : 



it 

Viijudh. P. 85.54-55 

From all these references it is proved that Vamana is 
represented as passing through the first stage of life. Now, 
according to the Dharmasastra-texts which deal with the codes 
of conduct for a BrahmacSrin it is said that a BrahmacSrin should 
neither hold an umbrella nor put on shoes. 2 But in above- 
cited descriptions of Vamana he is holding an umbrella and 



1 . srg^Tftjrewt faTTs?ir 
srgsr'off sr^rnit ?Rr qrs 

Vide, Sabdakalpadrumakos'a 

2. cf. 

=Ef TTfsf flTcif ^T^ f^T: I 

srifr?rt 3? fp^ n 



144 - [VOL., xiv., NO. 2 



has put on ^. Now the question arises why he adheres 
to anti SSstric conduct? When umbrella and shots are 
prohibited for a BrahmacSrin how and under what rules did 
Vamana possess these things ? This question may be answered 
is follows : 

(I) According to MedhRtithi, a commentator of Manu, a 
BrahmacRrin, after the completion of Vedic studies and prior to 
entering the house-hold stage studies other branches of learning 
(such as grammar, poetics etc.). During this period he has only 
to avoid woman and not the other prohibited things such as 
meat etc. While commenting upon the verse, 

i ^ Tifr 



n 

Manu 3.2 



MedhStithi says, : 

f ^ f^tft 5^^ f^TfTRRFTf 
I ^T zn^sqirff cTR^R f?rqiTT B 




(Edited by Ganganath Jha f Vol. I p. 204) 



From the descriptions available in the PurSnas it appears 
that Vamana had completed his study. The Vamana Parana says: 



Vsmana P. (Saro-mabatmya) 9.36 

[ The Vcdas along with Ornksra and accents (Svaras) 
revealed themselves to him. All branches of learning (A^esa 



5ft?f ^ ^jf Tftarnp^ n Manu, 2.177-8 

and 
^3^ , Apastamba 1275 

prMcribe si 



PROPRIETY OF USING UMBRELLA AND SHOES BY VSMANA 145 
Sastras) and also Sarhkkya and Yoga became manifest to him ] 

Frooi this it may be assumed that Vamana had completed 
his study of Vedas but had not entered the second stage of life 
(Grahastha^rama) and in this intervening period holding of an 
umbrella and wearing the shoes was justified in the opinion of 
Medhatithi. 

(2) It seems quite probable that in ancient times the holding 
of umbrella and wearing of shoes (that may be wooden) were 
customary for the ascetics and Sarhnyasins. Ravana, when 
assumed the form of a SarhnySsin at the time of Sitas abduction 
was also holding an umbrella and wearing shoes. 

fsr^V ^ ^TiT^t I 
^f qfefnrossj; 1 1 

Ramayana, III. 46.3 

This description of Ravana is more or less similar to the 
description of Vamana, The life of a BrahmacSrin and that of 
a Samnyasin are full of austerities. A Sarhnyasin's life is a life of 
utter renunciation. Holding of umbrella and wearing the shoes by 
him are meant for protection. If it were not common practice 
for the Sariinyasms Sita might, have suspected Ravana, But she 
did not suspect which means that it was a common practice. 
Thus, it seems that inspite of the prohibition such practice was 
in vogue among the Brahmacarins and the Sarhnyasin s. 

3. The Vamana legend is available in various PurSnas, 
Epics and classical literature. These texts sometimes contain 
variations in the story. In some places Vamana is not shown 
as a BrahmacSrin. According to one version of the Skanda Purana 
Visou assumed the form of a dwarf Brahmana and was adept 
in all the four Vedas. He was on pilgrimage : 



Skanda P. VII- 2.14.18-2 



H6 

SW-PURSp [VOL, XIV,, NO, 2 

In the DWbVSmana legend oi the VtoaaP U ra f a 
a ls not described a S atokacari,It M y be po* 



S aacar,It M y be po 
tatat ^alltedfance 5W erenon extent and nri 
fro mo t S ide entered theory. Umbrella and to 
ave been irtdedfroraorte, However, at present 



sculpture, 



Comment 

THE POSITION OF BRAHMANAS AND COMMONERS 
UNDER THE RULE OF A TYRANT MONARCH. 

BY 
V. V. DESHPANDE 



The last (Vasanla Pancaml] number of the Puraija Bulletin 
(Vol. XTV 3 No. I; January, 1972) has published a Rejoinder by 
Dr. Om Prakash to my comment on his earlier Note on "The 
Divinity of the King and the Right of Revolution in the Puraoas", 
both published in the previous (Vyusa Purnimti) number of the 
same Bulletin (Vol XIII, No. 2; July, 1971). The writerofthe 
Rejoinder has reiterated his earlier opinion, and has sought to 
re-establish his proposition "the right of tyrannicide was granted 
(by the ancient Hindu thinkers, and also in the Pur Unas) openly 
and exclusively to the common people" by adducing fresh 
evidence of some verses from the Mahabharata and the Smrtis of 
Tajnavdkya, Narada, etc. He admits that the PurSnas are silent 
on the point, states that Indologists have always used Puraijic 
materiah by way of corroborative evidence of their (Indologists') 
otherwise arrived conclusions. He acknowledges the plausibility 
of more than one interpretation of the PurSnlc material; but 
claims correctness to his interpretation if consistency is to be 
maintained in the whole of the traditional attitude over this 
question, viz. "the peoples 5 right of Revolution against a tyrant 
monarch". 
8 



148 5<ra'^ PURAJNIA [ VOL. XIV., NO, 2 



Dr. Om Prakash has defended his position by pointing out 
the continuity in, and the consistency of, the Indian tradition in 
this respect. According to him, the right to revolt against, and 
kill, a t\ rant king (described as one who not only fails to duly 
protect his Dhurmic subjects, but himself commits heinous sins, 
and deliberately incites others to do the same) has all along been 
openly recognised (over the whole range of relevant Sanskrit 
literature such as the Vedas, the Smrtis, the Epics and the Pur&Qas) 
and vested in the generality of the king's subjects. With respect 
to my comment on this position he says : "Professor Deshpande's 
allegation i egarding the two preconceived notions of Indologists 
in general and himself in particular, may be justified when it can 
be proved that the right of revolt was granted exclusively to the 
Er^kn.atMS,"" He agrees that "all the Puranic legends of tyranni- 
cide exhibit only Brnhmanas in the forefront"; but adds : "(this 
is) a chcurnstance also explicable in terms of leadership reposed 
on the inlollegentsia formed by Brahmnas alone." 

Here are a few more statements of Dr. Om Prakash helpful 
in understanding his thoughts on the question : On page 33 he 
states : ''The concept of the basic right of self-defence may be 
modern, but man has been fighting for his self defence since the 
day he made his appearance on the planet. Similarly, the right 
of ri-xolution may be modern but man has been rising in revolt 
uht'iu VCT his collective existence was endangered as the result 
of the tyiannay and oppression by the king. Ancient Indian 
thinkers formulated no regular scheme of the basic rights of man 
\vhentheysirnplyjustified this collective action of the sulijects 
oppn-Saed beyond endurance. They viewed it as an extraordinary 
situation, not covered by any of the provisions of R&jadharma, 
for all codes stood abolished the moment the tyranny began. The 
only check, was the collective might of the disorganised people 
which can efficiently express itself when the limit is reached". 

He, however, adds the following in the next paragraph : 
"To say that the right of revolution was granted to the people 
does not mean that the Briihmanas had no privilege. But in. this 
respect at least the privileged Brahmanas were equal to non- 
privilagcd commoners. Whatever privilege the Br&hmanas had 
lasted only so long as the codes of duty were observed.... Tyranny 



BR&HMAtvtAS AND COMMONERS UNDER A TYRANT 149 

was thus an axe which also fell on the privileges of the Brahmaiiaf 
as it fell on the common man. It rendered the Brakmavis and 
the common man alike, and thus gave them a common cause. 
The equality of the BrZhmanas and the common man in the event 
of revolution is thus not a result of our so-called presumption 
that ancient Indian society was not a graded hierarcay, the rights 
possessed by one also belonged to the other. It was the work of 
1 he oppressive policies of the tyrant which abolished distinction 
between the privileged and the non-privileged/' In Dr. Om 
Prakash's view, Spellman, who is of the view that Pur7uias t under 
no circumstance, permit or tolerate tyrannicide is obviously 
wrong, as they abound in legends of tyrannicide, and he (Dr. O-.n 
Prakash) is glad because I have vindicated this stand ofhisliy 
insisting that the right to kill a tyrant monarch was limited in the 
Brfthmanas only as they were traditionally held to be thr guardians 
of the Dharma. 

Dr. Om Prakash tries to distinguish between two situations, 
which according to him, are altogether different from one another. 
These are : (1) The Brahmanas vs. the King; and (2) The King 
vs. the Dharma or the common people. In case of the first 
situation obtaining, Dr. Om Prakash agrees that Dr. Ghosal and 
some other ladologists are right in holding that Mam grants his 
approval to the right of tyrannicide exclusively to the intellec- 
tual aristocracy ie. the BrhUmanas in the following verse : 
(Manu IX 320). 



**TT?Trsf 



He opines that as the Brahmanas have an edge over the king 
(for his royal power owes it genesis to the spiritual power of the 
B^hmanas and not vice versa) this is entirely justifiable. But he 
asserts that Manu is silent on the other situation arising, as to what 
the common man or the Brahmanas should do if n iking starts 
wilfully oppressing his subjects and thereby slighting Dhvrma with 
or without coming into direct conflict with the Brtkmap*. I > 
under this sort of situation, Dr. Om Prakash asserts that ht 
common man has been granted, by the ancient Hind w-giv,, 
the right to revolt against the oppressive _ king which may iu 
extreme cases, extend to committing tyrannicide. 



150 jprop^-PURXJStA [ VOL, XIV., N- 2 



A perusal of this summary of Dr. Om Prakash's 
statement (made in his Rejoinder in refutation of my comments on 
the stand taken by him in his original Note) will convince* <hc 
reader of the narrowness of the area of divergence that still 
continues to exist between our respective stands. He seems to have 
relied on these five propositions in the course of his a 



(1) In order to correctly understand the nature of relation- 
ship between the king on the one hand and the Brclhmanas on 'be 
other, and the king on the one hand and the generality of liii 
subjects on the other, we must rely upon Indian traditional 
elaborately exposed in the Vedas, Smjtis, epics and Purhnas asa 
whole. All these authoritative sources uphold only one tradition, 
which is both consistent with the other aspects of the total way wf 
life, organised under the Sastras are concerned, as wt41 as 
continuously followed from immemorially ancient times. 

(2) Indologists have always used PurSnic material only by 
way of corroborative evidence to maintain and support their 
otherwise-aririved-at conclusions. Hence it does not matter if \vc 
find Puranas to be silent on the right of the people to revolt against 
a tyrant king. 

(3) The right of revolution, including that of tyrannicide, 
has been found in certain non-Puranic and epic passages, granted 
openly and exclusively to the generality of the people when the 
hierarchical order of the society (that is the Varnnsrama Vyava;>th'\) 
stands abolished as the result of the tyrannical atrocities committ- 
ed or directed by the king. 

(4) The disorganised people (that is to say, the subjects 
of the king somehow living together, when the Varn'&srama 
Vynvoiths is completely abrogated and has rendered the Br&hmanat 
and the commoners alike) will be justified in revolting against 
the king, and even in killing him. This, so far as the legends 
referred to in Manu, Mahabharaia and the Puranas go, the people 
have invariably done under the leadership of the Br&fymaqat , 
because of the conEdence reposed by the generality of the people 
in their learning and intelligence. 



THE BRA~HMAIAS AND COMMONERS UKDER A TYRANT 15] 

(5) Ancient Indian thinkers did not formulate any regular 
scheme of the basic rights of man : they simply justified the 
collective action of the subjects of a tyrant king to revolt against 
him when they were oppressed beyond endurance; whenever their 
collective existence \vas endangered as the result of the oppression 
and tyranny of the king, 

Of these five propositions, it is not at all difficult to agree 
to the truth of the first. Broadly speaking, the whole range of 
the Sanskrit -literature upholds only one, as the approved way of 
life for those who claim to be the faithful followers of Dharma 
as adumbrated in Vedas, its original source Smflis, Epics, Purlnas, 
etc., which are the derivative sources of Dharma only elaborate 
further the details of the way of life of the Dharmic community : 
this unique way of life has come to be known in this world by the 
name of Varna-jati-Asrama Vyawslha, or the elaborately planned 
order wherein essential social functions are found to be distributed 
among the members of different hereditary castes, till they 
continue to be in the second i.e. the house-holder stage of life, 
It is well known that these numerous hereditary castes have been 
grouped under the four Varnas that is, hereditary-classes, consisting 
of several hereditary castes, of different lemtorial origin, as well 
as those whose hereditarily assigned functions are different from 
each other but which, on account of certain similarities, do fall 
under four broad-based categories viz the Brahmanas, the 
Ksatriyas, the Vaisyas and the Sudras. Those Indologists, who have 
tried to present different pictures of the Vcdic community, and to 
read into Sanskrit literature, belonging to different historical 
periods, support for the pictures of their fancy have always been 
confronted with numerous insurmountable difficulties, both of 
(a) the impossibility of assigning correctly the position of different 
works by reference to the dates of their composition and fb) of 
arriving at a coherent interpretation of the statements found to 
be made even in any one of these works \\orks which are fully 
relied upon by tlie members of the Vedic community as their 
authoritative guides, 

Dr. Om Prakash's second proposition is only partially 
correct. It is true that mostly Indologists have used Puraijic 
material by way of corroborative evidence only to support their 



152 



PURXtfA [ VOL. XIV., NO, 2 

otherwise-arrived at conclusions. As stated above, Parapo* are 
only a derivative source of authority on matters of Dharma. The 
principal purpose of their composition is to present to their 
readers, in eulogatory terms, legendry and historical episodes 
of kings, their dynasties, of Rsis, and similar connected matters. 
They mainly reiterate, and sometimes supplement also, the codes 
of Dharmic (approved) conduct to be come across elsewhere, 
But so far as their silence on the point in question is concerned 
Jir. Om Prakash's proposition is not correct. He has himself 
stated (on p. 32) that "almost all the Puranic legends of tyranni- 
cicV exhibit only Brahma SKIS in the forefront a circumstance also 
explicable in terms of the leadership reposed on the intellegentsia 
fbnm-'d by the Brahmanas above". He is also, cognisant of the 
vfT-se from the Bkagavata Parana where it is directed that "the 
m-rson of the king is to be held sacrosanct, not to be striken down 
even if he violates all canons of morality and justice". In fact, 
the whole of his Note (P, B. Vol. XIII, No. 2) is devoted to the 
refutation of the stand taken by Dr. John Spellman in this respect. 
Thus the Puranas have, on the one hand, supplied us with 
several legends of tyrannicide, where the Brftfymayas alone have 
taken the decision to do away with the tyrant ; and, on the other, 
vv come across a specific-directive in the Bhagaavta Purana 
addressed to the people in general, not to strike-down the person 
of the king, even if he is sinful. These specific references from 
the PurMas hardly support Dr. Om Prakash's stand as to their 
silence on this crucial point. On the contrary, they amply 
ir.rtif} the view that the Brahmanas, because of their superior 
social status have alone been charged with the responsibility' to 
tkal wi'h the critical situation the Vedic community had to face 
under the rule of a tyrant. 

Propositions 3, 4 and 5 are newly, formulated by Dr. Om 
Prakash, Those are not traceable in his Note; and they seem to 
have bern hi oycht in only to refute the statements made by me 
uhnV conmi. ntiug on his Note. But even a cursory perusal of 
these u ill reveal their incoherence and internal contradictions. 
In th, itm place, Dr. Om Prakash's tacit assumption regarding 
mdv!u a p s rights, as the base on which fabric of the common 
U, ol th, I ,tocnm, fl imity has been built up, is questionable. 
Indian IiMi.,ln Blst s who have received guidance from scholars in 



THE BRftHMA^AS AND COMMONERS UNDER A TYRANT 153 

the same field from the West are often times found committing 
this mistake. Communities in the West, whether rational or 
religious, because of the complete severance they had to suffer 
from their traditional past, were required to organise their 
common life by making a start with individual (who is assumed 
to be mostly self-contained) as the primary unit for whose sake 
and around whom important sectors of the common life are made 
to revolve. Rights of individuals, whether legal, moral or 
spiritual do therefore, form the base of the constitutional, legal 
or moral systems that have been elaborated in the West, for 
organising the common life of these communities. Such was not 
the case of the Vedic community, which was, from imrnemorially 
ancient times, organised and governed on the basis of an elabora- 
tely planned order, where the plan had already laid down in 
great detail the status and the function, the responsibility and 
the duties, of the members of each hereditary group belonging 
to the interdependent and ever continuing common life. To 
assume and talk of the activities of the members of different caste 
groups of such a community as being done by them on the 
exercise of their rights is therefoie completely misleading. And 
in the case of Indologists born and bred in the tradition of Indian 
way of life, it is unpardonable also. 

The contents of his fifth proposition, so far as its first half 
is concerned, correctly state the existing position but when it is 
more closely examined., it will be realised that, for all those 
thinkers, brought up in the Vedic tradition, there can exist no 
room for formulating any regular scheme of the basic rights of 
man, for the reasons given above. For similar reason his statement 
forming the third of the above given five propositions strikes a 
discordant note on the ears of a person trained in the immemo- 
rial and coherent tradition. Perhaps himself being aware of this, 
Dr. Om Prakash has diluted this statement when later on (as 
he maintains in the latter part of his fifth proposition) he 
admits that Indian thinkers have "simply justified the collective 
action of the subjects of a tyrant king to revolt against him 
when they were oppressed beyond endurance; whenever thejr 
collective existence was endangered as the result of his intolerable 
oppression and tyranny", (p, 33). 

To students of law., the differences between all these situa- 
tion are clearly perceptible. These can be stated as: (a) a 



154 purw -PURS^A [ VOL.. XIV., NO. 2 



situation in which an individual is authorised, in his unfettered 
discretion to do, or to refrain from doing, a particular act, when 
he is confronted with particular circumstances and conditions; 
this situation can be described as the right situation, and the 
legal system provides in this case elaborate rules of procedure to 
facilitate the exercise of his legal rights by the individual; (b) a 
situation in which ihe individual is obligated to do, or refrain 
from doing, a particular act when he finds himself confronted 
with particular circumstances and conditions : This situation 
i? a duty weighed situation (where the duty may belong to the 
category of a Dhamric duty, or of exclusively legal variety). 
Here the code of Dharma or law shall have laid down adequate 
sanctions agamst the individual for the non-performance of duty; 
and lastly (c) a situation, where a particular kind of action by 
an individual (and singular includes the plural also) is simply 
tok-rated and treated as justified when it is taken by him (or 
lhi?m) or being confronted with specific conditions and circum- 
stances, This is a different situation clearly distinguishable from 
the first two. The two verses quoted by Dr. Om Prakash from 
the Anu.-'Ssana Parva of the Mahabharata (ch. 61-31, 32*). 
obviously do not constitute a declaration of rights in favour* of 
the King's subjects in general; nor do they proceed to impose any 
legal or Dharmik duty on them to revolt against the tyrant king. 
They oolong to the thiid category, that is to say they describe 
a course of action, that will be timply justifiable if any of his 
subjects were to resort to it, under such conditions and circums- 
tances as arc laid down in the 6astra in that behalf. 

The acknowledgement of the privileged position of the 
Br'ihmatMs by Dr. Om Prakash similarly discloses a lack of proper 
appreciation of the degree of social and political responsibility 
with which the members of that class were invested by the 
Snstra. The verse : 

twnr 
Trt =ET 



^ These verses are not traceable in the Qua Press edn . of the Epic. 
The explanation is given here on the aasumptioa of their authentic 
ehumter. 



THE BAAHMAfvIAS AND COMMONERS UNDER A TYRANT 155 

is found in Manu Smjti (ch. IK, 327), and in Mahabharata (Raja 
dharmanufasana, 60-24). This is a clear authority for the propo- 
sition recognising the joint responsibility of the Brahmanas and 
the king, in the matter of organising and regulating the common 
and individual life of the members of the community. Kull&ka 
observes : 

"fT^TT SRTSa" 

It is therefore a part of the Dharmic duty imposed by the isastra 
on the BrUhmanas, that they are obliged to take suitable action 
for securing the over throw or deposition of a tyrant monarch. 
They will be liable for the commission of a grave sin if they 
fail to discharge this duty in the manner it is laid down in the 
Jaastra. It is therefore missing the whole point, when a 
suitable action is taken by the Brnhmanas in appropriate situation 
is stamped as the outcome of their privileged position, and not 
described as the proper discharge of their duty by them. Closer 
and comparative examination of the right-biased and the duty- 
biased socio-legal systems reveals that the former cannot be fully 
built up without special social entities being recognised as 
endowed with prerogatives, privileges, -immunities, etc. This 
requirement is hardly felt in a society bound by a duty-biased 
system, where, on account of the elaborately drawn-up plan, 
full-distribution of essential social functions, and the resulting 
duties, among the members of hereditary groups delineates in 
detail the several fields of activity respectively assigned to each 
of such groups, all together leading to a coherent interdependent 
common life. Here individuals are trained to be duty con- 
scious, instead being habituated to become conscious of 
their rights, privileges and immunities. 

The Varna srama Vyavastha which purports to regulate the 
common and 'individual life of Vedic Hindus is a duty-biased 
socio-legal system wherein the province of activity (in response to 
the performance of duty arising out of the distinct and elaborate 
assignment of functions severally to specific social units) <* 
of such units which consist of hereditary castes-is strictly deli- 
neated for each such unit. We have here the whole range of 
these duties classified as Dei* dharma, Ji <* *** dharma > 



[ VOL. XIV., NO. 2 



du. If the language appropriate to a right biased see o- 
leiral system were to be used to describe the position of the 
different units which constitute the Vedic Hindu society each o 
tch units-including even the units grouped under the general 
category of fotoi-caa be justifiably described as endowed ^with 
sped.1 privileges. This is so because no other unit, besides he 
^ obliged to do the act (by the <Wra S >, would be permitted 
to do it. But this description is palpably inappropriate and 
misleading for being used in the context of a society governed by 
a duty-biased sodo-legal system, as the area of free activity ol 
each of its members is brought down within the narrowest limits 
and the areas of social duty are extended. Indologists being 
required to have recourse to English language for the exposition 
of their themes have not shown adequate care or perspicacity 
in distinguishing between different words and sets of expression 
and using only such words and sets of expression as would be 
appropriate to describe the situation in a duty-biased socio-legal 
system. They have generally failed to recognise that the English 
language, being developed in the context of the right-biased 
system of the common law, is not ordinarily suitable to describe 
accurately situations and conditions properly belonging- to the 
interdependent common life developed on the basis of the duty 
hiased soda- legal system Varnasrama Vyavasfhfi of Vedic Hindus. 

Dr Om Prakash has pointed out his Rejonders (p. 33) that 
at any rate, the right of revolt is possessed by every individual 
when ho is required to face an extra-ordinary situation not 
covwed by any of the provisions of Raja Dharma. He observes;.,. 
man has been fighting for presarvation since the day he made 
his appearance on the planet. Similarly ...... a man has been 

rising in revolt whenever his collective existence was endangered 
as the jesult of tyrany and oppression". He observes a little 
abtad that the situation he has in his mind is the one where "all 
cod*, stood abolished the moment the tyranny began. The only 



Ttffi BRAHMAljIAS AND COMMONERS UNDER A TYRANT 157 

check, was the collective might of the disorganised people which 
can effectively express itself when the limit is reached." Here, in 
this sort of situation, it is pertinent to raise the question : can there 
exist any rule of Dharma or law by recourse to which individuals 
or collectivities are required or expected to regulate their con- 
duct ? Would the stamp of { sin' or 'crime 5 ; or of 'meritorious act' 
or 'rightful conduct' be applicable to any course of conduct when 
all codes of conduct, that is such as those laid down by Dharma or 
morality, or law, become non-existent ? And who is to apply the 
stamp and declare any kind of act, as 'good' or 'bad'; 'legal* or 
"illegal; 'meritorious* or 'sinful' in such a situation ? It is plain 
that if any vastige ofDh u rma is yet to be found clinging to the inner- 
most layers of men's conscience in such a situation a situation of 
^Krsra anarchy, and not of complete chaos - then the rules provided in 
the &5stras as appropriate for "Apatkala" would become applica- 
ble. And it is well-known that the areas of permissible action for 
the Vaisya and the Sudra groups, in such a situation are also stri- 
ctly defined and limited. Members of these groups, when they find 
themselves oppressed by the tyranny of their king, shall, (as the 
harmonious construction of all the directives addressed to these 
groups by the SUstras will require us to hold) have to seek, in the 
first instance, the guidance of the Brahmanas or the leadership of 
other Ksalriyas and then join in a common revolt directed 
against the tyrant king. It is only when the degree of oppression 
has become so excessive that there is no time, or room, or oppor- 
tunity for seeking guidance or leadership as stated above s that 
is to say when there is a real and proximate" danger to life, property 
or chastity of a lady then alone any individual or collection may 
justifiably commit tyrannicide. As it has been laid down : 



and an Atatnyin has been defined as : 



ancETTfrir: II 

Thus when a tyrannous king falls into the category of an AtaWyin 
that is when there is imminent and real danger to life, property 



158 3*rapT PURSJvIA t VOL. X1V-, NO. 2 



or chastity of women, then alone his killing Instantaneously by 
thi; person so threatened would be a justifiable act. It is not a 
ridit of revolt or tyrannicide supposed to be granted to the 
r.cnfrality of the peoples. 

Ur. Om Prakash has, at more than, one place in his 
Rejoinder, described this activity (retaliating wanton and ferocious 
attacks) of human beings as originating from natural reaction 
,st.c p 33) due to his instinct of self-preservation; therefore he 
,iys that it is fully "justifiable". The above analysis shows 
t'lat I am in complete agreement with this view. When a 
"jualion of total annihilation of the Varna Vyavasthd. has taken 
p\tce, and the distinction between man and man, as a rdhtnana 
A'f ?>'-, Vtrisya or Sftdra has become entirely obliterated, where 
n > iO'->zn is left for either the recognition or application of law 
a;h acts as are possible for ones preservation, do take place 
;.!3Tita!ti:ousIy and a lawgiver (when ever he gets any opportunity) 
uii* drilin/ them as simply justified. It is, however, rather 
>;!?' -?:!t t>" maintain that they are the outcome of a consciousness 
> r.tx.iud btcausp of the grant of a right granted by the Saastra 
' th, 3 corintctioii, to the common (i. e. a non-Brahma no) subject of 
th* . rj;,^. It jhould also be noted that all the legendry accounts 
tVp,$;iinn of kings or tyranicide inform us that in every such case 
si.r fir r.-j.^.-, had taken the lead in doing away with the tyrant 
Y y. Fhi shows clearly that the PurcLnas (or the epics) are not 
<J Jl n? with a situation where the total annihilation of Varna 
>.5irt:i r< suiting in the complete obliteration of the distinctions 
" her, diury caste grou ps had taken place in consequence of the 
-ppressiou of the king. To aver, that the deposition 
monarch was caused by the common people, under 
the &aAwWi when ^ extraordinary situation 

r r f ,; ,r af ? nd the ^^ 
^ i^ h ^ cts f ! r d taken 

: he ;r nt which aboiished the 

'^ " -ount 



and 



TtlE BRXHMAtf AS ANt) COMMONERS UNDER A TYRANT 1$9 

iWras Dharma &3,stra and Rljanlti on this rarely arising, but 
([complicated , issue : the responsibility and duties of the Brtihmanas 
and the non-Bra/wana subjects of a king when they are confronted 
by his highly oppressive and tyrannuous rule. 



ACTIVITIES OF THE ALL INDIA KASHIRAJ TRUST 

(January-June, 1972) 

WORK ON THE PURANAS 

1. Karma Parana 

The first fascicule of the Critical Edition of the KOrma 
PurRoawas published in Dec. 1970 and was sent to Canberra 
(Australia) for presentation in the 28th Session of the International 
Congress of Orientalists, as has already been stated in the review 
of the work published in Parana, XIII. 2 (July, 1971). This 
fascicule contained only the Introduction and the Critical Text 
with critical apparatus. The Appendices and Indexes could not be 
added at that time. Now, we have been able to add the following 
Appendices, Notes and Indexes : 

Appendices 

I. Kurma-Puraoa quotations in the Nibandhas. 

A. Identified quotations. 

B. On-identified quotations. 

II. Subject-concordance of the Kurma-Puraija with the 
other Puranas and the Epics. 

III. Note on the Telugu Edition of the Kurma-Purana 
(Madras, 1875). 

Critical Notes on the Constituted Text. 

A Concordance of AdhySyas and lokas of the constituted 

text Wl th those of the Veuka^vara Press Edition of the Kurma- 
rur3$a has also been given, 

Jslokardha-Index 



*" and 



( 1 3 R 3f% ;pnf 



srfwr 
^T^T 
?Fsrfcr 



r, ?e;V9K) 



'QTf 



162 gu^ PURSJSIA [ VOL. XIV.>NO.> 

All these three Volumes of the Kurma Parana are to be 
released shortly. 

2. Varaha-Purarta 

The following MSS. of the VSraha-PurSna have been 
collated : 

1. No. 57/183 of the Sarasvatr-Bhafldara Library, Fort, 
Ramnagar. (DevanSgari). 

2. No. 58/183 also of the Sarasvatl-BhatidSra, Fort, 
Ramnagar. (Devanagarl). 

3. No. 15766 of the Sarasvatl-Bhavana Library, Sanskrit 
University, Varanasi. (Devanagarl). 

This MS. belongs to the Library of Kavlndracarya SarasvatT, 
a contemporary of the Mogul Emperor Shah Jahan, as is clear 
from its post-colophon statement. Hence its importance. 

4. No. 1197 of the ViforfvarBnauda Vedic Institute 
Hoshiarpur (Punjab). (Devanagarl). 

5. MS. of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, 
Poona. (DevanSgari). 

The following MSS. are being collated : 



2. Microfilm of a Bengali MS., No. G 2-42 from the 
Serampur College, W. Bengal. 



S - N0 ' 44 ' * ^i^c Society, 
The tti cro fllnBofthefolIowingMSS ^ 



July, 1972] ACTIVITIES OF THE ALL-INDIA KASHIRAJ TRUST 163 



v. 



!<. 



5rr<r: 



10 



164 gwi; PURSgA [ VOL. xiv., NO. 2 



3. Devanagarl Ms. No. Ill from the British Museum, 
London. 

The transcribed copies in Devanagarl of the following MSS. 
are being arranged in their respective places : 

1. MS., No. D 2260, Telugu script, Government Oriental 
MSS. Library, Madras. 

2. MS., No. 2262i Grantha script; Government Oriental 
MSS. Library, Madras, 

3-4 Two MSS., B. 1579, 1582/D. 10130, 10134, T. M. S. 
Sarasvatl Mahal library, Tanjore. 

Correspondence for procuring the following MSS. is being 
carried tin : 

1. MS. No. 440, Malayalam script, Manuscripts Library, 
University of Kerala, Trivandrum. 

2. MS. No. 296, Kannad script, Krsnapur Math, Udipi, 
Mysore. 

3. MS. No. 358, Devanagarl, Rajaathan Oriental Research 
Institute, Jodhpur. 

4-5. MSS. No. 3579, 3580, DevanSgarT, India office Library, 
London. 

MS. No. 6807, Grantha script, India Office Library, 
London. 

OTHER WORK 

ha and Pravacana 



I7 to 24 January, 
in the Sumeru temple 
h De Pt ,, and 
by Ft. Gangadhara Shastri Bapat. 

2 to is Febr " ar ^ i972 

e r-^P^ Ramnagar by Pt. 
Datar, V ar a n ^ Were ive *Y ?* Vishvanath 



July, 1972] ACTIVITIES OF THE ALL-INDIA KASHIRAJ TRUST {65 



<\ . 



^f TT 



V 



166 jwira; PURXtf A t VOL. XIV., NO. 2 

Veda-par ayapa 

The complete texts of the Rgveda-sarhhita, with its 
BrShmaoa, Aranyaka and Upanisad were recited by heart in the 
Vyase^vara temple of Ramnagar Fort by Pt, Krishna Bhatt 
Paranjape from January 17 to 30 (Magha, S~ukla, 1-15). After the 
successful completion of the parayapa the usual daksina together 
with the ratna-Kaiikana and a certificate of merit was awarded 
to the reciter. 

Visitors to the Purafla Deptt. 

The following scholars visited the Puraca Deptt. during this 
period : 

1. Maharajkumar Dr. Raghubir Singh, M. A., D. Litt., 
Sitamau, Malwa, (A Trustee of the Kashiraj Trust): 
(10-1-72). 

2. Dr. H. P. Schmidt; Prof., University of California, 
U. S. A. (25-1-72). 

3. Shri Visva Mohan, Asstt. Educational Adviser (Sanskrit). 
Ministry of Education and Youth Services, Govt. of 
India, New Delhi (12-2-72). 

4. Dr. Gustav Roth; Goettingen, West-Germany (21.2.72). 

5. Dr. J. C. Heesterman; Institut Kern, Leiden (4.4.72). 

6. Shri. S. G. Misra; Ex-Chief Justice, Patna High Court, 
Chairman, O. L. L. G., Government of India, New Delhi 
(29.4.72). 

ACTIVITIES OF MAHARAJA BANARAS VIDYA MANDIR 

TRUST 
Maftgalotsava 

The annual Maagalotsava was celebrated in the Fort, 
Mrtinr-agar.on 6-8 March 1972 in the evening. An interesting 
rrojjranijm- o! classical music and dance was gone through. The 
stair of the Music College, Banaras Hindu University, participated 
m the programme. A number of distinguished persons of 
Ramnagar witnessed the Utsava, 



July, 19?2] ACTIVlflES Of THE ALL-INDIA &ASHIRAJ TRUST 167 



f^T^TT 



IKFFT 



%. 



=nrfcw 



168 3*rara; PURXtfA [ VOL, fciv., NO. 2 

Vasanta-Puja and Pandita-sabha 

On the auspicious occasion of the marriage of the eldest 
Maharajakumari celebrated on 8th February. 1972, the Vasanta- 
Pujct was performed in the evening on the 10th February in which 
the Vedic scholars recited the Vedas and gave blessings to the 
esteemed couple A Pandita-sabha was also organised at that 
time under the supervision of PanditarSja Rajeshvara Shastri 
Dravid, in which about 175 PancUtas participated. The marriage 
party and several other distinguished persons also attended the 
function. Several books on Veda and Rajanlti written by Pt. 
Rajeshwar Shastri Dravid were distributed to the audience on 
this occasion. The function was a great, success and was enjoyed 
very much by the audience The daksina was given to the 
s in the form of sweets and money. 

Distinguished Guests at Nadesar House 

1. Sri Jagdish K. Munshi, Bombay. 

2. Maharajkumar Dr. Raghubir Singh, Sitamau, Malwa. 

3. Sri Jagjiwan Ram, Defence Minister, Govt. of India. 

4. Sri S. C. Mishra, Ex-chief Justice, Patna Highcourt. 
5- Sri Braja Narain Brajesh. 

6> Sri L - M - Girijanand, Mauritius. 



PreSented a book on Hin du temples in 
to H P A/r i 
ir t - ' Mahara Ja Dr. Vibhuti Narain Singh, 

aJ v s TrU!ta : d RH ' -P - "Py or 

to him. " a a " d a COpy of 



July, 1972] ACTIVITIES OF THE ALL-INDIA KASHIRA] TRUST 169 



Mm 
(Wear 



V . 5sft 
K' ft 
V sft 



APPENDIX 7 

INDEX OF NAMES IN THE GARUDA PURANA 
(Ghowkhambha Edn. 1964.) 

[abbreviations used : 

d. divine 

f. forest 

k. king 

1. r. lunar race 

rn. male 



mt. mountain 

r. river 

s. sage 

s. r. solar race 

vr. vrata 

w. woman 

wk. work.] 



Ai\i m. 1.139 (1. r.) (son of Puruhotra) 

Ams'umat d. 1.6.38 (one of the suns); 

m. 138.30 (s. r.) (son of Asamafijas). 

Akampana m. I. 143.44 (killed by Rama). 

Akupara d. I. 13.10 (an epithet of Visnu). 

Akrura m. 139.41 (l.r.) (son of Svaphalka and Gandinl) 

avaispava; 139.42 (1. r.) (three sons of ). 

Akrodhana m. I. 140.32 (1. r.) (son of AyutSyu) 

Aks.a m. T. 143.34 (asura killed by Hanuman). 

Aksayavata I. 83.22 (at Gaya, sVaddha meritorious at). 

AkhandadvSda- I, 1 18.1-5 (to be observed in bright half of 

si vrata vr. Margas*!rsa). 

Agastya s. 143.51; 

d. I. 119 5 (offspring of Mitra and Varuna); 

I. 143.15 (made obeisance to by Rama). 

AgastySrghya- 1.119.1-6 (to be observed when Sun has 

vrata vr not entered Kanya RSs'i). 

Agni d. 1.6.32 (as Anala son, of Dhava); 

6.33 (father of Kumara); 

9.9 (worshipped in Dlksa) ; 

10.3 (worshipped); 31.21 (worshipped); 

40.11 (Lordoftejas); 48.63, 137.16 (to be 

worshipped in Pratipad); 

145.16 (gave ratha and weapon to Arjuna); 

59.2 (Presiding deity of Kfttika). 

Agni-kona (South-East) I. 198.4 (Aghora assigned to). 
Agniteja m. I. 87.44 (sage in llth Harm's time). 



203 
Agnidhra 

Agnibahu 



Agnijnu 
AgnisvSttah 

Agnihetnaka 
Agnihotra 

Aghora 

Aiiga 



Aiigada 



Ai'igada 



s. 
m. 
s. 
m. 



m. 
d. 

m. 
rite 



GARUDA PURSlilA A STUDY 

I 54 1 (one of the 10 sons of Priyavrata) ; 
54.10 (king of Jambudvlpa) (his sons). 
87 57 (at the time of Bhautya Manu). 
I. 54.1 &2 (one of the ten sons of Priyavrata}, 
87.57 (at the time of Bhautya Manu). 
I. 138.43 (s.r.) (son of Sudar^ana). 
. author I. 147.48 (view regarding fevers) . 
I. 87.22 (oneofris). 

classof pitrsl. 5.3; 89.40; 89.41 (requested 
to protect in the east), 

I. 87.14 (one of the sons of Tamasa Manu). 

II. 4.14 (and other Yajnas do not yield so 
much as Vrsotsarga). 

I. 7.6; 40.9; 198.4 (established in Agnikoo.i). 
1.6.4 (son of Ruru); 6.5 ^and father of 
Vena). 

I. 139.69 (1. r.) (one of the sons of Bali). 
I. 143.38 (monkey with whom Rama 
reached Lanka); 143.41 (and other valiant 
warriors). 

I. 40.10 (saluted in MahesVartpuja). 
I. 16.16 (Ksitisuta, saluted during Visnu- 
dhysna); 39.12 (red; worshipped in the 
Agneya direction in SuryapDJa); 39.14; 60.1 
(das's-periodof); 60.7 (Mesa as his ksetra); 
60.8 (Vrscika as his ksetra). 
I. 83.17 (at GayS, whose worship discharges 
one's debts to manes). 

I. 5.3 (created by Nsrayana); 5.1 1 (daughters 
of); 5.26 (Arigira, one of the rsis); 5.71 
(Daksa^ Asikni their two daughters (of 60) 

given to) ; 87.2 (one of the 7 ris) ; 93.4 (one 
of the law -givers); 135.5 (worshipped on 
Ekada^I in Gaitra with Damanaka flowers). 
1.58.11 (one of the serpents in the sky in 
Stiryacakra) ; 

I. 87-29 (the devatas ten in number). 
1.12.7; 12.14; 31. 14; 32.17; 34.17; 45.11; 
66,2; 131.12; 337.10 (addressed as mitigator 
of evil); 137.11.12; 194.20; 215.10; 222.7 
(yogi's desire gets fulfilled by depending 
on); 222.44 (benefits of doing tortana of); 



d. 



k.m. 



Serpant 



APPENDIX 7 INDEX OF THE NAMES IN G.P. 



209 



226.1-56 (Stotra on, narrated by Brahma to 
Narada); II. 435 (placed on karpasa in the 
Vrsayajna during aurdhvadehika rites); 4.50 
(pitavSsas and ataslpuspa sanka^a (epithets of). 

Aja d. I. 1.13 (Vasudeva addressed as); 194.2 (attri 

bute of Visnu); 194.12 (&vetadvIpanivSsl) (attri- 
bute of Visjju). 

m. 138.35 (s. r.) son of Dlrghabshu); 143,2 (son 
of Raghu) 

Ajamlda m. I. 140.8 (1. r) (one of the 3 sons of Suhotra); 
140.17 (1, r.) (had a wife called Nalini and 
son Nlla); 140.24 (1. r.) (another son called 
Rksa). 

Ajara d. I. 1 13 (Vasudeva addressed as). 

Ajita d. I. 6.61 (one of the 49 devas). 

Ajita d. I. 42-9 (invoked during pavitrSrohana); 198.10 

(to be worshipped in the group of Jvalamalin). 

Ajaikapad d.m. I. 6.35 (one of the 11 Rudras) 

Anjaka m. I. 6.49 (a demon born in the line of PrahlSda) 

Aniyan d. I. 2,17 (attribute of Visnu). 

Atala I. 57,2 (one of the worlds). 

Atikaya m. I. 143,44 (the valorous asura, killed by 
Rama). 

Aticandika d. fem. I. 133.12 (manifestation of Durga). 

Atithi k. m. I. 138.38 (s.r.) (son of Kus"a). 

k. m. I. 140.32(1. r.) (son of Akrodhana). 
205.140 (pujana) (is Nryajna). 

Atimitra d, I. 6.61 (one of the 49 devas). 

AlirStra s I. 87.22. 

Atri s. I. 1.19 (NarSyana born as an incarnation as 

Datta, son of Atri and Anasuya) ; 5.3 (born of 
God's creation); 5.12 (sons of); 5.26 (married 
Anasuya); 58.9 ^in the month of Jyejtha 
when Sun is there, resides in Bhaskaramandala}; 
87.2; 87.27; 93.6 (one of the law-givers); 135.5 
(to be adored in Gaitra with garlands of 
Damanaka flowers) ; 

139.1 (1. r) (son of BrahmS); 142.27 (had AnasQya 
as wife, whose intervention in the Mandavya 
episode resulted in the restoration of sunlight and 



2}0 GARUpA PURS^A A STUDY 

happiness for Kaus'ika); 143.14 (his 
reached by Rama); 145.2 (son of Brahma) (as an 
ancestor in the line of Kuru). 
d. 15 72 (one of the 1000 names of Visnu). 

\tharva(vR)-(na) veda I. 48.56 (recitation of }; 48.56; 48.74 (recita- 
tion of); 215.13 (taught to Sumantu by Vyasa). 

Atharvasiras I. 48 56 (recitation of) 

Aditi w. 1.6.25 (wife of Kab'yapa); 6.37 (son of }; 206.37 

(is offered arghyas in snanavidhi) ; 
k.m. 138.2 (s, r) (of the royal race); 

d. 46.7 (devas guarding as Vastudevata) ; 

46.12 (worshipping whom one gets the pleasure 
of grhadevata). 

AdTna k.m. I. 139,16 (l.r ) (son of Sahadeva). 

Advaita ? 1.228.1; 228.2. 

Adhinemaka k.m. I. 138.52 (s. r.) (son of Kulajit). 

Adhiratha k.m. I. 139.74 (l.r.) (son of Satyadharma). 

Adhisomaka m. I. 141.1 (son of A^vamedhadatta). 

Adhok$aja d. I. 131.12 (Govinda addressed as). 

Adhovaktrah astr. 1.59.16 (stars which are). 

Anagha m. I. 5. 15 (one of the sons of Vasistha and Crjja); 
s, 87. 10 
d. 131. 10 (Govinda addressed as) 

AnaAgatrayodab'l vr I. 117.1 (to be observed In Margallrsa, bright 
half). 

Anaftjana k.m. I. 138.51 (s. r.) (son of KuliJ. 

Ananta d. I, 4.6 (attribute of Visnu); 11.15 (assigned 
place during Navavyilharcana); 11.25 (contemp- 
lated on); 11.39; 11.41; 12.4; 12. 15; 14.2; 15.78; 
306; 30.8; 31.14; 33.21 (nagadhipati); 32.1/i 
34.19; 40.5; 40.11; 66.4; 129.25 (serpent to be 
worshipped every month and in BhSdra ukla, 
Sravapa Sukla); 131.12; 137.12; 197.43 (and other 
SNagas); 
m. 138.14 (s. r.) (son of aryati); 

Aiunumurti d. I. 195.4 (saluted). 

Ar.ap^Ia k.m. I. 139.70 (l.r.) (son of Anga). 

Auamitw k.m. I. 139.38 (l.r.) (son of Svadhajit and father 
QfNighna); 139,41 (l.r.) (Vrni born in the line 



APPENDIX 7 - INDEX OF THE NAMES IN G.P. 211 

of); 139.41 (l.r) (the Vaiuavas kings in the line 
of). 

Anaranya k. m. I. 139.25 (s. r.) (son of Trasadasyu); 
k.m. I. 139.20 (l.r.) (son of Haya) ; 
m. I. 139.20. 

Anala d. I. 6.29 (one of the Vasus); 11.17 (to be 

contemplated during Navavyuharcana). 

AnasOya w. I, 1.19 (wife of Atri and mother of Datta); 
5.12 (three sons of); 5.25 (one of the 24 daughters 
of Daksa); 142.18 (a pativrata); 142.28 (devas 
were asked to approach) (was propitiated and the 
sun which was hidden on account of Kausika's 
wife's curse reappeared); 142.27 (wife of Atri); 
142.29 (chastity of Slta greater than that of). 

Anadinidhana d. I. 4.6 (Visnu addressed as giver of); 131.13 
(eternal) (Visnu addressed as); 223.6 (attribute of Vijiju). 

Anadyanta d. I. 194.29 (attribute of Visnu). 
(without begin- 
ning or end) 
Anamaya 



Anayu w. 

Aniruddha m 



Anila 



Ami 



d. I. 11.8 (Hari contemplated as; in Navavyuhar- 

cana); 194.2 (attribute of Visnu). 
. I. 6.25 (one of the wives of Kasyapa). 

I. 7.6; 8.13 (-ka); 8.15; 11.34; 12.4; 12.15; 

32.5; 32.6; 32.13; 32.30; 4319; 45.9; 45.16; 

45.29; 66.3; 126.7; 131.61 (son of Pradyumna 

and Kakudmini). 194.6 (guards skin); 194.29 (to 

destroy alljvaras); 195.2; 

141,1 (son of Krsna); 

144.8 (son of ^ambara, married Ua } daughter 

of Bana); 
d. 16.29 (one of the Vasus); 6.32 (his wife &vS and 

their sons); 71.22 (affecting the colour 

Marakata) ; 

39.52 (l.r.) (ref. to as father of Bhtma). 
k.m. I. 139.18 (1. r.) one of the 3 sons of Yayftti and 



in. 
m. 



of 



k.m. 139.34 (l.r.) (son of Kuruvam^a); 139.65 (race of). 
Armpadeva k.m. I. 139.47 (l.r.) ( one of the sons of Vasudeva and 
Sahadeva). 



212 GARUIDA PURXjsrA A STUDV 

Anubinda k.m. I. 139.55 (l.r.) (son of Rajadhidevi). 

Anumati w. I. 5.1J (one of the daughters of Smrti and 

Angiras). 
Anumloca vv. I. 58.12 (stays in Bhsdrapada during Sun's 

transit there). 

AnuradhS astr. 1.596 (mitra star of Sakra); 59.19 (one of 
the Parsvamukha stars); 59,40 (Budha in, causes 
siddhayoga); 61.9 (can travel towards west 
(yatra in pascima). 

Anuhrada m. I. 6 40 (one of the 4 sons of Prahlsda). 
Ancnss k.m. I. 138.18 (s.r.) (son of Kakutstha and father 
ofPrthu); 138.58 (s.r) (son of Ksemari) ; 139.7 
(l.r.) (one of the sons of Nahusa); 
Anodanasap- vr. I. 130.5-6. 
tanil 

Antariksa (heaven) I. 89.27 (salutation to pitrs in) 

m. 141.6. (son of Kinnara). 

Antardhana m. I. 6.9 ( son of Prthu and father of HavirdhBna); 
km. 139 54 (l.r.) (one of the five sons of Kailcaya 

and SrutakirtiJ 

Andhaka m. 1.139.36 (1. r .) (one of the 8 sons of Sattvata); 
223.18 (to destroy whom &va created the divine 
mothers). 

AndhakSraka m. I, 56.11 (one* nf +t, i ^ T> . 

u.ii (one ol the 7 sons of Dyutimat in 

Krauficadvipa) ; 56 1 2 ( ) 
Andhra k.m. I. 139. 70 (L r .) one of " h 



found in, a r e not of much 

d. I.65(oneof,ha49ma I u, s ). 
"anifest taj. 



(unconquered) I -, , 

V i ? nu addressed as); 1 3 1.1 2 V i W , addressed 

Aparljita d r 1 7 

' ; 42.8 (to be 



APPENDIX 7 INDEX OF THE NAMES IN G.P. 



213 



Abhayada m. I. 140. 1 (1. r.) (son of Manasyu). 

Abhijit (a lunar I. 59.7 (place of Brahma). 

mansion) 

Abhimanyu m. I. 140.40 (1. r.) (son ofKaisi). 

I. 87.22 (at the time of Caksusa Manu). 

I. 87.56 (son of Dhautya Manu). 

1. 87.19 (one of the devatagana). 

I. 72.6; (a dosa in Indranlla). 



Abhimana s. 
AbhimSnl m. 
Abhutarajas d. 
Abhrika 
Amanyu m, 
Amara d. 

Amavasu m. 
Amita (khyafc) d. 
Amitra d. I. 
AmGrtaraya m. I 



I. 140.7 (1. r.) (son of Gardha). 
I 1.13 (attribute of Visnu). 

I. 139.2 (1. r.) (one of the 6 sons of Pururavas). 
I. 87.3 (one of 4 somapayins). 
6.61 (one of 49 inarut devatas). 
139.5 (1. r.) (one of the 4 sons of KuSa). 
Amrta d. I. 87.19 (devatagana). 

Amrtayoga Astr. I. 59.37 (combinations which cause). 



Amrtabha 

Amogha- 

pratima 

AmbarTsa 



Ambalika 
Ambika 



I. 87.33 (people of heaven at the time of SSvarni 
Manu). 
d. I. 194.3 (an attribute of Vsnu). 

m. I. 138.15 (s. r.) (son of Nedisja). 

m. 138.23 (s. r.) (one of the 3 sons of Bindu- 

mahya). 

m. 138.31 (s. r.) (son of Nabhaga). 
w. I. 140.36 (1 r.) (wife of Vicitravlrya). 
w. I. 140 36 (1. r.) (wife of Vicitravlrya). 



Ambuja (lotus) I. 70.10 (padmaraga resembling the colour of) 
Ambuda 1.48.13; 124.4 (a country whose king was 

vicious Sundarasena, fond of hunting). 
AyacitSdivrata vr. I. 133.5 (to be observed from the Sastht in 

connection with Mahanavami). 

I. 139.17 (1. r.) (one of the 5 sons of Nahusa). 

I. 139.37 (1. r.) (one of the 8 sons of 

BhajamSna). 

I. 138.32 (s. r.) (son of Sindhudvlpa). 

I. 140.32 (1. r.) (son of Avadhita). 

I. 141.9 (son of Isrutas'rava). 

1.81.7 (one of the tlrthas); 132.18 (the kingdom 

gained by Kau&ka); 142.15 (the return of Rama 

to); 143. 12 (Rama requested by Bharata to return 



Ayati 
Ayutajit 

Ayutayu 



Ayodhya 



m. 
m. 

rn. 

m. 
m, 



214 



GARUDA PURXtfAA STUDY 



to); 143.47 (Rama's return to); 143.51 (Ram^* 

ascent to heaven along with the people of)' 

II. 28.3 (one of the 7 moksadayikS cities). 
Ayomukha m. I. 6.43 (one of the sons of Danu). 
Ayomurti s. I. 87.40 (at the time of 10th Manu). 
Aravinda mt, I. 86.6 (at Gaya, with footmark of KraurV: 1 

and hence capable of conveying pitrs to Brahnu 1 * 

loka) ; 

f. 86.5 (at Gaya). 
Arista (an asura) I. 144.5 (killed by Krs^a to protect 

Arjuna and others). 

Aristanemi m. I. 6.23 (married 4 of the daughters of Daka). 
w. 58.16 (one of the 7 best apsaras, resides in 

Bhaskaramandala in Pausa). 

I. 6.57 (gave birth to the great Sattvas, the 
Gandharvas). 

II. 23.30 (has his abode to the west ofCitra- 
gupta's). 

1.6.53 (son of Vinata); 11.41 (Kaustubha is 
like); 39.2 (saluted, in Sfiryadevarcana). 
I. 6.24 (one of the daughters of Daksa, given 
toKrsaiva); 6.28 (all the earthen things were 
born of); 206.36 (water of oblation to be given 
to). 

I. 59.36 (in Mala causes Amrtayoga); 59.40 (in 
Hasta, causes Siddhayoga); 61.13 (in 4 is good); 
61.14 (in 6 is good); 61.15 (in 10 and 11 are 
good); 77.3; 89.31 (in whose rays, ride the 
manes); 

m. H0.18(l.r.) (sonofPuru). 

Arjuna m. I. 15.94 (Yamala, Visnu as destroyer of); 
139.23 (l.r.) (son of Krtavirya) (5 sons of); 144.3 
(killed by Krsna); 

m. 15.129 (Visnu (dear to); 144.5 (to protect 
whom Krsna killed Arista); 145.9 (one 
of the Pandavas); 145.15 (marriage with 
Subhadraat Dvaraka); 145.16 (got Nandighosa, 
the ratha and Gandlva from Agni); 145.17 



Aruci 

Aruna m, 

ArundhatI w. 

Arka(sun) astr 



APPENDIX 7 INDEX OF NAMES IN G.P. 



215 



Arthavlra m. 

.Artha- wk. 
astra 

Arddhendu 

archit (semi 
circular) 
Aryama d. 



Arvavira s. 

m. 
Alambusa w. 

Alarka m. 



m. 

Avatara 
(incarnation) 



Avantika (a. 

place) 

Avanya : 

Avadhlta : 

Aviksita 

Avijftata- 

gati 

Avici (a 
naraka) 



m. 
m. 



(appeases Jatavedas with his bow) 145.18 
(digvijaya of); 145.31 (fight with Karna); 145.36 
(defeats As5vatth3mm);145.37 (consoles Yudhisthira 
and ladies and propitiates devas and performs 
rites to pitrs) ; 229.13 (Gita and Yoga taught to). 
I. 5. 1 3 (one of the 3 sons of Ksam5 and Pulaha 
Prajapati). 
I. 215.21 (one of the texts). 

I. 47.28 (effect of building temple in the shape 
of). 

I. 17.7 (one of the suns); 46.10 (is placed 

besides Brahman along with others in connection 

with Vastupfljs); 46.19 etc. are dvipadas); 58.8 

(resides there when Bhanu is in the chariot in 

JyesthaJ; 59.4 (Lord of Uttara Phalguni); 84.11 

(requested to protect, while offering is made to 

manes at GayS). 

I. 87.7 (one of the 7 at the time of SvSrocisa 

Manu); 

I. 87.31 (son of SSvanpi Manu). 

I. 13811 (s. r.) (with Troabindu gives birth 

to Vis"ala). 

I. 1.19 (Visnu in the incarnation of Datta, 

teaches anvikikl to); 218.2 (Dattatreya narrated 

yoga to). 

I. 139.11 (1. r.) (son of Rtudhvaja). 

I. 1.34 (numerous); 142.2.10 (enumeration and 
purpose of different). 143.144 (continued as 
stories R. and Mbh.). 

II. 28.3 (one of the 7 cities which are Mok ada- 
yika). 

I. 139.36 (1. r.) (one of the 8 sons of Ssttvata). 

I. 140.31 (1. r.) (son ofjayasena). 

I. 138.7 (s. r.) (son. of Karandhama). 

I. 6.32 (one of the 2 sons of Anila and 

6iva). 

I. 84.38. 



216 

Avyakta 
(unmanifest) 

Av\ava s. 



A-'oka (tree) 



astr. 



(star) 



Abvatara 



Asv.'iinfdha 

sai ri tio s ) 



A; va- k. m. 
nn-dbadatta 



k, 



GARCIA PURA^A A STUDY 
I. 4.5 (attribute of Visa u). 

I. 87.40 (kt the time of 10th Manu); 87.52 (one 
of the 7 sages at the time of Raucya Manu); 
(undiminishing) 194.2 (attribute of Visnu). 

I. 133.1 (eight buds of the flower of which an 1 
taken on Punarvasu in Caitra arid Jaukla.stami) ; 
143.22 (a tree under the shade of which Slta was 
kept protected); 143.30 (under which Hanuman 
saw Sits). 

1.59.3 (star of Sarpadevata); 59.16 (one of 
the three which are Adhovaktras) 59.17 (consi- 
dered auspicious for digging etc.); 59.45 journey 
in which will cause death). 

I. 138.54 (sr.) (son of Kalmaapada). 
I- 6.55 (a serpent]. 

I. 87.32 (one of the 7, at the time of Savar^i 
Manu); 140.21 (l.r.) (son of Drona and Krpi); 
145.34 (son of Drona); 145.35 Centers the 
P. ndava camp at night and kilJs the sleeping 
sons of Papdavas, Dhrstadyurnna etc.) ; 145.36 
(killed by Arjunaj. 

I. 83.65 (...at Kosi); 84.16 (its phala is realised 
by doing rites at Brahmatlrtha, at Gaya); 84.23 
(date; a m-tha at Gaya); 84.31 (to be done at 
Gaya); 14216 (performed by Rama); 142.48 
(performed by Rg raa ); ] 45 38 (observed by 
Judhijthira after Bharata war); 224.21 (per- 
formed 000 times is not equal in merit to 
noment. meditation); 229.12 (done 1000 times 
-not ec ,ual to l/, 6 ofthe benefits of JfUmayajfia) ; 
ii. ^0.18 (is not equal in merit to danas) . 
r - HJ.l (sonof^atanrka). 



I-59.9(ofA,'vadaiv a ta). 



of 



(his wife 



APPENDIX 7 INDEX OF NAMES IN G.P. 



217 



A^vinT 



Astaka (8th day 

after full 

moon) 
AstamT 
Asamanjas 
Asiknf 



d. I. 87.29 (devatas are two in no.); 
(star) astr. I. 59.14 (good for journey); 59.15 (good for 
new upper garment); 59.19 (a padvamukha 
star) 59.20 (good for taming elephant etc., for 
travel by chariot, boat etc.) 59.41 (siddha yoga 
caused by Mars in) ; 59.44 (good for Jstakarma 
etc.,); 60.1 1 (good for adorning); 61.2 (candra 
has 12 avasthas, one for the three stars count- 
ing from); 61.11 (one of the stars good for 
KanyadSna, travel and installation etc.). 
I. 89.35 (manes requested to be pleased by the 
offering on). 



Asitariga 
Asipatravana 

Ahalya 
Ahirbradhna 

Ahmaka 
Ahninara 
Akarsaiji 
Aka^a 


d. 
f. 

W- 

d. 
d. 
k. m. 
k m. 
d. 
(sky) 



Akilti 



Agneya (a. place) 



Aja 

Ajya 
AjyapsK 



I. 185.4 (to propitiate Vinayaka after fasting). 
T. 138.29 (s. r.) (son of Sagara and Keaini). 
I. 6.15 (daughter of Viraqa) (married by 
PrajSpati) (100 sons of); 6.20 (60 daughters of 
Asikni and Daksa). 
I. 198.2 (Bhairava is called) 

1. 85.11 (pindadSna for the redemption of one 
died at). 

I. 140.20 (1. r.) (wife of aradvSn). 
I. 6.35 (one of the 11 Rudras). 
59.9 (devata of Uttarabhadrapada). 
I. 138.40 (s. r.) ,son of Devanlka). 
I. 141.4 (son of Udana). 
I. 198.8 (worshipped in Tripurapuja) 
I. 541.14 (dissolves in ahamkj-ti); 197.2 (one of 
the 5 mandalas governed by the devas). 
I. 5.20 (a daughter of Uttanapada); 5.21 
(married by Ruci). 

I. 83 24 (at Gay a; if srSddha is performed 
there, pitrs reach Brahmaloka); 197,9 
(mandala drawn in Garudtvidya); 197.13 
(Kulika assigned to); 197.41 (hfdaya wor- 
shipped at). 

m. I. 87.9 (one of the sons of Auttama Manu). 

d. I. 599 (devata of Purvabhadrapada). 

d. I. 5.4 (creation of) ; 89.40 (one of the clans of 
Pitrs); 89.41 (requested to protec: in the West), 



218 

AtmSrSma d 

Atreya s. 

Aditya(Sun) d. 



Adhara 

Anvikjikl 

Apa d. 



Apastamba s. 

Amalaka (Ki) 
unyrobolan) 

Ayati 

Svu k. ra. 



Araddlia, k. ra, 

Aradhyal? d. 
Ardra astr. 

k. m. 
Srdraka m. 



GARUDA PURAJiTA A STUDV 

I. 195.3 (Visnu called as). 

I. 146.1 /an exponent of sarvaroganidfina); 

167.56 (as an exponent of NidSna). 

I. 2.21 (as one of the eyes of Visnu); 6.38 

(12 suns); 16.12; 42.17 (worshipped in Caturdail 

morning); 50.25 (worshipped in the morning); 

50.47 (propitiated with anjali); 59.3 (devatS of 

Punarvasu); 59.34 (the three Vi^akhas for 

causes Autpatikayoga, deadly); 60.1 (das a 

period of); 69.15; 86.21 (one gets free from all 

rogas by worshipping the twelve ) ; 87.28 (etc. 

numbering 15); 205.72 (from the region of ) ; II. 

31.2 (commends the donor of i and) ; 35.7 (the 

tapas of the 12 Suns at the end of pralaya, 

there the 'papins' fall and cry). 

I. 47.34 (has 4 doors and 4 mandapas). 

I. 1,19 (taught by Datta to Alarka). 

I. 6.29 (one of the Vasus); 6.30 (sons of); 

46.8 (stand as Vastu in one Kona); 59 7 (devata 

of PurvSsadha); 141.13 dissolves in fire); 197.2 

(one of the mapdalas, the devas as lords of); 

197.38. 

I. 93.5 (one of the 14 law givers). 

I. 205.122 (pleases Vijpu on Eksdaii) (one 
desirous of attaining wealth should bathe with); 

II. 5.72 (to be given with pipda on 10th day). 

I. 5.9 (a daughter of Manu, married by DhSta). 

1. 139.2 (1. r.) (one of the 6 sons of PurQravas); 

139.7 (son of Budha); 145.3 (son of Pururavas 

and Urvasi), 

I. 139.64(1. r.) (son of Setu); 

1.171 21 (used against dadrukittimakustha etc.); 

214.30 (etc. can be taken even from a udra). 

I. 89.43 (one of the 9 claus of pitrs). 

I. 59.2 (star of Raudra) ; 59-45 (will cause death 

if journey is undertaken in). 

I. 138.19 (s, r ) (son of Vib'varSta). 

I, 87.43 (son of 1 3 th Manu). 

I. 87.23 (one of the 5 ganas) . 



APPENDIX 7 INDEX OF NAMES IN G.P. 



219 



Ab'carya up. p. I. 215.19 (5th ; spoken by DurvSsas\ 

A^rama (stages I. 193.5 (ac&ra of). 

in life) 

Asadha (star) I. 59.7 (Apa. is the devata ofPurva l) ); (Vaisva- 

astr> devata is for Uttara ; 59.34 (Piirva , the three, 

cause death, disease etc. with Moon); 59.42 
(Visayoga caused by Bhautna in Uttara"); 60.10 
(occurs twice if there are two paunjamasya) (it 
is called DvirSsadha) (Visnu sleeps in Cancer). 



Asana posture 



Ahavaniyagni 



I. 218,13 (padmaka etc.); 229.13 (one of the 
angas of eight-fold yoga) ; 

II. 21.9 (one of the things which given as dana 
to a Brahmin makes the path of transition after 
death easy). 

1.205.66 (Visnu is called ; 205.148 (is in the 
(one of the fires) face. 
Ahi k. m. i. 139.25 (1. r.) (son of Kros^a). 

I. 205 149 (one who knows the 5 fires). 
I 139.45 (1. r ) (son of Punarvasu); (father of 
Ahuki); 139.46(1. r.) (2 sons of). 
I. 139.45 (1. r.) (daughter of Ahuka). 

Iksu (an ocean) I. 5G.1'5 (one of the seven in Sakadvlpa). 
Iksvaku k.m. 1.87.25 (s. r.) (son of Vaivasvata Manu); 
138. 2 (son of Manu}; 138.17 (three sons of); 
143.2 (son of Manu). 

I. 205.42 (to be read); 205.78 (if copied and 
donated, donor has the doubled merit of Brahma- 
d?.na);205.152 (to be heard in the 6th and 7th 
parts of the day). 

I. 6.21 (married 27 of the 60 daughters of Asiknl 
and Daksa); 9.9 (worshipped during Dlksa); 
28 > ("mandala worshipped in Gopalap&j&); 
84.21 (merits of^raddha performed in Indu and 
Kartikeya at Gaya). 
(Lord of Devas). I. 2.10 (his visit to 
with Brahma); 7. 6 (saluted in SaryapQjt 
(assumed to particular direction); 15.67 (Viffu 
isouTof ) ; 15.131 (Vi^uaddressed as sou of }; 



Ahuka k. m. 



Ahukf 



Itihasa (and 
purana) 



Indu 



Indra d. m. 



PtJfcXfsjA A STUDY 

17.9 (to be worshipped with devotion); 23.22 
(worshipped during Sivarcana) j 23.28 (etc. are to 
be worshipped); 28.12 (worshipped in GopSlapOja); 
30.8 (saluted in S"ridhara arcana); 31.21 (saluted 
in Vispvarcana); 31.26 (saluted in VisnvarcanS); 
32.14 (contemplated upon); 32.17 (saluted); 32.25 
(etc. are lokapalas); 34.30 (meditated upon in 
Visnu worship 1 ,' 34.4? (with vshana and parivSra 
is ^worshipped with other gods in Hayagrlva- 
PGJa); 40.11 (saluted as Suradhipati); 48.68; 
595 (and Agni are devatas of Vis'akha); 
68.1 (was defeated by an Asura called Bala; 
84.37 (his world 1 - 87.4 (called Vtfvabhuk etc.) 
(his enemy Bagkala killed by Vi?nu with 
cakra); 87.8 (is the learned leader of devas) (his 
enemy Purukrtsara killed by Madhusudana in 
the form of an elephant); 87.20 (the glorious 
leader); 87.54 (foe of the demon Istibha); 89.52 
(manes addressed by Ruci as leading); 126.8 (to 
be ^worshipped); 137.18 (to be worshipped in 
da^ami); 139.52 ref. to as cause of Partha as son 
of Kuntl); 144.4 (his worship of Krsna) I. 177,49 
(his weapon); 193.16 (his weapon); 196.1 (kills his 
enemies by reciting the Vijnudharmavidya 
narrated here); 205. 131 (request made to Indra 
forproteccion^; 218.38 (attained supreme position 
by reciting prarjiava mantras etc.) II 28 22 
( n loka); -17.8 (one of the 



200.3 (the wind occouring in a middle way i 
called Mahendra) ; 

58.11 (and other sarpas reside in the Sun). 
. 1.70.7 (padmarsgas resembling). 



bound by the weapons of) 
Indradevatad 1.246 (worshipped i n Tn pura dip QJ5 ); 197.8 



Indranlla gR 9- 70 <?? c j 

. 'i/.4/ ^and padmar3ga can be scratched only 
^ vajra or kutuvioda); 72.2 (its formation on the 



APPENDIX 7 INDEX OF NAMES IN G.P. 



221 



coast of Simhala) ; 72.5 (5 charatersistics of 
quality); 72-8 (brings such good on wearing as 
in wearing Padmaraga) ; 72.9 (as in Padmaraga 
there are 3 groups in); 72.10 (test same as for 
Padmaraga); 72.11-12 (though bears greater heat 
than Padmaraga of equal weight, should not be 
put to test on that score as it brings in bad 
effects); 72.14 (certain vijatis which resemble 
the): 72.16; (chracteristics which make it valu- 
able); 72.17 (when valuable and difficult to get. ; 
72.19 (the value of 4 mSas of ", is equal to the 
price of a ma?a of Pusparaga); 73.1 1 (the price of 
suvarna weight of is taken as equal to the price 
of a pala of); 74.4 (denned); 197.9 (saumya 
resembling the lustre of). 

Indraprastha I. 145.14-15 (Pandava's performance of Rajasuya 
(place) at). 

Indravidya I. 48.14. 

Indrani d. I. 59 11 (remains in west in Sasthi and Caturdasl). 

Indrayudha I. 72.17. 
Indras'ani I. 177.49; 193.16. 

Ira w. I. 6.25 (one of the wives of Ka^'yapa); 6.57 (from 

whom trees, creepers etc. sprang up). 

Iravatl (place) 1.8121. 

Ila w. I. 138.3 (s.r.) (daughter of Manu). 

Ilavrta m I. 54.10 (son of Agnldhra); 

mt. 1 . 55 1 (in the cential region). 
Ilvala m. I. 6.49 (a demon born in the family of Prablada); 

(star) 59.2 (star of Soma). 
Isunjaya m. I. 141.11 (son of Vi^vajit). 
Istapurta II. 33.9 (^'raddha to be performed prior to). 

Is^ibha m. II. 87.54 (enemy of devas at the time of Raucya 

Manu); II. 87.55 (killed by Msdhava in the form 

of a peacock). 
Idrk d. 1.6.59; (one of the 49 Marat devatSs); 6.62 (one 

of the 59 marut devatas\ 

l^a d. I. 11.19 (attribute of Visnu); 14.1 1 ref. to Vi^ti.; 

16.1 (attribute of Visnu); 32.34 (fives molt?* asd 



222 



L'linf d. w. 
Islvara d. 



lavarl d. w. 

Ugracaiida d.w, 
Ugrarfipa 
XTgrasena m. 



m. 

UgrSyudha m. 
tTccailj travas d. 

Ucchraya 
(height) 

UjjayinT (place) 
Ujjvala 
UtlcaSa m, 
Utkm TO, 
Utfeua* m. 



GARUI?A PURAJ^A A STUDY 

is of the form of Brahma, Visi^u) ; 1 84, 1 6 (mantra 
propitiating); 189.16 (as an intelocutor); 197.36 
(and sixteen others are propitiated); 197.10 
(always worshipped in the quarters); 197.50 
(contemplated); I. 46.4 (Parjanya addressed as). 

I. 7.6; 12.4; 31.21, 32.17; 34.44, 40.10 (saluted) 
(SkalSsof); 40.11 (master of all vidySs); 4861 
(worshipped); I. 194,2 (as an attribute of Vi?nu). 

I. 13.12 (also called KatySyanf, who uttered 
VaisQ'iva pafijara to Saukara). 

I. 2.12 (epithet of Visou); 14.1 (atribute of Visou); 
2,3.31 (contemplated upon); 43.8 (as inter- 
locutor); 44.10 (meditation is contemplation on); 
83.11 (merits of the sight of IsVara at Naga in 
Gays); 87.36 (as Lord at the time of the 9th 
Maim the Daksa Savarni), 175.3; 177.77; 1902 
190. 17; 190.21 (as an interlocutor). 

I. 50.17 (to be contemplated upon daily after 
sandhya). 

I. 133.12 (manifestation of DurgS). 
I. 197.52 (attribute of Garuda). 

I. 58.12 (resides in Bhsdrapada when Sun is 
there); 139.46 fl. r .) (son of Ahuka); 139.48 
(sons of); 144.11 (installed at MathurS). 

I. 140.30 H. r.) (one of the sons of Somapf). 
I. 140.15 (1. r.) (son of Krta). 
I. 39.2 (saluted). 

T. 47.4 (of Sufcarighri, should be half the &khara) ; 

47.7 (of a wall made equal to 4 times of length); 

47.8 (of a sikhara is double that of bhitti). 

I. 81.10 (Mahakala at). 

I. 69.10; 70.6 

I. 138.3 (s. r,) (son of Sudyumna). 

I. 6.42 (one of the sons of Hiranysksa). 

I. 6.1 (son of Uttanapada). 



APPENDIX 7 INDEX OF THE NAMES IN G.P. 223 

Uttamaujam. 1.87.38 (one of the sons of Dharmaputra, the 

10th Manu). 

Uttambha I. 47.24 (a puspaka type of temple). 

Uttara (astr.) I. 59.15 (etc.) (the 3 stars) (good for wearing 
upper garment); 59.22 (one of the nine which are 
urdhvamukhas) ; 59.45 (the stars will cause death 
in journey). 

Uttarayapa I. 145.27. 
Uttanapadam. 1.5.20 (son of Svayambhuva Manu and Sata- 

rupS.); 6.1 (Dhruva son of). 
Udana m. I 141.4 (son of Sudanaka). 

UdaradhT m 1. 6.3 (son of Pracinabarhis). 
Udarya k. m. I. 139.58 (1. r.) (one of the six sons of 

Vasudeva and Devaki). 

LJdavasu k. m. I. 138.44 (s, r.) (son of Pras"ruta). 
Udumbara I. 48.8 (planted at the door); 48.38; 205.49 (stick 

(tree) of which to be used in cleaning teeth). 

Uddhava m. I. 15.82 (Visnu Himself called as) (V. master 

of ) (Visnu contemplated by). 
Udbhida m. I. 56.8 (One of the 7 Sons of Jyotisman at 

K.us"advTpa). 

d. I. 6.64 (one of the 49 Marut devatSs). 
d. I. 198.4 (saluted). 



TJdvesana 

TLJnmatta- 

bhairava 

Upagupta 

Upaguru 

Upadeva 



m. I. 138.54 (s. r.) (son of Upaguru). 

m. I. 138.54 (s. r.) (son of Satyaratha). 

m. I 87.46 (son of Daksaputra Manu); 

m. I. 139.42 (1. r.) (one of the 3 sons of Akrflra). 

Upadeva w. I. 139.46 (1. r.) (daughter of Devaka). 

Upapurana I. 215.17-20 (names of ). 

Upamadgu m. I 139.42 (1. r.) (one of the 3 sons of Akrflra), 

Upahutah. d. 1.5.4 (creation of). 

Upanat (shoe) II. 20.2 (benefits of gift of ) 35-28 (to be given). 
(UpSnah) 

TJpendra d. I. 45.12 (attribute of Visnu). 

Uma d. w. I. 27.1 (invoked); 38-2 (worshipped); 40.9 
(saluted); 129.5 (to be worshipped in Kr9j>atrya 
in Havana along with &va, huta&na in Srtdhara- 



224 GAR Up A PUR Alii A A STUDY 

puja); 129.9 (to be worshipped in the order from 
MargatrtiyS onwards); 206.36 (water offered to 
after bath and other daily rites); II. 4.50. 

Um&pati (iva) I. 191.22 (as an interlocutor). 

Uraga (serpent) I. 182.24 (destruction of poisons of). 

Uruksaya m. I. 140.7 (1 r.) (another son of Nara, son of 
Manyu); 141.5 (son of Brhadbala). 

Urmiia w. I. 143.7 (her marriage with Laksmana). 

Urva.il d. 1.58.15 (an apsaras and others are masters of 
Msrgab'irsa); 139.2 (1. r.) (with Pururavas begets 
6 sons); H-0.21 (at whose sight, Satyadhrti jost 
control over his senses); 145.2-3 (gets a son Ayu 
with Pururavas). 

UlQka (owl) II. 34.21 (a deceiver and despiser of woman 
born as). 

Ulukl w. I. 6.51 (daugther of TSmra) gave birth to 

Ulukas). 

Ulka (star) I. 198.3 (saluted in the north in Tripurapuja). 

Ulmukha m. I. 139.57 (l.r.) (son of Revatl and Balabhadra). 

m. I. 139.25 (1. r.)f son of Ahi). 

m. I. 93.5 (one of the law-givers); 215.19 (9th 

Upapurapa spoken by), 
m. I. 139.27 (1. r-) (son of Tamas). 
in. I. 139.67 (l.r.) (popular name of MahSmanS 3 
son 



U^anas 



iKlnara 



O&& vi. I, 144.8 (daughter of Bana & wife of Ani- 

ruddha). 
Ujitalva m. I. 138.42 (s. r.) (son of Gai^a). 

ra. I: 56.11 (one of the 7 sons of Dyutiman in 

Krauncadvlpa); 
m. 141.1 (son of Aniruddha). 

I. 47.25 (a KailSsa type of temple), 
m. 1. 6.6 (sons of) (and how they were born). 
87.21 (one of the sons of Gak?usa Manu). 
m. 87.56 (one of the sons of Bhautya Manu). 
Crjanama m. I. 138.51 (s. r.) (son of 6uci). 

s. I. 87,6 (one of the 7 at the time of Svarocia 
MaauJ. 



Dru 



APPENDIX 71NDEX OF THE NAMES IN G.P. 



225 



Urdhvabahus. 



I. 5.25 (one of the 24 daughters of Dak?a) 

(married by Vasistha) (5.27 j; 5.15 (wife of 

Vasisljha) (to whom 7 sons were born who were 

all sages). 
1.58.16 (one of the 7 who reside in Bhaskara- 

mandala in Pausamasa). 

I. 5.15 (one of thesonsof Orja and Vasistha); 

87,10 (one of the 7 at the time of Auttama Manu); 

87.18 (at the time of Raivata Manu). 
I. 140.24 (l,r) (another son of Ajamidha); 
140. 3 J (l.r.) (son of Atithi). 

214.50 (certain sinners become pure at the sight 

of). 
Rksaparvata mt. I. 55.6 (one of the 7 kulaparvatas). 



Rk?a 



(star) 



Rgveda 



Rclka 



Rjudasa m. 
Rta (truth) 



Rtajit 



Rtadharma d. 
RtadhamS d. 

and Bhadra 
Rtadhvaja m. 
Rtupar^a m, 
Rteyu m. 

Rddhi w, 



s. 



I. 215.12 (was taught to Paila by Visnu in the 
form of Vyasa). 

I. 139.40 (1. r.) (sons of Kau&ka). 
1.87.35 (son of Daksa Savarni Manu); 139.6 
(1. r.) (weds Satyavati, daughter of Gadhi). 
I. 139.58 (1. r.) (one of the 6 sons of Vasudeva 
and Devakl). 

I. 2.20 (Visnu is the only truth); 
6.61 (one of the Marut devatas); 
138 56 (1. r.) (son of Vijaya). 

1,6.60 (one of the 49 Marut devatSs); 58.17 
(the 7 who reside in Bhaskaramandala in MSgha- 
masa). 

I. 6 61 (one of the 49 Marut devatas). 
1,87.50 (Indra at the time of the 12th Manu, 
son of Daksa) (whose foe wasTaraka). 
I. 139.11 (l.r.) (son of Pratardana). 
I. 138.32 (1. r.) (son of Ayutayu). 
I. 140.3 (l.r.) (one of the 6 sons of RaudrasVa). 
I. 5. 24 (one of 13 daughters of Dak?a, married 
by Dharma). 

I. 5.30 (one of the sons of Dharma). 
I. 54.12 (son of Nabhi and Merudevl). 
87.6 (one of the 7 at the time of SvSroci|a 
Manu); 140.27 (son of Ku&gra) . 



226 

R?ikulya r. 
RsipQja 

Rsiloka 
Rsyamuka mt. 

Rsyas'ruga s. 
Ekacakra m. 



Ekajyoti d. 
Ekadanti d. 
Ekavira 
EkaSukra d. 
Ekada& 



Ekamra 

Etana d. 

EtSdrk d. 
Elapatra 

Amila m. 

Aindrl d. 

Aindhana 
Airavata d. 



Ailavila 



Ailavila 
Aisika (name 
of a weapon) 
OrhkSra 



GARUDA PURAfjtA A STUDV 

I. 55.9 (merits of). 

I. 135.4 (to be performed on Ekada^i). 

I. 135.4 (one doing Rsipuja on EkSdaSf goes to). 

I. 143.25 (Sugrlva was installed at) (Rama 

himself remained there) . 

I, 87.32 (at the time of Savarni Manu). 

I. 6.44 (one of the sons of Danu); (a place) 

145.11 (Paudavas entering the house of a brahmin 

at). 

I. 6.58 (one of the 49 Marut devatas). 

I. 129.21 (attribute of Vinayaka). 

(a place) I. 81.27 (in the Sahyadri region). 

I. 6.59 (one of the 49 Marut devatas). 

I. 125.1 (King Mandhata's fast on); 125.2 

(Gandharl not observing fast on the confluence of 

dasami and); 125.7 (Rukmangada attained heaven 

by observing the vrata of); 135.4 (Rjipaja on); 

205.122 (Vi?nu is pleased with amalakas on); 

127.1 (observed by Bhlma in Magha, 6ukla paksa 
SQryarksa (Hasta). 

(place) I. 81.11. 

I. 6.63 (one of the 49 Marut devatas). 

I. 6.62 (one of the 49 Marut devatas). 

I, 6.55 (one of the serpents). 

I. 140.4 (son of Medhatithi). 

w. I. 38.5 (invoked in Durgapuja). 

an atonement I. 214.12 (for taking forbidden 

food). 

I. 58.14 (one of those who have power in 

Karttika) ; 

129.24 (one of the serpents). 

I. 138 34 (s. r) (son of Da^aratha and father 

of Viivasaha). 
. I. 138.10 (s. r.) (daughter of Budha). 

I, 145.36 (with which Arjuna kills A^vatthama). 

I 227.20 (to be recited often); 227.35 (to be 
contemplated upon); 227.39 (is muktisadhaka). 



APENDIX 7 INDEX OF THE NAMES IN G.P. 



227 



Auttama Manu m, I. 87.9 (sons of). 

Aupadanavi w. I. 6.45 (one of the daughters of Svarbhanu). 

Aurdhvadehika II. 3.8-9 (for those without any relation); 4.8 
(obsequies) (to be performed even if bereft of a son, by one 
who wants salvation); 4.52 (everything concer- 
ning which have been told so far); 18 4-10 (all 
concerning aurdhvadehika is questioned); 19.1 
(answered 3.2 (people desirous of moksa to per- 
form themselves). 

Kariisa m. I. 15 80 (Visiju addressed as killer of); 15 132 

(Visnu addressed as killer of); 139.48 (son of 
Ugrasena); 139.58 (l.r,) (killed the 6 sons of 
Vasudeva); 144.6 (slain by Krsna); 19 US 
(Krsna killer of Karhsa, as his youthful sport ? is 
requested to protect). 

Kakufstha m. I- 138.18 (s.r.) (son of Puranjaya). 

KakudmSn mt. I. 56.6. 

Kakudmini w. I. 13961 (l.r.) (wife of Pradyumna). 

Kakseyu m. I. 140.3 (.l.r.) (one of the 6 sons of Raudrabva). 

Kacchanlra m. I 58.8 (resides with Madhava). 

Kaccliapa 217. 15 (one who troubles his father is born as). 

II. 34.23 (the abuser of a brahmin is born as a 

Kacchapl) . 

I. 81.9 (one of the tirthas). 



K.a\aka (a 
place) 

Ka^aha 
K.arj.va 



I. 55.4 (one of the dvlpas). 
m. T. 140.9 (1 r.) (son of Ajamlda), 
Kadamba (tree) I. 205.48 (the stick of which is to be used for 

dantadhavana) . 
Kadru d. w. I. 6.25 (one of the daughters of Daksa given in 

marriage to Kalyapa). 

Kanaka r. I. 83.21 (in eastern region in GayamShStmya); 
Kanakhala I. 81.28; 

(place) 84.9 (at GayS) 

Kanda (root ?) I. 197.33 (worshipped in GarudlvidyS), 
Kapardi d. I. 6.36 (one of the 11 Rudras). 
Kapalamocana I. 52.7. 
(a place) 



228 

Kapalini d.w. 

KapSlI d. 

Kapila d. 



Kapitocana 
Kapota (dove) 



f'\PSS< a I) 

K.impilla in 
Katnbala 



Kambala- m. 
barhija 
Kamhu 



GARUT?A. PURStiTA-A STUDY 
I. 38.5 (invoked in Durgapuja); 134.4 (nl. saluted 
in MahSnavami Vrata). 

1.6.36 (one of the II Rudras); 198.4 (saluted 
In Tripur5paja). 

I. 1.18 (an incarnation of Visnu, and exponent 
of S5riikhya); 6.43 (one of the sons of Danu); 
15 27 (Visnu as master of ); 45.17 (was produced 
as Tribinduka); 194.11 (the SSrfikhyacSrya 
requested to give good health); 196.8 (requested 
to protect from karmabandha) ; 
56.8 (one of the sons of JyotismSn in KusSadvlpa); 
215 19 (one of the Upapuranas) . 
I. 138.21 (s. r.) (son of Drdha^va). 

I. 201.3 (horse having the defect, to be dis- 
carded) ; (eyes of a monkey). 

1.217.27 (one who stealthily takes away wood 
shall become). 

II. 21.10 (merits of giving asdana). 

I. 140.19 (one of the 5 sons of Mukula). 

1.6.55 (one of the serpents); 58.17 (resides in 

Bhaskaramaodala in Maghamasa); 129.25 (one 

of the serpents to be worshipped every month 

and in Bhadra, Sravana uklapancaml). 

I. 1 39.43 (1. r.) (son of BhajamSna). 



I. 69,4 (merits of mauktikas obtained from). 
KaraAja (ka! I. 205.48 (one of the trees, the stick of which is 

to be used in dantadhavana) . 
m. I. 138.7 (s. r.) (son of Vibhuti); 
139 63 (1. r.) (son of BhSnu). 

I. 13933 (1. r.) (sonof^akuni). 

I. 72.14 (a spurious Indranila resembling); 72.16. 
/ I- 205.48 the stick of which is to be used for 

dantadhavana. 

I- 2QL2(horse having the defect of, to be rejected). 
3. 87.26 (one of the sons of Vaivasvata Manu); 
138 4 (the ksatriyas called KSrttsSh who sprang 
from). 



Karanclhama 

tr> 

Karamhhi i\i 
Karavlra 



Karf.}a m. 



Karkota(ka) 



Karrja 



APPENDIX 7 INDEX OF THE NAMES I N G.P. 229 

Karketana gem I. 68.10; 73.1 (test to find its quality); 75.1 (for- 
mation of); 75.2-3 (good and bad qualities); 75.4-5 
(worn after heating in a golden vessel); 75.6 
(effect of) 75.7 (valuation of). 

1.6.55 (one of the serpents); 58.16 (resides in 
BhSskara-mandala in the month of Pausa); 129. 
24; 129.25 (to be worshipped every month and 
in Bhadra-Sravana-Iukla pancaml) (resides in 
Varuna-man4ala) . 

m. I, 139.53 (1. r.) ( son of Kuntl); 145.20 (on 
whose opinion, Papdava had to go to forest); 
145.31 (his fight with Arjuna and his defeat); 
m. I. 139.74 (1. r.) (son of Adhiratha). 

Karoanta m. I. 87.5 (one of the sons of Svarocisa Manu). 
d. I. 89.44 (one of the 6 other clans of manes). 

s - I- ^-21 (to whom Devahuti was given in 
marriage). 

Kai ma (action) 1.2 13.3 (its fruit); 228.11 (binds one); 11.22.71 
(as cause of birth & death); 31.1 (done before 
accompanies the doer); II. 5 4-6 ("yoga) (causes 
disease., death etc.). 

I. 5,13 (one of the 3 sons of'Dattoli). 
1.87.58 (one of the 5 clans of gods at the time 
of Bhautya Manu). 

a measure of weight I. 177.38; 201.21; 201.23; 

202.72. 

I, 198.8 (attendant of Jvalainukhj). 

I. 47.25 (a Kailasa type of temple). 
I. 199.8 (duhkha indication of); 190.32 (indi- 
cation of duhkha removed) ; 
222.20 (has no effect on those in whose heart resides 



Kartta 
Kardama 



Karma n a 
Karmatii- 
st.hah 

Karsa 

Kalana 
ELalasa 
Kali 



m. 
d. 



d. 



Kalika d. I. 46.12 (one of the gods, rule as Vastu), 

Kalinga k. m. I. 139.69 (I. r.) one of the several sons of 

Bali). 
Kalamasapada k.m. I. 138.33 (s. r.) (son of Sudasa and 

Damayantl), 



230 



GARU1JA PURA~JiIA A STUDY 



d. 
d. 



Kalyatahetu d 
Ka'yuda 
KalySna 
Knvi 



Kavyavaha 
(agni) 



Kalki I. 1.33 (an avatSra of Visgu as Visnuyas'as, when 

the world is bereft of king, in the 8th Sandhya of 

Kali); 86.11 196.11 (requested to protect from 

kalmasa). 

Kalpa (period) I. 215.4 (consists of a 1000 caturyuga (a day of 

Brahma) ). 

Kalya d. I. 89 44 (one of the 6 other clans of manes). 

KalyatnrSsraya d. I. 89.44 (one of the 6 other clans of manes). 
I. 89.44 (one of the 6 other clans of manes). 
I. 89.44 (one of the 6 other clans of manes). 
I. 89.44 (one of the 6 other clans of manes). 
I. 229.11 (one who knows that the spirit is the 
master of the body). 

1.84.11 (one of those who are requested to be 
present at the time of pipdadfma etc. at Gaya). 
I. 55.4 (one of the dvlpas). 

I. 1.11 (narration of G P. by Garutfa to); 2.55 
(hearing this purana, revived a burnt tree); 3.7 
();6.18 (father of Narada); 6.21 (married 13 of 
the daughters of Daksa and Asiknl); 6.25 (wives 
of); 6.37 (sons of). 

I. 71.7 (marakatas resembling the colour of ara 
deemed good). 

I. 202.75 (as a measure); 214.15 (gets purified by 
bhasma); 214 26 (polluted gets pure by bhasma). 
I. 77,4 (Pulakas having faces like, to be rejected); 
214.26 (one struck by which, gets purified with 
bhasma); 217.25 (one who takes away the flesh 
of Madgura, a type of fish, shall become) ; II. 34. 1 2 

k -,, . (the one who take s food uninvited shall become). 

Ka.ic.ma k,n. I. 139 ,3 (1. r .) (son of Bhlma). 
(place) II. 2 8.3 (moksadayiks) 81.8. 

I. 140.9 (class of brahmins who sprang from 
Kanva). 

I. 35.2 (to whose gotra, gSyatri is said to 
belong); 93.5 ( one o f the law-givers); 203.1-25 
(grammar according to); 204.27 (heard grammar 
from Kumara). 

I- 13.12 (Vaisnavapafijara stotra uttered to, 
^armg which she killed demons like Mahisasura); 



Ka^yapa s. 



Kahlara 



KSnisya 



Kaka 



Katyayana 



APPENDIX 7 INDEX OF THE NAMES IN GP. 



231 



K&dravehSh 
Kanti 

Kspotaromaka 
Kama m. 

(deva) 



d. 

Kamagama 
(capable of 
moving as they 
wished) 
KSmatirtha 
KSmadhenu 
(divine cow) 
Kamara 
(a place) 

Kamarupa 
(a place) 
Kami 

KamSkhya 



I. 6.54 (a class of serpents). 

I. 38.2 (to be worshipped in Margas'lrsa month, 

from the 3rd day onwards (DurgS pQj&); 129.9. 

k.m. I. 139-44 (I.r.) (son of Dhrsta). 
I. 5.28 (son of Pustf); 5.30 (his wife Rati); 
11.34 (shown mudr5s etc.); 137.1 (worshipped on 
Madanatrayoda^l) 37.18 (Hari considered as); 
197 46 (oneself to be thought of always as rupa); 
198.6 (Tripura gets pleased by the worship of). 
6.64 (one of the 49 Marut devatas); 

I. 87.44 (the birds at the time of llth Manu 
(Rudra)iwere). 



1.81.9. 

I. 82.10 (the creation of). 



I. 81.15 (where Kamakhya remains established). 



d. 
d. 



I. 40.7 (saluted in Mshe^varlpuja). 
I. 81.15 (at KamarQpa). 

Kartavlrya d. I. 15.139 (Visnu addressed as). 

m, 15.140 (Visnu as killer of); 142.9 (killed by 
Paradurama). 

KSrttikeya d. I. 6.33 (Kumara, son of Krttikas, ^and Agni- 
putra); 86.20 (by the worship of whom 3 one 
gets Brahmaloka); 130.1 (to be propitiated in 
Bhadrapada on Saptaml and Ravi to be propit- 
iated); 137,17 (gives wealth if pleased on 
?asthl) ; 

(place) I. 81.9 (a tlrtha); 81.15 (at Pundravar- 
dhanatlrtha); 84.21 (rSddha performed in, is 
undiminishing). 

KSrp&sa I. 217,28 (one becomes a kraunca by removing 

(cotton) stealthily). 



232 GARUDA PURAJilA - A STUDY 

Ksla m. I. 6.30 (son of Dhruva). 

d. 1.52.16 (attribute of Yama); 194.29 (saluted). 
Kalakafijalj m. I. 6.47 (one of the sons of Marlci). 

Kalaka m. I. 6.46 (one of the sons of Vai^vanara). 
Kalakaksa m. I. 87.37 (enemy of devas); (killed by 

Padmanabha). 

Kalanja k.m. I. 139.66 (l.r.) (son of Hiranyak?a); 96.49. 
Kalanjaya k.m. I. 139.66 (l.r ) (son of SvabhSnara). 
Kalafljara I. 81.18. 

(a place) 
Kalanabha m. I. 6.42 (one of the sons of HiranySkb'n); G.-19 

(demon born in the family of Prahlada). 
Kslanemi d. I. 15.140 (Visnu considered as). 
Kalapasa (noose of Yama}; II. 23.30 (has the abode <m 

the west of Citragupta's). 
Kalapurusa I. 194.29 (saluted). 
Kalavati I. 19.8 (the kulika kala which is) 

Kfllafeka I. 89.33 (cooked pot herbs offered by rsis to 

rnanes). 

K5la w . I. 6.25 (one of the wives of K 

Kalika 215.20 (the I 2 th Upapurfuia) 

KaHAga I. 68.17 (vajras at); 68.18 (quality of vajras at;, 

Kill (Kalika) d. I. 33.2 (propitiated in DurgapQjn) - 40 5 
Saluted); 40.6 (saluted); 70.24; 129.9 (worship- 
Fed from Margatrtlya); 133.16 (olfering your,,, 
buffalo to;; 134.4 ^saluted in Mahanavamivrata); 
iytf.10 (worshipped). 



^ ans sa]to ^ 

ddharagapancamT on paflcaml in ^ 

Awna, Bhadra & Karttika); 129.26 (to be 
won* d ry month ^^ ^ Bhadra _^ a _ 

by Kr 5 7aT m 1413 (Wh Se Pdde Was Destroyed 
Kalci'vara I 05 c /, 

his d Pt , worsh 'PPiS "horn oa e gets cleared of 

> 8 " 2 b 



(where 

I ' 5 i 53-9; 81.il; 81.16. 



APPENDIX 7 INDEX OF THE NAMES IN G.P. 



233 



Rasa k. m. 
Kasa m t. 

Kaslraja k.m. 

Kas"! (a placed 



Kilbya km. 
Kas"yapa s. 



Kimbuka (tree) 
Kinnara m. 
Kimpuru^a m. 



mt. 



Kildndha 
Klkala 



Klta (ka) 
(worrn) 



KTrti w. 

m. 
Kxrtimati w. 

Klrtiman k.m. 

Kukura k.m. 
Kuja (planet 
Mars) 



I. 139.8 (l,r.) (one of the 3 sons of Suhotra). 
I. 56.10 (holy). 

145.6 (whose daughter was given to 
Vicitravlrya). 

I. 139.14 (where ruled the kings of Soma race; 
devoted to Visnu); II. 28.3 (one of the cities 
which lead to Moksa). 

I 139 8 (1 r.) (one of the 3 sons of Suhotra). 
I. 58.15 (one of those who are masters in 
Margabfrsa); II. 1.9 (born of VinatS is said to 
be vahana of Krsija) ; 9.14 (addressed as an. 
interlocutor) ; 34.28 (addressed as an interlo- 
cutor). 

I. 70.7 (padmaragas resembling flowers of). 
I. 141 .6 (son of Sunaksatra). 

1.54.10 (one of the 9 sons of AgnTdhra, king 
of Jambudvlpa); 

55.2- (one of the mountains on the south of Meru). 
I. 143.25 (where R.ima killed Valin). 
I. 1. 32 (birth of Buddha, Jinasuta will be born 
at) ; 82 5 (Bali brings lotus from milky ocean 
and sleeps at); 83.1 (Gaya is sacred at). 
1.217.22 (a Audra who begets son on a Brah- 
manJ shall become a); 217.30 (the stealthy 
remover of wood becomes); II. 3.17 (one for 
whom last rites are not performed shall become). 
I. 5 24 (one of the 13 daughters of DaksipS 
born out of the Yajna; of Ruci; married by 
Daksayajja, Dharma) ; 
5.30 (one of the 3 sons of Dharma). 
I. 143.7 (daughter of Kus'adhvajal; (married by 
6atrughna). 

I. 139.58 (l.r.) (one of the 6 sons of Devakl and 
Vasudeva). 

I. 139.43 (l.r.) (son ofBhajamSna), 
I. 70.8 (PadmarSga resembling in colour); I. 59.26 
(astaml good on); 59.29 (das'aml purified by); 
59.36 (causes amrtayoga in Uttaraprostapadl; 
60.4 (whose dasa period gives sorrow); 61. J4 



234 



Kudava 



Kutsa 
Kunti 



Kubera d. 



Kubjamraka 
(a place) 
Kubjika 
Kumara 



GARUpA PURSjiTA-'A STUDY 

(good in 6th house); 61.15 (good in 11).; r>2J5 
(practice of archery to be done on the day oi); 
66.16; 67.2 (resides as fire in body), 
(an axe) I. 228.3 (compared with good thoughts), 
m. I. 141.8 (son of Samitra); 

II. 22.50 (a measure of weight); I. 171. 43; 202,73: 
202.74. 

d. I. 15.72 (name of Vis#u). 
k.m. I. 139.20 (l.r.) (son of Dharmanctra) ; 
k.m. 139.31 (son of Caidya); 

139.52 ("raja, to whom Prthu daughtt-r of Sura 
was given as daughter) ; 

139.53 (referred to as mother of Kanja) (sh' 
was originally known as PrthSl) ; HS.H (sons oi' 
Pandu and); See also Prthu 

I. 15.24 (Visuu as master of); 15.54 (Vi^u 
as cause of); 16.3 (grants wealth, if worshipped 
in 1st phase of moon's wane). 
1.81. 10, 



w. 



d. 1.26.3 (worship of). 

d. 1.5.34 (son of Saambhu (i^iva) and Gaurl); 

6.33 (son of Agni, born in the rot-tls and called 
Karttikeya being nourished by K.rHikHs); 
83,67 the doer of .-'raddha at Kumflnlhnr.i 
reaches); 196.9 (requested to protect); 

m. 56.14 (one of the sons of the king of Sakad- 
vlpa); 83.67 (dhara, at Gaya (?J, whi-re if 
sr|ddha is done, the doer gets the bcuc/it of A;'- 
vamedha); 204.27 (from whom K&tyayaua heard 
the grammar); 205.66 (is SatySgni); 215.1B 
(SkandapurSoa utterred by). 



Kumsri w. 



Kumuda mt. 
Kumudvatl r. 
Kumbha m . 



I. 48.40; 56.15 (daughter of King of akadvtpa); 
I. 178.18 (Upaya for vab'lkara^a of); 198.3 
(Kaumarl, saluted in Tripurapiya) . 
I. 56.6. 



I. 56.13. 



I. 15.92 (Visnu as destroyer of) 143.44 (killed 
by Rama and Laksmana). 



APPENDIX 7 INDEX OF THE NAMES IN G.P. 235 



KumbhlpSka I. 85.11 (for those who were dead in; pinda 
(a hell) offered at Gaya). 

Kuru m. 1.54.11 (one of the 9 sons of Agndlhra, king 

of Jambudvlpa) ; 

mt. 55.3 (part of Sarhvarana) (3 branches of); 
m. 145.3 (born in the line of Ayu); 145.10 
(Duryodhana) the enmity between whom and 
Pandavas was preordained). 

Kuruksetra I. 66.6; 81. 4; 82.14 (merits of residing at); 84.4 

(a place) (except at 4 places like this, at other tlrthas one 

has to observe mundana and upavasa); 145.23 
(battle at); 145.25 (the battle at which place 
compared with the one between the devas and 
asuras); 205.115 (one of the best waters besides 
the Ganges at Gaya); II. 28.19 (one who dies at, 
shall go to Svarga). 

Kuruv.ii^a k.m. I. 139.34 (l.r.) (som of Madhu). 
Kulajit k.m. I, 138.52 (s. r.) (son of Anaftjana) 
Kulararta 1224.1 (uttered by Hara toNarada); 224.23 

(stotra) (merits of reading or hearing the stotra). 

Kuli k.m. I. 138.51 (s. r.) (son of Sunadraja); 139.40 

(s. r.) (son of Sanjaya). 

Kulika I. 19.7; 19.8 (holds sway during day with 

(planet) Rahu); 197.13 (assigned to Agneya in the GSru- 

dividya). 
Kuvalasvaka k.m 1.138.20 (s. r.) (son of Bfhadasva). 



Ku^a 



k.m. 



(and 



1.13837 (s. r.) (son of Rama); 143.49 

Lava established on the throne by Rama); 

139.4 (1. r.) son of BalakasVa); 139,5 (4 sons of). 

I. 54.4 (one of the 7 dvlpas); 56.8 (where ruled 

JyotimSn). 
I. 138.50 (s. r.) brother of Siradhvaja); 

143.7 (whose daughters Bharata and ^atrughna 

married). 

KujJanabha k.m. 1.139.5 (1. r.) (one of the 4 sons of Kusa). 
Ku&ala m. 1.56.11 (one of the 7 sons of Dyutim&n, king of 

Krauncadvlpa) . 
Kusagra m. I. 140.27 (1. r.) (son of Bfbadratha). 



k.m. 
Kmadvlpa 

Kuiadhvaja m. 



236 

Ku&vartta 
(a place) 



GARUpA PURSJjIA A STUDV 
then. 1 Din 1 74 



rifl 



mt. 
Kuslda (usury) 



Kusumoda m. 
Kuhu vv. 

Kupya 
K.Qrma 
(tortoise) 



Krkalssa 
cbamelion 

Krcchra (an 
atonement) 



m- 
k.m. 
k.m. 



k m. 



Krtaka 
Krta- 
karmS 

Krtajit m. 
Krtafijaya m. 
Krtabandhu m 
Krtayuga 



I. 81.28 (by bathing 
birth cycle). 

I. 139.5 (l.r.) (one of the 4 M>S * jt ' Kus-.il. 
I. 56.9. 

1.205.91 (thriving by which is pi-imi ! at " 
time of distress); 205 93-fM (ii* adv.inin-v "' : 
kfsi); 205.95 (the sin by prcilili cilwlm: 
is got rid of by xvorship of jnain-.s i>lc.). 
I, 56.14 (one of the 7 sons of kin;: "1* SsJ..;.- 

vlpa). 

I. 5.11 (one of the daughturs <*f Smrti -^ 

Angiras). 

I. 69-34 (a measure of \veiglil). 

I. 86.10 (one of the avaUIras). 

87.16 (taking which form, Han killi-il i JH- .i 1 *-".. 
Bhlmaratha); 142.3 (carried the mount M:>MJ.n.i 
194.13 (requested to protect); JWi-i? (witwii'-d t. 
protect) ; 

II. 22 40 (one of the 10 vSyus). 

11.34.19 (one who approaches guru's u'ilr-lMK 
become). 

I. 214.8 (ardha, shall mako on l>nn- whu li:i 
taken food at a house whore a Candftln has < hv.'Ic : 
14.11 (pada is enjoined for tho,sc who takf tuiui 
there); 214.17 (p5da makes pun: tin 1 vrs-H 
polluted by madya etc. 214.19 (to b* 1 
thrice). 

1.87.14 (son ofManu); 
139.15 (1. r.) (son of Vijaya); 
140.15 (1. r.) (son of Sannati). 
I. 140.26 (I. r.) (son of Cyavana). 
I. 139.22 (I. r.) (one of the 4 
Dhanaka). 

I. 141.7 (sonofSuparpa). 
I. 141.7 (son of Brhadbhraja). 
I. 87.J4 (son of Manu). 

I. 215.5 (dharma has Satya etc. as four f'cf): 
215.6 (people live for 400 years in); 215.7 (nt 
Us end brahmins are powerful) (demons art* 
killed by Vi^nu at the end of); 215.24 (nature 



sous 



APPENDIX 7 INDEX OF THE NAMES IN G.P. 



237 



k.m. 



Krta- 
varm5 

KrtavTrya k.m. 

Krtagni k.m. 

Krti m. 

m. 

k.m. 

Krtiratha k.m. 



of men in); 215.36 (bond of birth & death is 
broken by yajna for Visnu in); 222.23 (is said 
to be kali, if Acyuta never resides in one's 
heart) . 
I. 139.50 (I, r.) (son of Hrdika). 



I. 139.22 (1. tO one of the 4 sons of Dhanaka), 
I 139.22 (1. r ) (one of the 4 sons of Dhanaka). 
I. 87 21 (one of the sons of Caksusa Manu); 
87 31 (one of the sons of Sfivarni Manu); 
138.57 (son of Bahulabva). 

I. 138.47 (s.r.) (son of Pratmdhaka). 

KrtirSta k.m. I. 138.48 (s r ) (son of Mahadhrtih). 

Krteyuka k.m. I. 140.3 (l.r.) (one of the 6 sons of RandrSbva). 

Krtoga k.m. I. 139.22 (l.r.) (one of the 4 sons of Dhanaka). 

Krttika d. I. 6.33 (whose apatya Kumara is called 

Kartikeya); 59.2 (star ofAgni); 59.16 (is called 
Adhovaktra); 59.36 (Amrtayoga caused by Budha 
in); 59.45 will cause death in "journey); 61.9 
(journey towards east good in). 

Krpa s. I. 87.32 (at the time of Savarni Manu); 

k,m. 140.21 (1. r.) (son of Satyadhrti and Orvasl). 

KrpI k.m. I. 140,21 (l.r.) (daughter of Satyadhrti and 

Urvai) (married by Drona). 

Krmi(i) I. 217.13 (the beggar released from Naraka 

becomes); 217.16 (one who hampers nyasa shall 
after release from Naraka become); 217.20 one 
who impedes the performance of certain things 
is bom as); 2i 7.22 (sCidra joining Brahman! shall 
become); 217.24 (one who Kills women and 
children shall become); 217.27 (one who takes 
away golden vessel shall be born as); II. 3.17 
(one for whom obsequies are not performed, shall 
become). 

Krs'as'va s. I. 6.21 (marries 2 of 60 daughters of Dak?a 
and Asiknl) ; 6.23 (to whom Jaya and Supraj&s 
were given); 138.12 (son of Sahadeva). 



238 GARUpA PURS^IA A STUDY 

Krsi (agri- I. 205.91 (as a living permitted at the time of 

culture) distress). 

Krsrja d. I. 1.31 (born in the Vrsni kula as 21st avatara); 

15.112 (name of Visnu); 28.13 (worshipped in 
GopSlapuja); 86.11 (one of the avataras); 131.19 
(saluted); 136.6 (saluted); 139.59 (8th son of 
Vasudeva); 139.59 (Hari (Krsoa) had 16000 
wives); 139.60 (had many sons by his 8 wives); 
]39.61 (3 sons who were important among his 
sons); 144. 1 (Harivami'a is said to expound the 
mahatmyaof ); 144.2 (killed Putana); 144.7 (had 
60,000 wives, many sons and grandsons); 145.1 
(his fight for the cause of Pandavas); 194.4 
(requested to protect); 194.18 (his balabhava is 
requested to protect); 194.29 (saluted); 222.53 
(his prabhava); II. 1.11 (as an interlocutor) ; 
141.1 (son of Adhisomaka). 

&lagrama45.13 (saluted); 45.19 (varttul3varta) 
45.23 (quality of); 84.36 (one of the puru ? as who 
- were seen by Vis*ala) ; 84.1 1. 

I. 201.1 (a horse of the type to be rejected). 
I. 73.18 (5 times equal to masaka). 

I. 194.29 (saluted in vaisnavakavaca). 

I- 48.13 (devata worshipped in the south in 

devatSpratistha). 

I. 55.8. 

1.81.21 (one ofthetirthas). 

I. 131.3 (Rohinyastami) (to be observed for 
Han at midnight). 
Ketu d. I 7 



m, 



Krsijajihva 

Krsijala (a 

weight) 

KrsjjarGpa 



KrsnS 



17 fi* K ^ C ntroller of > 16.16 (saluted); 

17. 5 to , be worshipped); 23.11 (worshipped); 39.13 
(of Dhnmava,,. to be Worshipped); ^ 

horses of his chariot are Sin no.); 

6115 ( a n!r are g din5 W " h Cand d)j 
-^ (all p l anets are good in Jl). 



APPENDIX 7 INDEX OF THE NAMES IN GP. 



239 



KetumSn k 
Ketumala 



Ketum&lS 
Ketu^rnga 
KedSra (a 
place) 

Kerala 

Kevala k 
Ke^'ava 



Kelini 



K.aikaya 
Kaikeyl 



. m. I. 139.9 (1. r.) (son of Dhanvantari). 
m. I. 54.11 (one of the sons of Agnidhra, king of 

Jambudvlpa) ; 
mt. I. 55,2 (one of the mountains on the west). 

r. I. 55 8 
m. I. 87.18 (son of Raivata Manu). 

I. 81.6; 83.5 on the way to Gaya, by worshipping 
the deity there one clears his dues to pitrs); 86.32 
(by worshipping whom one is happy at Sivaloka). 
1.80.1 (the intestines of Bala was taken by Sesa, 
when thrown fell at) (Vidrumas are got from). 
. m. I. 138.9 (s. r.) sonofNara). 

d. I. 11.18 (energies under the control of Kes'ava 

are assigned the proper directions in Navavyuha- 

rcana) ; 43.26 (pajana in the morning after 

upavasa the previous night in the rite called 

pavitraroharia); 45.2 (attribute of NSrayana); 

59.1 'Jyotrkakra uttered by); 81.3 (Visves'a at 

VSrSoasl is); 131.11 (uttered with other names 

in Rohioyastami); 136.7 (saluted In 6ravaoa- 

dvada=T); 137.6 (to be worshipped in Marga^Irsa); 

142 3 (brought the Vedas and protected the 

Manus etc.,); 194.5 (requested to protect the 

tongue); 194.10 (requested to protect always); 

205.154 (is remembered); 221.4 (as remover of 

grief); 221.5 (worship is important); 222.20 (in 

whose mind he is a there is no effect of Kali); 222. 

26 (with mind bent on Him, the MayS can be 

dispelled); 222.38 (that is KathS where he is 

described); 222.41 (enormous sins get destroyed 

by mere thought of ). 

w. I. 138.29 (s. r.) (gives birth to Asamafijas with 
Sagara). 

I. 1580(Visnuas killer of); 144.5 (killed by 
Krspa); 194.18 (Krsna as killer of). 
1.139.54 (1. r.) (marries rutaklrti) {his five 
sons Antardhana etc.), 

I. 143.4 (wife of Dasaratha) (gave birth to 
Bharata); 143.9 (her request to send RSma to 
forest) . 



m. 



k.m. 



w. 



240 GARUDA PURS^IA A STUDY 

Kaitabha m. I. 194.12 (Visnu as killer of) 

Kailasa I 2.10 (where Rudra was seen by Brahma, 

(place) Brahma, meditating on Visjju); 47.19 (one of the 

(a type 5 classes of temples); 47.20 (vrtta); 47,25 (the 
of temple) types of temples belonging to the class of). 
Kaisi w. I. HO. 39 (1. r.) (wife of one of the Pandavas). 

Kokanada I. 70.11 (Padmaragas resembling the colour of). 

(red lotus) 

Kokila (cuckoo) L 70.11 (Padmaragas shining like the eyes of); 
72.4 ( like the neck of); 217.19 (if one goes to 
brother's wife he shall be born as). 
Ko\itlrtha I. 83.23 (at Gaya); 83.55 (a visitor obtains perma- 

(a place) nent position at Visnuloka). 

Kotlsvara d. I. 83.13 (at Gaya, by whose dar^ana, debts are 

cleared). 

Konagiri I. 81.26 

(a place) 

Ko ^ r I- 83.65 (Mahakaub% the residence at which place 

gets the merit of doing abVamedha). 

Kojakara (a trea- I. 224.9 
surer) 

Kaubera gem I. 69.23 (one of the types of Muktaphalas) 

Kaumsn d. w I. 24.6 (worshipped in Tripuradip&jaJ; 38.5 
(requested to appear in Durgapuja); 59.13 (resides 
in Nairrti on DvSdas'l and Caturthl) ; 134.3 (salu- 
ted inMahanavamlvrata); 198.3 (assigned to east 

v ,, inTripurapnja); 198.9 (saluted). 

KaumodakT I. 196 .13 (requested to destroy enemies and 
demons). 



(gave birth to 
Kauflka n,I. l3 - 2 I (sonof Vrraj ^ brahm . n ^ pata ^ 

Gafitv 132 ' 10 (t k Dhana P ala the bull to rivet 

at Ayodhyg) (Budhastamlvrata)j 
k.m. 139.9Q n \ /._.. ^x . ' 





(whom his wife worshipped 



APPENDIX 7 INDEX OF THE NAMES IN GP. 



241 



as deity and treated him as her lord); 142.21 (at 
his desire, was taken to a vesigrha on his wife's 
shoulders); 142.22 (in which process he made 
MSndavya oscillate in his hanging position); 
142.24 (his wife's proclamation that the day would 
not'break); 142.29, (being propitiated by AnasuyS, 
wife of Kau^ika got as a boon long life and also 
perfect health for her lord). 

Kaustubha I. 70.29 (is not to be worn even if a different 

gem species of gem is attached to it). 

Kratu s. I. 5.3 (creation of); 5.14 (his wife Sumati and 

Balakhilyas, 60 in no.) ; 5.26 (married Sannati); 
58.16 (one of those who reside in Bhaskara- 
mandala in Pausamasa); 87.2 (at the time of 
Svayambhuva Manu); 135.5 (to be worshipped 
in Gaitra, with garlands of Damanaka on 
Ekadas"!). 

k.m. I. 139.29 (l.r.) (son of Vidarbha), 
I. 44 (creation of). 

w. I. 5.23 (one of the 24 daughters of Daksa); 5,29 

(Danda, Laya, Vinaya her sons), 
w. I. 6.25 (one of the 13 wives of Kasfyapa); 6.56 

(produced pis'Sca etc.); 198.3 (saluted). 
k. m. I. 139.19 (1 r ) one of the 3 sons of Yadu). 



Kratha 
Kravyada 

demon 
Kriya 

Krodha 

Krostu- 

manS 

Kraunca 



mt. 1.56.6; 56.12; 
r. 56.12 

83.43 (p5da, a place at Gaya where the 
doer of ^raddha conveys his pitrs to svarga); 
83.44 (to the north of which is Niscira a 
reservoir); 86.6 (pada, the marking on the 
Aravinda hills); 217.28 (the stealthy remover of 
cotton becomes). 

Krauficuki m. I. 88.1 (to whom Markandeya narrated the 
pitrstotra) ; 88.28 (to whom Markandeya narrated 
the story of Ruci). 89.1 

KledinT d. I. 198.1 (saluted in TripurSpuja). 

Ksatra- km. I. 139.17 (l.r.) (son of Sankrti). 
dharma 



242 

Ksatra- k. m 

vrddha 

Ksatriva 



Ksama w. 

d. 

Ksira 

Ksiri (a tree) 

Kslroda (milky ocean) 



GARUIDA PURSiiTA A STUDY 

I. 139.8 (1. r.) on of the 4 sons of Nahusa); 
139.15 (his son Pratiksatra). 
I 68.22 (quality of vajra reccomcndcd for); 
89.36 (description); 205.89 (3 special wealth 

of). 

I. 5. 12-13 (as wife of Pulaha prajapati, 

3 sons). 

40.9 (one of the 6 kalas of Aghora); 

134.4 (saluted in Mahanavamivrata). 

L 15.131 (Visouas); 214.30 (one of the 

articles which can be taken even from a 



Ksudraka 


m. 


I. 


Ksupa 


k. m. 


I. 


Ksetrapala 


d. 


1. 
G 


Ksetravarpa 


m. 


I. 


K?etravrtti 


m. 


I. 


Ksema 


w. 


I. 


Ksettiaka 


m. 


I. 



KsemadhanvS k. m. 

Ks,em3ri k, m. 

Ksemya k. m. 

Khaga (bird) 



KhagS. w. 

Khatvtu'iga k. in. 
Khadga 



I. 205. 49 stick to be used in danta- 

dhvana). 

I 15.131 (Visnu as); 142.4 (by churning 

which, Dhanvantari came out); 145.41; II- 

7. 5. (Visiju sleeps at). 

I. 141.8 (son of Senajit). 

I. 138.6 (s. r.) (son of Bhupa). 

1. 71.10 (saluted in Suryapuja); 86.24 (at 

Gaya, if worshipped well gets Brahrnaloka). 

I. 87.43 (son of llth Manu). 

I. 87.52 (SOD of Raucya Manu). 

I. 5.30 (produced ^Snti). 

I. 56.2 (one of 7 sons of Medhatithi, king 

at Plaksadvlpa). 

141.4 (son of Nimittaka). 

I. 138.39 (s, r.) (son of Pundarika). 

I. 138.53 (s r.) (son of Srnjaya). 

I. 140.16 (1. r.) (son of UgrSyudha); 
(son of ^uci). 

II. 1.17 (Garuda addressed as an interlo- 
cutor); 

1.19 (khagesVara, as an interlocutor); 4.4.12 

(as an interlocutor). 

I. 6 25 (one of the wives of Ka^yapa). 

6.57 (produced Yaksas Rsksasas, Apsaras), 

I. 138.35 (s. r.) (son of VWvasaha) ; 

I. 47.27 (a Trip (v) is^apa type of temple); 

89.33 (rhino, whose fiesh is offered to 

manes). 



APPENDIX 7 INDEX OF THE NAMES IN GP. 



243 



Khasrma 
Khecara 

Khyati 

Gaaga 



w. 
r. 

r. 



Khadira I. 205.48 (tree, stick of which can be used 

for dantadhavana) 

Khanitra k. m. I. 138.6 (s r.) (son of Vatsapriti). 

Khanlnetra k. m. I. 138.7 (s. r.) (son of Viviri^a). 

Khara m. I. 15,91 (Visnu as killer of); 

142.13 (killed by Rama); 143.16 (came to 
Dandaka, instructed by isGrpanakha; 
(camel), 217.23 (one who kills krmi etc , 
a man without weapon shall become), 

I. 6.49 (one of the daityas born in the 
family of Prahlada). 

II. 5.33 (at the courtyard the dead body is 
called); 34- (the bhutakotis flee away, by 
the offer of pinda). 

I. 5.7 (daughter of Daksa, given to Bhrgu); 
56.13 (one of the mountain streems). 

I. 23.14 (assigned place in 6ivarcana) ; 
23.27 (to be worshipped in Sivapuja); 28.1 
(assigned a place at the door in Gopala- 
pQja); 30.6 (saluted in !:>ridharrcana); 31.14 
(saluted in Visnvarcana); 34.17 (worshipped 
in Hayagrlvapuja); 40.4 (worshipped at the 
door in Mahe^varipuja); 60.7 (one of the 
trrthas which are *papaharas' and 'mukti- 
pradas'); 80.4 (Havana Gangs becoming 
equal in sacredness to); 81.1 (best of all 
tlrthas); 81.28 (merits of bathing at 
'Gangsdvara'); 126.2; 132.10 (Kau&ka's 
visit to); 132.1 1 138 30 (ref. to be brought 
to earth by Bhaglratha); 145.3 (Bhlsma, 
born as son of antanu and); 205.58 (effects 
of bathing in); 205.114 (the waters of 
which protect till death); 205.115 (one 
among the best of waters); 222.10 (the sin 
which is dispelled by bathing many times 
in Ganga, shall go by contempalting on 
Hari). 

Gaja (elephant) I. 224.9 (men immersed in samsara compar- 

ed to vana) 



244 

Gajasya 

(Vinayaka) 

Gaga 



Gapapati 
(Vin.'iyaka) 



GaijdakT (Place) 
Gada (a type of 
temple) 
Gadadevi 
Gadadhara d 



PUR^JslA A STUDY 
d. I. 45.33 (propitiated well in the prEsada) 

k. m. I, 138.41 (s. r.) (son of Vajranabha); 

24.1 (puja); 87.3 (12 in no.) (who drink 
Soma); 87.11 (5 deva); 87.16 (Indra as a 
gana of Auttama Manu?); 87.19(4 
devatas); 87,20 (14 in no.). 

d. I. 1.2 (saluted in the invocatory verse); 
1.20.10 (saluted); 39.20 (saluted); 40.4 
(saluted); 129.13 (to whom Gftyatrl mantra 
is sacred); 129.15;I29.18 (to be worshipped 
in Margaslrsa and Monday ^uklacaturthi 
with khanda, ladduka and modaka); 
129.21 (synonyms of); 129.22 (shall get for 
the worshipper all desired objects); 131.1 
(to be propitiated in Bhadrapada, As^aml); 
185 1 (mantra which yields riches and 
learning); 185.2-8 (merits of reciting the 
mantra different number of times). 
I. 81.21 
I. 47.27 (a Trip (v) istapa type of temple). 

I. 194.7 (requested to protect in the south). 
1.15.8 (attribute of Visnu); 34.1 (addres- 
sed as an epithet of Visnu, the interlocutor); 
34.41 (propitiated in Hayagrlvapaja) ; 
40.1 (as an interlocutor); .45.2 (atrribute 
of Visuu); 45.3 (attribute of Visnu); 45.14 
(Salagrama); 51.19 (attribute of Visnu); 

82.6 (is of the form of a Linga at Gaya); 

83.7 (attribute of Visnu); 83.18 (propiat- 
ed); 84.13; 84.14; 85.22 (requested to be 
witness at Gaya); 86.7 (is present in the 
form of &la); 86.8 (present there as a mani- 
festation^ originally a stone after 
natation of Gay^iras); 86.11 (present 
both as manifest and unmanifest); 8612 
I* be propitiated fi nt) . 86>13 (merit of 

dou.g all upacsras to); 86.29 (one gets all 
*edred thing, by worshipping); 8633 



GadSloka (place) 



Gandharva 



Gandharvanagara 



Gahasti 

Gabhlra 
Gay a 

Gaya 



w. 

m. 
m, 
k. m 



APPENDIX 7 INDEX OF THE NAMES IN GP. 245 

(effects of worshipping him 1st); 86.35 (by 
worshipping whom one gets all); 86.37 
(one gets Brahmaloka by worshipping 
Him); 86.38 (is the greatest of all places); 
131.13 (worshipped and an attribute of 
Krsna). 

I. 84.28 (where one should bathe on the 
5th day) (and pinda offered shall benefit 
the family). . 

1. 77.2; 97.54 (Garuda's appearance 
drives away); 215.21 (one of the 18 
vidySs). 

I. 6.15 (which tbe preta enters in the 3rd 
month) (and takes the pinda of the 3rd 
month), 

I. 56.15 ^(wiTe of Mahadruma, son of ruler 
of 6akadvipa). 

I. 87.56 (son of Bhautya Manu). 
1. 54.15 (son ofNakta); 
, 138,3 (s. r.) (son of Sudyumna). 
I. 51.29 (dana at); 52. 14; 81.30 (best of the 
tirthas); 82.1 (mahatmya); 82-6(Gad5dhara 
in the form of linga at); 82.8 (Pitamaha 
performed sacrifice at); 82-10 (the gift of 
an extent of pancakros'a to Brahmanas) ; 
82.11 (curse on Brahmanas at Gaya); 82.13 
(Brahma being requested blessed that 
Sraddha done only at GayS shall convey to 
Brahmaloka); 82.15; 82.16 (all sins are 
washed by brSddha at); 82.17 (the unnatu- 
rally dead go to svarga by wrSddhadone at); 
83.1 (is sacred in Klkata); 83 2 (extent of the 
Mundapr^haat) ; 83.3 (extent) (^ira extent 
one kros'a); (a visit itself to, shall clear the 
debt to pitrs): 83.4 ( JanSrdana in the form 
of pitrs resides at); 83.17 (tbe debts to pitrs 
are cleared by seeing GaySditya); 83.20 
(sacred as the earth) (the Gayafi'ira the most 
sacred at); 83.23 (merits of SrSddha at 
Gayaloka); 83.35 (there is no place where 



246 GARUlpA PUKAJilA A STUDY 

there is no tlrtha at); 83.44 (visit to, is 
difficult to come off); 83.46 (merits of 
dwelling both the fortnights at); 83.47 (the 
3 places at Gaya seeing which one gets 
cleared of all sins); 83.48 (it is difficult to 
get an opportunity to give pinda at the time 
of eclipse); 83.52 (remaining at Gaya if the 
son gives food the pitrs feel satisfied); 83-53 
(finding that son goes to Gaya, pitrs feel 
happy); 83.54 (CayakQpa); 83.56 (the 
Vaitarapi is crossed by one's act at Gayfi); 
83.58 (only those who are authorised should 
be fed); 83.60 (the place enjoined for leav- 
ing the body); 83.61 (Vrsotsarga (done at 
Gaya is equal to the benefit of 100 
Agnistomas); 83.63 (pipda to be offered for 
the sake of one's friend, pitrs. etc.); 84, 1 
(one must perform traddha first before start- 
ing for Gaya); 84. 3 (the moment one starts 
fr Gaya, pitrs climb gtep by gtep ^ ^ 
ladder); 84.4 (mur,dana is not prescribed 
at Gaya and 3 other places); 8*. 12 (one is 
to proclaim that he has come to o/ler 
P'Stfa); 84.20 (traddha to be done at Gayu 
<ft?a); 84.22 (^raddha to be done on the 
day of death); 84.24 (one who does traddha 
at Gaya.'iras, shall get the benefit as that of 
a gift of land with all wealth); 8425 (the 
fe eof pinda); 84.27 (pinda offered at Gaya- 
^a, it. merits); 84.3] (even if one of the 
sons goes to Gaya, Aivamedfaa must be 
performed or the Vrsot-sarga must be done); 

" a Preta? reqU6St t0 a (va ^ ik> to 
at) . 84 35 ( 

at); 85 - si 



s 

s 



at) 868 
}> 86 ' 8 by the conquest of 



APPENDIX 7 INDEX OF THE NAMES IN GP. 247 

the Gajasura has taken a firm position at); 

86.38 (the most sacred among the tirthas); 

143.48 (the pinda offered by Rama at 

^iras): 205.115 (the sacredness of the water 

obtained at). 
Gayssura m, I. 82.2 (valiant, did penance and harassed 

all); 82.2-5 (story of); 86.1 (the forms of 

preta^ila of which one is on the head of); 

86.4 (the importance of the sila at the back 

of the trunk of). 

Garistha d. I. 2. 17 (attribute of Visnu). 

Garuda or I. 6.53 (one of the sons of Vinata). 

Garuda 1-11 (narration of Garudapurana to Kai- 

yapa); 2-47 (Visnu propitiated by penance 
by); 2.50 (Visnu's boons to): 2.51 (becomes 
vshana); 2.53 (as an interlocutor); 2.54 
(the chief among the birds); 2,55 (his 
narration of puraija to Kab'yapa); 2.56 
(the purSrja told by): 3.45 (by the bless- 
ings of Lord, became vahana and narrator 
of purSna); 3.7; 11.40 (colour of); 18.1 (as 
an interlcutor); 19.14 (Vidy5 was borne 
for the welfare of the 3 worlds by); 19.19; 
19.24 (one should observe the rites for 
removal of poison, assuming that he is); 
20.7 (mantra uttered by); 29.7 (propitiat- 
ed); 32.21 (propitiated in front of VSsu- 
deva); 71.3,6 (mythological reference to 
Garuda obstructing the path of Vssuki 
carrying the lile of Bala and picking a 
part of Marakata formed by the fall of 
lile); 86.23 (by propitiating whom the 
chains of obstacles are removed); 126.8 
(propitiated in Visnupuja); 194,9 (reque- 
sted to protect always); 196.14 ("); 197,1 
(GSruda narrated by); 197.48 (to be 
remembered during all our actions); 197.49 
(is thought of, for the destruction of 
nagas); 197.52 (is thought of in all 



Garudadhvaja 
Gardabha (ass) 



Gardha 

Garbha 



Gavaksaka 
(a round hole) 
Gab 

Gandlva 
Gadhi 



Gandhara 



GARUDA PURS^IA A STUDY 

actions); 197.55 (his narration to Kas'yap.; 
mentioned); 

II. 4.53 (gets pleased on hearing the 

narration of mode of doing obsequial rites). 

puraaal 1.35; 2.1; 2.5; 2.6; 2.8; 2.9; 2.53; 2.54; 

2.55; 2.56; 3.4 (contains all about Visiju): 

3.7; 3.8; 47.26 (a MsJaka type of temple). 

d- I. 131,11 (an attribute of Visnu). 

II. 4.37 (propitiated at the time of mak- 
ing a gift of a boat, to cross Vaitaraipi). 
217.14 (one who has gone to Gurupntnl 
or has taken his wealth or insulted friends 
shall be born as) 
m- I- 140.6 (son of Saukrti). 

I. 47.6 (location in a temple); 47.9 (nirgama 
one fifth of); 47. J 1 (twice the pitfia ); 
47.30 (graha erected in front of the door). 
I. 47.3 J (size of). 



1.6.56 (generated Surabhi and Mahisa). 

I.I.16fgo*byArjunaf rom Agni). ' 

I. 139.5 (].r) (son of Kusa.'va). 

I- 139.41 (wife of Svaphalka (1. r.), ffave 

birth to Akrara). 

! 139.64 (l. r .) (son of Araddha). 
I- 140.37 (with Dhrtarastra gave birth to 
OOsons); 145.7 (sons of); 152.2 (lost her 
100 sons, because she had taken food at the 



(one of the lOnadls). 



3filu 

36 - 12 (the 1st padaon- *K i<^ f -, 

and trinity)- ^ f ^ S6 ->5 ( tripadl 

(mtornya" of) 3/2 ( M^. "" ); 37J 
fluted); 48.76- 50 40. (deSC " bed ^ 37.4 
(merits , ?' (^petition of); 83.9 

-"4)rs.to! 69 7 r; ri d in . * e 

of Her aft- ^ u ^t>9-70 (a description 

Evoked) ( b r cha an t d a PP eara ce); 205.71 
^ (by cha ^tm g the 'yajus' 



APPENDIX 7 INDEX OF IHE NAMES IN GP. 



24 



GrudividyS 

Gsrhapatyagni 
(household fire) 
Garhasthya 
(life of an house- 

holder) 
Galava s 



Guru 

(planet Jupiter) 



GuvSvrksa 
Grtsamada 

Grdhrah 



205.72 (who remains in regions of Sun and 
Brahma is invoked and requested to return) ; 
206.32 (worshipped); 209.4 (an account 
of); 214.14 (merits of chanting for 8000 
times). 
I. 19.1 (also called Pranesvara); 197.1 

(which removes poison) 

I. 205.66 (Brahman is called). 

I. 205 24 (description of). 



I. 87.23 (at the time of Savarni Manu). 
I. 229.1-30 (the essence of Bhagavad gtta). 

I. 19.7 (Padma one of the serpents is said to 
be propitiated); 59.3 (deity of the star 
Tisya); 59.26 (PancamT auspicious on the 
day of); 5927 (dasami auspicious on); 
59.36 (causes amrtayoga in Punarvasu); 
59.43 (causes visayoga in Satabhisak); 
60.2 (dais, period 19 years for); 60.5 (das"a 
confers sukha, dharma and r&jya); 60.9 
(dhanus & mlna are houses in Zodiac 
ruled by); 61.14 (with Candra in and 
alone in 9 is excellent); 61.15 (all planets 

good in 1 1); 62.13 (is quick); 62.16 (reading, 

celestial worship, and wearing dress and 

ornament etc. to be had on his day); 66.17 

(its place in paScasvaras"astra) ; 67,3 

auspiciousness of the presence in left nadi); 

II, 34.8 (is the ruler of those who are 

knowers of self); 

See also Jtva, Jna 

I. 47.25 (a Kailasa type of temple). 

I. 139.8 (1, r.) (one of the 3 sons of 

Suhotra). 
es I. 6.51 (who came of Grdhrl) ; 

77.4 (pulakas resembling the faces of) (to 

be rejected); 



250 



GrdhrikS 

Grdhrl 

Gokarna. 



w. 

w. 



GARUpA FURAJilA A SIUDY 

83.12 (whoever sees Grdhrob'vara ;t G.v, ^ 
shall get release from bondage) ; #'3 2fJ "- 
who does rfrtfdclha at Grdtllirev;ir.i -'-fi.-i 
be free of debts to pilrs); 83.49 (ih<> *r ifl-JJi -. 
done at Grdhrakut.igulifi is OIH* af th> 7 
which has immense benefit). 
I. 6.50 (one of the daughters c-f T.irnr^) 
I 6.51 (produced Grdhrrts). 



(a place) I. 81.18 



Godana (gift of cow) II. 21.1 (at the end of one's life) (its bi-m-fii 
r I. 55.8 (flowing in central region); 81 17 

(one of the tfrthas); 8f.2(J fhranrhin.' 

into seven distributaries). 
d. 1.83.16 (by propitiating whom at ( Jay'i 

one gets freed from debts to pitrs). 
d. I. 15.114 (attribute of Vi?uu); liif.l 

(worship of). 
d. I. 83.16 (by propitiating whom at f Jay.V 

one gets freed from debts to pitjs); KS.li.'J 

(merits of doing b'raddha at). 



Godavarl 

Gopati 
Gopala 
Gomaka 

GomatI 

Gomeda 
Gomedaka 



Govardhana mt. 



r. I. 55.7 (flowing in the crntral region); HJ.7 
(a tlrtha). 

mt. I. 56.3 

gem. I. 68.44 (immitation diamonds rnacli- out 
of). 

1.15.131 (Vijnuas the bearer of); 8l.2i 
(one of the tfrthas). 
Govinda d. I. 13.1 (saluted) j 15.114 (attributo of 

Visou); 45.3 (saluted); 131.4 (sahilud); 
131.5 (snSnamantra for); 131-6 (sayana- 
mantra for)j 131.12 (saluted In); I3GJIJ 
(saluted in ^rav.nnadvadasT) ; J 37. 1 2 (to bt' 
saluted in a?sdha); 222.8 (th; bfii>li( 
of thinking often on); 222. 24 j 222.i?7 
(benefits of presence in one's heart); 22R.3U 
(knowledge co.nes thro'); 222,48 (to b<* 
cont ei npi ated often); 222.54 (thinking oi 
Him even out of contempt for Him, Si^u- 
pala.son of Damaghosa had enlightene- 



APPENDIX 7 INDEX OF THE NANCES IN GP. 



231 



Gaudf 



Gautama s. 



Gaurl 



d. w 



Graha 
Ghatiyantra 



r. 
m. 



Ghatotkaca m. 

Ghrtac! (an d. 

apsaras) 

Ghosa ro. 

Gakora 

(a bird) 

Gakra 

Gakradhara d. 

CafLcu m. 

Canda (rupa) d. 



Car>danayika d. 



ment); II. 4.51 (no fear for one who 

worships). 

1.214.31 (a kind of drink); (one gets rid 

of sin of drinking it by reciting Gayatri 

500 times). 

I. 58.13 (resides in Ravimandala in the 

months of Abvayuji); 87.27; 93.6 (one of 

the 14 lawgivers). 

I. 5.33 (consort of 3ambhu); 7.6 (saluted); 

38. \ (to be worshipped in order commenc- 
ing from trtiya in Margab'ira month); 45.32 
(to be propitiated in Vastupuja); 67.1 
(heard the science of physiology of body 
from Kara as told by Hari); 83.1 (by the 
sight of whom, one clears his debts to 
pitrs); 1299 (to be propitiated in order 
siarting from Marga trtiya); 131.1 (propi- 
tiated along with iva in 6uklSstamI in 
Bhadrapada); 178 19 (requested to give 
welfare and progeny); 197.55 (as interlo- 
cutor). 

56.13 (a mountain stream). 
I. 87.56 (son of Bhautya Manu). 

I. 217.1 1 (the birth and death in the cycle 
of sarhsara is compared to). 
I. 140.40 (1. r.) (son of Hidimba). 
I, 58.13 (one of those who reside in Ravi 
in Asvayuja). 
I. 627 (son of Lamba). 
I. 70.11(padtnaragas shining like the eyes 
of). 

47.27 (a Trip (v) istapa type of temple). 
I. 226.41 (stotra on). 
I. 138.27 (s. r.) (son of Harita). 
I 42.21 (propitiated at the time of Pavi- 
trsrohana); 191.29 (saluted); 195.29 (Vi W u 
propitiated as). 

w. I, 133.12 (propitiated in MahSnavaral- 
vrata). 



252 

Candavati 
CandS 
Candala or 
Candala 



Candiks 



Candogra 

Caturat'iga 
Gaturjyoti 



m. 

d, 

Caturdabyasta- vr. 
mlvrata 

d. 



GARUI?A PURXJilA A STUDY 

d. w. I. 133.12 ("). 

d. w. I. 133.12 ("). 

(an I. 70.30; 214.10 (if water is drunk from 
outcaste) him, Santapana to be performed) ; 214,12 
(Aindana, to be performed if food Is taken 
of); 214.13 (if fruit is taken of the same 
tree, from which a Capdala has eaten the 
pollution is over by overnight); 21415 
(praya^citta for 3 nights for taking food 
cooked by); 
II. 34.23 '.devalaka obtains the; form of ). 

d. w. 1.27.1 (propitiated for removal of poii.mi). 

d. w. 1.18,18 (propitiated in Mrtyufijayarcaiia); 
24.3 (Durga propitiated in Tripurfidipuja); 
216 ("); 45.32 (propitiated); 133.17 (to be 
propitiated); 134.3 ("); 1 98. 3( worshipped); 
198.5 (saluted). 

d. I. 133.12 (propitiated in MahSn;iv;uuf- 
vrata). 

I. 139.71 (1. r.) (son of RomapSchO. 
I. 6.51 (on of the 49 Marut devatas) . 
I. 137.2 (the worship of &iva on). 



Caturbahu 
(bhuja) 
(four armed) 
Gaturmukha 
(Brahman) 
(four faced) 

Gaturyuga 
(the 4 yugas 
or periods) 



d. 



Candra (planet) 



I. 12.14 (assigned cakra in Cakrapuja); 
131.13 (Krspa addressed as). 

I. 4. 9 (In this form He was alwayx of 
the natur of rajas and created movable 
and immovable). 

I. 215.4 (a thousand of which constittstc a 
aKalpa); 216.13 (after 1000 such cycles 
the naimittika dissolution of the nni verse 
takes place and there is no rain for 300 
years). 

1.47.28 (effect of building a temple in thfi 
shape of). 

1-2.21 (one of the eyes of Visr/u) ; 2.46 (is 
Visu-u); 11.41 (conch resembles full moon); 
13.7 (invoked in Vai pavapanjara) ; 



APPENDIX 7 INDEX OF THE NAMES IN GP. 



253 



Candraka 

Candraketu 

CandrabhSga 

Candras"ala 

Candra 

GandrSsVa 

Gampa 

Campakavana 

CarakS 

Carma 



15.28 (Visnu addressed as lord of ); 16.16 
(saluted as lord of starts in Visnupuja); 
19.11; 42.6 (is OnkSra); 43.6 (at the time of 
the eclipes of pavitrarohana rite for 
Visnu is essential); 51.28 (merits of dana at 
the time of eclipse of); 56,3 (one of the 7 
at the time of lord of PlaksadvTpa); 58.23 
(the chariot of son of Candra); 59.25 
(Trtiya good on account of son of); 59.27 
(navaml good on the day of); 59.36 (in 
Havana causes amrtayoga);61.1 (good from 
7th phase); 61.2 (12 avasthas of); 61.12 
(is good in Lagna and 2nd house); 61.13 
(6ukra and Guru good in 5 with Candra 
and Ketu); 61.14 (good in 7); 61.15 (good 
in 11); 66.17; 67.3; 83.48 (a rare event 
to come off, is the occasion to do sraddha 
at GayS at the time of eclipse of); 89.53; 
131.7 (offering of arghya to); 131.8 
(addressed as coming out of milk ocean, 
and from the eye of Atri, and reference 
to as with Sas'ai'ika and RohinT). 
139-140 (decryption of the race of ). 
k. m. I. 138.11 (s. r.) (son of Hemacandra). 
k. m. I. 138.37 (s. r.) (son of Laksmana). 
r. I. 55.8 (flowing in the central region); 66.7, 
81.11. 

I. 47.39 (built in temples). 
r. I. 56.7 (one of the 7 which wash sin). 

k. m. I. 138.21 (s. r.) (son of DrdhasVa). 
k. m. I. 139.71 (1- r.) (son of Prthulaksata). 
f. 



d. 



I. 83.42 (at Gaya where 

situated). 

I. 46.21 (placed outside its vastupuja). 



skin 1.214.9 (Cgndrayana as atonement fora 
twice born taking food from one who makes 
his living by). 



Cnrnuiifli 



Csr 



Citraketu 



d. 



d. 



254 

Gala 

Gaksusah 

Caiiura 

Cataka 
Criturmasya vr. 



GARUI?A PURSJsTA A STUDY 



of Dhrti and Dharma 



I. 5.28 (born 
Daksayana). 

I. 87.58 (one of the 5 clans of gods at the 
time of JBhautya Manu). 

I. 15.80 (Visnu as Krsna as destroyer of); 
144,6; 194.18 (the killing of, a sportive 
Balabhava is requested to protect). 

(bird) I. 217.31 (stealthy remover of water shall 
become); II. 34.18 (,,). 

I. 121.1 (to be observed in Ekadabi or 
PaurrjamSsya in the month of AsSdha). 

I. 121.9 (special merits of the performance); 
214,7 (observance for dwelling in the house 
of low born); 214.9 (prescribed for eating 
in the house of certain people); 214,12 (for 
having taken food left over); 214. 19 (to be 
performed thrice for residing in other 
houses etc.); 214.48 (Brahmin gets cleared 
of the sin accruing from going to a prohibit- 
ed place or taking flesh etc. by doing). 

I. 24.6 (worshipped in Tripuradipujs); 
38.5 (Durg5 addressed as); 59.12; 134.3 
(mantra uttered in Mahafeau&ka mantra); 
180.4 (rakta, is invoked); 198.5 (worshipped 
in VSvukona in TVJ.-.n,,ii,-.,-,i^\ . i ,-..- 



ayukona in TripurSpuj a) ; 
(worshipped in TripurapQja) 
. m. I. 139.62 (1. r.) (son of Pratibkhu). 
.m. I 139.61 (l. r .) (one of the 3 



198.9 



w - r 139.60 (l. r .) (one of the 8 principal 

wives of Krsna). 

k-- I- 13941 (l r .) (inthe lineof Anamitra) 
1 Place I. 81.7; 142.12 

^g). 
">t. J43.I 

the hill of). 

3 was ra -ised to the aia .^ 
^ by a special knowledge). 



d. 



APPENDIX? INDEX OF THE NAMES IN GP. 



255 



Gitragupta d. 



II. 6.47 (hears from ^ravanas (reporters) 
what all do); 8.2 (prescribes course of 
action to be followed after hearing the 
reports of sravanas); 23.24-26(extent of 
his house); 23.27-29 (maintains an account 
of the acts of men both good and bad). 

Gitraguptapura a place II. 9.2 (the extent of) (one who has made 
great danas goes there unafflicted). 

Gitranagara a place II. 6.20 (the preta enters after taking 
the Pinda offered before the expiry of 
6 months after death). 
m. I. 139.25 (son of UfoAku); 141.1 (son of 

Usna). 
d. 1.58.15 (one of those who are masters 

of Margas"ira) ; 

m. 87.51 (one of the sons of Raucya Manu). 
(a star) I. 59.4 (its deity is TVasta); 59.19 (one 
of the stars which are psrsvamukhas) ; 
59.42 (Visayoga caused by moon in}; 
59.44 (auspicious for Jatakarma etc.); 60.11 
(auspicious for decorations); 61.11 ("). 

k. m. I. 138.37 (s. r.) (son of Laksjnana). 
k. m. I. 140.35 (1. r.) (son of antanu and Satya- 
vati) (killed by the Gandharva Citrangada). 
(a Gandharva) I. 140.35. 

Cina a country I. 79. 1 (mythological reference to spread- 

ing of the demon Bala's medas in). 

Ctldamaiji science I. 199.1 (for knowing the auguries), 

of divi- 
nation 

Geta m. I. 87,14 (one of the sons ofTamasa Manu). 

Caitra m. I. 87.14 (one of the sons of TSmasa Manu). 

Gaitraka m. I. 87.5 (one of the sons of Sv&roci?a 

Manu). 

Gaidya k. m. I. 139.30 (1. r.) (son of Rci). 

Gyavana k. m. I. 138.14 (s. r.) (married SukanyS daughter 

of JsarySti). 
k. m. I. 140.22 (1. r.) (son of MitrSyu). 



Gitraratha 



Gitrasena 



Gitra 



Cltraiigada 



256 

Chala 
Chuchundari 

Jagajjanilaya- 
dikrt (cause of 
creation and 
dissolution of 
earth) 

Jagat 

Jagaddhama 
Jagannatha 



Jaftgama 
Jangha 



Ja^Smandala- 
mandita 
Ja\ayu (the 
vulture king) 
Jatugrha 



Janaka 



Janamejaya 



Janardtma 



GARUI5A PURAlvIA A STUDY 

k, m. 140.26 (1. r.) (son of Suhotra). 
k. m. I. 138.41 (s. r.) (son of Dala). 

I. 217.29 (one who steals gandha 

become). 
d. I. 4.3 (attribute of Visnuj. 



shall 



Uni- I. 178.19 (ways to control); 194.29 (Visiju 

verse addressed as the seed of ). 

d. I. 131.14 (attribute of Krsna). 

d. I. 13.4 (saluted in Vaisnavapafijara); 

14.3 (is resident in the dehldeha and with- 
out a deha for himself); 31.1 (addressed 
by Rudra for exposition of puja); 34.2 
(Visnu addressed as). 
m. II. 6.11 (king at Sauripura). 

(stem) I. 47.3; 47.11 (is half the breadth of bitti); 

47.12 (b'ikhara is twice); 47.16 (length 

of). 
d. I. 2.13 (attribute of Visnu). 



m. 

lac 
man- 
sion 
k. m. 



I. 143.21 (defeated by Ravana); 143.23 

(met by Rama). 

I. 145.11 (episode in Bhsrata). 



I. 138.58 (s. r.) (his 2 different races who 

are said to be followers of Yoga); 143.6 

(his sacrifice). 
I. 138.13 (s. r.) (son of Somadatta). 

139.67 (1. r.) (son of Purafijaya). 

140.1 (l.r.) (sonofPuru). 

140.30 (l.r.) (one of the sons of SomSpi). 

140.40 (l.r.) (son of Parlksit). 

I. 4.1 (addressed by Rudra); 6.2 (Dhruva 
attained exalted position by propitiating); 

13.9 (requested to ascend the sky seated 



APPENDIX 7 INDEX OF *HE NAMES IN GP. 257 

on Vainateya and to protect); 15.1 
(requested by Rudra to expound the 
(Japa) means of salvation); 39.1 (addres- 
sed by Rudra fcr expounding Suryarcana) ; 
45.12 (is invoked and saluted with his 
conch, disc and lotus); 52.20 (to be 
worshipped well on an Ek&dail fasting, 
and food to be taken on Dvadall); 82.7 
(at Gay a); 83.4 (resides at Gaya as manes) ; 
83.36 (at Gaya pinda to be offered at the 
hands of); 194.3 (saluted); 194,4 (request- 
ed to protect); 196.12 (requested to pro- 
tect); 205 136 (to be worshipped with 
Tantrikamantra)-, 221.8 (is pleased more by 
devotion than by anything else); 222.9 
(with mind bent on Him, everyone should 
do one's own acts); 222.29 (His residence 
in the heart brings labha,jaya); II. 4 38 (is 
the protector of those who are plunged in 
the ocean of mundane existence, and 
affected by grief, agony etc., and bereft of 
dharma etc.) 
Jantu k. m. I. 140.23 (1. r.) (son of Somaka). 

(creatures) II. 2.2 (their classification); 22.1-74 (the 
origin and complete physiology of). 

Japa (muttering) I. 218.37 (the glory of Lord, the merits of ); 

227.18 (one of the prasadhakas of yoga). 

Jamadagni s. I. 58.17 (one of the 7 who dwell in Bhaska- 

(Jaina ) ramandala in Maghamasa); 87.27 (at the 

time of Vaivasvata Manu) ; 139.6 (son of 
Rclka); 142.8 (father of ParaiJurama). 

Jarabu tree I. 201.19 (the colour of a ripe fruit); 

205.49 (one of the trees, the stick of which 

is to be used for dantadhavana), 
Jambuka (bear) II. 34.22 (one who has not paid a Dvija 

upon request shall be born as). 
JambudvTpa I. 54.4 (one of the 7 dvlpas); 54.6 (Meru 

situated on); 54.10 (the nine sons ' 

Agnidhra, ruler of). 



238 
JambGsara 

Jaya 



Jayatsena 
Jayadratha 



Jayadhvaja 

Jayanta 

Jayantl 



Jayasena 
Jaya 



Jayl 
Jwfeandha 

Jalada 



Jahnu 



GARUI?A i>URSl<IA A 

a 1.81.12. 

place 

d. I. 46.8 (to be propitiated in VastupQjS.); 

87.3 (one of the 4 Somapayins at the time 

of Svayambhuva Manu). 
k- m. 138.56 (s. r.) (son of Susruta). 

199.7 (indicated by Cudamani); 199.9 

(indication by cudamani and getting). 

199.11 (); 199.13 (); 199.28 (); 199.29 

200.7 (the wine must flow in the right if 

one wishes for). 

I. 139.16 (son of Adina). 

I. 87.39 (one of the sons of Dharmaputra, 

the 10th Manu). 

139.73 (1. r.) (son of Brhanmana). 

140.10 (son of Brhatkarma). 
I. 13923 (1. r.) (one of the 5 sons of 
Arjuna). 

I. 46,4 (to be invoked in V&stupfijs) ; 
46.12 (one of the three to be propitiated). 
I- 17.9 (to be propitiated in SQryarcana); 
134.4 (to be propitiated in Mahanavaml- 
vrata). 

I. 140.31 (1. r .) (son of Sarvabhauma). 
r - 6. 23 (one of the daughters of Daksa, 
given in marriage to Krb r ava); 17.9 (propi- 
tiated in Suryarcana); 197.14 (assigned to 
parvasandhi); 206.37 (one of the rsipatnts 
to whom tarpana is to be offered). 
I- 6.64 (one of the 49 Marut devatas). 
I- 140.29 (1. r .) (Son of Brhadratha) ; 141.9 
(one of the BSrhadrathas). 
1-56.14 (one of the sons of the ruler of 
Sskadvlpa). 

f- 140.3 (I. r .) (one of the 6 sons of Raudr- 
asva) . 

^ 3 f : 3 (l-r.)(sonofSuhotra); 

(I- r.) (one of the sons of Kuru). 
U- r.) (son of Sudhanva). 



m. 
m. 

k. m. 
m. 
k. m. 

d. 
d. 



k, m. 

w. 



d. 
m. 

m. 






APPENDIX 1 INDEX OF THE N AMISS IN GP. 



259 



Jstakarma 
(rites after 
child birth) 
Jatavedas 

Jati 
Jati 

JSnakl 



Janujangha 
Jsmadagnih 

Jambavat 
Jambavati 

Jalandhara 
Jisnu 

Jimuta 
Jlva 



Jivana 
JrmbhinS 



I. 214.19 (and other sarhskaras mode of 
their performance uttered by Vasigtha). 

(fire) I. 48.57;50.30 (a Brahmin has to offer to); 
145.17 'appeased by Arjuna). 

(caste) II. 2.6 (7 nos. of antyajati); 2.7 (13 divi- 
sions). 

a tree I. 205.48 (one of the trees the stick of 
which is used in dantadhSvana). 

w. 1.142.11 (wife of Rama); 143.6 (marriage 
with Rama); 143.21 (abduction by RSva- 
na); 14327 (monkeys searching for); 143.28 
(their resolve to die in not having found) ; 
143.30 (kept under guard in AiSokavana 
chided by the demonesses of Ravana). 

m. I 87.13 (son of Tamasa Manu) . 
(Paras"u- II. 8.39 (a comparison with his loss of 

rama) valour at the sight of Rama). 



(one of the chieftain in Rgma's 
(one of the wives of Kr?aa); 



m. I. 143.41 

army). 
w. I. 28. 1 1 

139.60C'). 

d. I 198.5 (to be propitiated in Vayukona). 
d, 1.2.14 (attribute of Visnuj; 15.78 ("); 

87.56 (one of the sons of Bhautya Manu). 
mt. I. 56.5 (in the almaladvlpa at the time 

of Vapusman); 69.1 (muktaphalas obtain- 

ed from). 
soul I, 59.30 (attribute of Prajapati, purifies 

astami); 141.14 (dissolves in the unmani- 

fest Brahma). 
Jupiter 59.35 (one of the causes of AutpStikayoga 

which gives mrtyu, roga etc. if the 3 stars 

Rohic-i etc. are occupied by); 61.12 (auspi- 

cious in 3); 61.13 (auspicious in 5). 
life I. 177.68 (to live for 200 years, upSya for); 

205.84 (its means for a Brahmin); 205.96- 

97; (the 10 means of). 
d. w. I. 198.10 (propitiated in TripurSpuja in the 

order of JvSlSmukhl). 



260 
Jaimini 

Jfia (Jupiter) 
JnSna 

Jnanamrta 
Jyfimagha 



Jyotirdhania 
Jyotiman 



Jvalainukh! 
Takra 



Tak^aka (a serpent) 



Tatpuruga 
Tattvadadl 
Tapa 
Tapasvl 

Tapodhrti 

Tapomurti 
Taporati 



GARUpA PURSJvIA A STUDY 

s. I. 215.12 (disciple of VySsa, to whom 
Samaveda was taught). 
I. 61.12 (good in 3); 61.14 (excellent 
in 8). 
I. 197.33 (worshipped in Gar udlvidya) ; 

228.11 (releases one from cycle of birth); 

229.12 (yajfia). 

stotra I. 224.5 (narrated by Mahevara to 

Narad a). 
d. I. 139.28 (J. r.) (one of the 5 sons of 

Rukmakavaca) . 

star 1.59.6 (its deity is akra); 59.14 (auspi- 
cious for Journey); 59.19 (one of the stars 
which are PSr^vamukhas) (certain acts 
sanctioned to be done in). 

m. I. 87.14 (one of the sons of TSmasa Manu), 
m. I. 54.1 (one of the 10 sons of Priyavrata); 
56.8 (6 sons of, the ruler of Kus"advlpa); 
87.36 (sage at the time of Daksa S5vari?i 
Manu). 
d. I. 198.7; 198.10. 

I. 214.30 (and other things which can be 
taken even from a Sudra). 
1.6.54 (born of Kadru); 589 (resides in 
Bhanuratha in Jyegtha); 129,23 (to be 
bathed in ghee etc. in rava$a, A^vina, 
Bhadra, Karttika pancaml); 129.26 (to be 
worshipped in Bhadra-sukla paficarM) ; 
137.17 (to be propitiated in navaml); 
197.13 (Taksa) in GarudSvidyS) . 
d. I 7.6 (attribute of Visnu). 
s. I. 87.53 (at the time of Raucya Manu). 
m. I. 87.51 (son of Raucya Manu). 
s I. 87.21 (at the time of Raivata Manu). 
s. 87.47 (at the time of Daksaputra Manu). 
s. I. 87.48 (at the time of Dakaputra 

Manu). 

s. I. 87.48 (at the time of Daks.apu.tra Manu). 
s. I. 87.48 (at the time of Dakaputra Manu). 



APPENDIX 7 INDEX OF THE NAMES IN GP. 



261 



Tarn a 

TaraSvl 
Tarpana 



m. 

m. 

m. 

oblation 



w. 
Tapl r. 

Tamra 

TamraparnI r. 
T&mrS w. 

Taraka m. 



Tar5 
T 5rks. a 

Tarksya 

Talajangha 

Tigma 

Titiksu 

TilottamS 



w. 

d. 

k. m. 



k. m. 
k. m. 
k. m. 



Ti?ya (star) 

TungabhadrS d. 
Tumburu r. 



I. 138.8 (son of Narisyanta) . 

139.27 (son of Prthu^ravas). 

I. 87.56 (one of the sons of Bhautya Manu). 

1. 205.132 (done inj '-brief ); 205.140 (offered, 

is pitryajna); 207.1 (its performance pleases 

devas and manes). 

I. 143.5 (the yaksin! killed by Rama). 

I. 55.7 (flowing in the central region); 

81.26 (one of the tlrthas). 

I. 61.23 (one of the 8 types of Mukta- 

phalas) 

I. 55.8 (flowing in the central region). 

1.6,50 (the 6 daughters of); 6.52 (the 

line of). 

I. 6.44 (one of the sons of Danu); 87.50 

(enemy of Indra (IltadhSma) at the time 

of 12th Manu, Daksaputra Manu) ; (killed 

by Hari hy assuming the form of a 

Napurhsaka). 

I. 139.1 (wife of Brhaspati). 

I. 58.15 (one of deities controlling 
Margashrsa). 

138.37 (s. r.) (son of Bharata); See Garuda. 

II. 2.1 (as an interlocutor); 4.41 ("); 
5.2 ("). 

I. 139.24 (1. r.) (son of Jayadhvaja). 

I. 141.3 (son of King Hari). 

I. 139.68 (1. r.) (another son of Mah5- 

mana). 

I. 58.17 (one of those 7 who live in 

Bhaskaramandala in MSghamasa) 

I. 59.3 (whose deity is Guru, Jupiter). 

I. 81.8 

I. 58. 7 (resides in Gaitra mSsa in BhSsk- 



a country 70.16 (merit of Sphatika obtained in); 

, , nn HO 

70.21 (PadmarSga obtained in); iv.t* 
(the quality of one obtained from). 
139-44 (son ef Vioma). 



262 GARU1DA PUKAJvIA A STUDY 

Turaska I. 171 .4 (trees in Manikyagiri; mythological 

reference to Vasuki dropping Balas 
biles at). 
Turvasu m. I. 139.18 (son of Yayati); 139.63 (referred 

to as a progenitor of a race). 
Tula I. 202.75 (a measure of weight equal to 

100 palas). 

Tusara I. 55.16 (country in the north west). 

Tus.ti w. I. 5.23 (one of the 13 daughters of Daksa); 

5.28 (mother of Santosa); (married by 
Dharma Daksayana); 206.36 (water to be 
offered to). 

Tutfda d. I. 89.45 (one of the 7 other classes of manes), 

Trnabindu k. m. I. 138.10 (1. r.) (son of Budha). 

TrsnS (desire) II. 2.15 (is never satisfied and makes one 

want more and more); 2. 16 (one controlled 
by it shall go to Naraka and the opposite 
goes to Svarga). 

Tejas I. 197.38 (worshipped). 

Tejasvi m, I. 87.30 (was the Indra and Hirasyaksa 

was his enemy); (enemy killed by Visiju 
in Varaha form). 

m. 87.56 (one of the sons of Bhautya Manu). 
Taittiri bird II. 34.25 (one who takes away others 

property shall be born as). 
Toya water I. 214.1 v always pure); 214.6 (is impure at 

times). 

TraySrtnja k. m. I. 138.26 (s. r ) (son of Tridhanva). 

TraySruni k. m. I. 140.8 (1. r.) (son of Uruksaya). 

Trasadasyu k. m. 1.138.24 (s. r.) (son of Purukutsa and 

Narmada). 

Trikona d. I. 47.28 (effect of building temple in), 

(triangular form) 

Trijoti d. I. 6.58 (one of the 49 Marut devatas). 

Tridhanva k. m. I. 138.25 (s. r.) (son of Vasumanafr) . 

Tripura I. 228.4 (the three states of waking, 

dreaming, and deep sleep). 

Tripura d. I. 198,1-10 (parikrama of); 198.7 (shall 

destroy disease). 



TripurSntaka 

(kars) 

Tripuskara 

Triyugraaka 

TrilokeSa 

Trllocana 

Trivikrama 
(Trai) 



Trivis^apa 

TrisSanku 

Triiiras 

Trisukra 

Trisandhya 

TretSyuga 



APPENDIX 7 INDEX OP THE NAMES IN GP. 
d. 



263 



Tryambaka d. 



TvaritS. 



I. 24.3 (attribute of iva, an interlocutor) ; 
223.25 (propitiated Nrsimhamurti). 
place II. 28.19 (merits of dying at). 

I. 48.79 

d. I. 131.13 (attribute of Vi$nu), 
d. I. I. 205.66 (name of a fire equated with); 
224.4 (attribute of iva, interlocutor). 
I. 12.14 (attribute of Visnu); 45.5 (attribute 
of Visnu) ; 45.25 (requested to protect); 
45.27 (attribute of Visnu); 131.13 (,,); 
194.14 (requested to wash off all sins); 
196.7 (requested to protect in the sky). 
1.47.19 (one of the 5 classes of temples); 
47.20 (atasra) (with 8 corners). 

I. 138.26 (father of HariScandra) (formerly 
known as Satyarata). 

m. I. 143.16 (comes to Dandaka, under the 
instruction of Jsttrpanakha); 15.93 (Visnu 
as the destroyer of). 

d. I. 6.59 (one of the 49 Marut devatas). 
d. I. 15,116 (attribute of Visnu). 

I. 215.8 (dharma has Satya, Dana and 
Daya as the three feet in) ; (in which people 
are bent doing sacrifices and world is 
born of Ksatriyas); 215.9 (the red Hari 
to be worshipped in) (people live for 1000 
years in); 215.10 (under what conditions 
people live for 400 years in); 215.25 
(nature of men in); 215.36 (bond is broken 
by 'japa* in); 

I. 6.35 (one of the 1 1 Rudras who had sway 
over Tribhuvana). 

d. 129.21 (attribute of VinSyaka), 

d. w. I. 198.10 (attribute of TripurS). 
d. I. 6.35 (one of the 11 Rudras); 
d. 17.8 (one of the Suns); 
m. 54,16 (son of Bhavana); 

58.17 (one of those who reside in Bhaskara* 
mandala in Magh m&sa), 



264 



GARU13A PURSjvIA A STUDY 



Darhb'a (ka) (fly) 

Dakja (one of d. 
the progenitors) 



m. 

d. 

Dakina w. 

DaksiijSgni 
Danda m. 

Dandaka k. m. 

Dandakjiranya f. 
Daijdap5iji m. 

Datta, d, 

Dattatreya 



Dattoli 

Dadhi 

Danu 



m 
curd 



59.4 (deity of Citra). 

1.217.26 (one who takes madhu shall be 
born as). 

I. 2.5; 2.6; 2.7; 5.5 138.1 (was bom of 
the right little finger of Brahma,}; 5.6 
(whose daughters born of his wife were 
given to Brahmaputras) ; 5.21 (PrasOtiwas 
married to); 5.23 (creation of 24 daughters 
of ); 5.31 (AsVamedha yajna observed by); 
5.32 (insulting of Sati by); 5.34 (cursed by 
6iva); 6.13 (born of Marisa by the curse of 
6iva); (4 kinds of sons created mentally 
by); 6.16 (=creation again of his 1000 
sons after the loss of 1st 1000); 6.17 
(cursed Narada to take a birth) ; 6 18 
(inspite of the destruction of the sacrifice, 
MahesVara cursed by); 6.20 (his 60 
daughters born of Asiknl); 6.20-23 (how 
he gave them to different sages); 15.25 
(Visnu as master of); 81.29. 

93.5 (one of the 14 law givers); 
I. 15.67 (Visnu as soul of). 

I. 5.22 (daughter of Yajna). 

I. 205.66 (Trilocanais); 205.148. 

I. 5.29 (born of KriyS); 39.2 

I. 138.17 (s. r.) (son of Iksvaku). 

I. 142.12; 143.15. 

I. 141.4 (son of Ahinara). 

I. 1,19 (the 6th incarnation of Vispu, as 

son of Atri and AnasOya) ; 

1.5.12; 15.139 (as an attribute ofVi?iju); 

194.16 (requested to protect and get all 

comforts); 196.8 (requested to protect yoga); 

218.2 (yoga narrated to Alarka by). 

I. 5.13 (son of Pulastya and Prlti). 

I. 214.30 (can be taken even from a Sudra). 

I. 6.25 (one of the wives of Katyapa); 6.43 

(sons of). 



APPENDIX 7 INDEX OF THE NAMES IN GP. 



265 



E>antin 



Damaghosa 



Damana 

Daman (skhya) vr. 

navaml 

Damayantl 

Dambhoti 

Daridra 



w. 

s. 

poor 



Dantavakra k. m. 1.139.54 (1. r.) (son of 6rutadevl, valiant 
in battles). 

I. 199.3 (one of the 8 symbols used in 
knowing augury thro' CudSmani). 
k. m. I. 139.55 (1. r.) (married ^ruta^rava), 
(father of is"upalaka); 222.54 (whose son 
thinking of Govinda out of contempt attai- 
ned accomplishment). 

I. 135,5 (flowers of which used in puja of 
Narada etc.) 

I. 135.2 (to be observed in Suklanavarm 
in Caitra); 135.6 (") 
I. 138.33 (s. r.) (wife of Sudasa). 
I. 87.7 (at the time of Svarocisa Manu). 
I. 217.30 (one who stealthily removes 
flower shall become). 
I. 5.28 (born of Gala). 

blade-grass II. 19, 17 (is born of Visnu's Roma). 
k. m. I. 138.41 (s. r.) (son of PSriyatra), 

m. I. 87.45 (enemy of Iiidra and killed by 
Visnu assuming Sfflrupa). 

k. m. I. 138.34 (s. r.) (son of Mulaka). 

k. m. 138.36 (s. r.) (son of Aja) (father of Rama) ; 
142.10 (Hari's incarnation as his son); 
143 3 (had 4 valiant sons); 143.9 (his desire 
to instal Rama as the crown-prince); 143.11 
(ascends heaven at the separation of 
Rama). 

k. m. I. 139.31 (l.r.) (son of Nivrti), 

I. 129.23-28 (to be observed in ^ravaoa, 
AsVina, Bhadra, Karttika). 

k. m. I. 139.53 (1. r.) (one of the A^vins of whom 
Sahadeva was born to MadrJ). 

I. 5.24 (or Dharma, Prabhu, wives of). 
70.7 (padraaragas resembling seeds of). 



Darpa 
Darbha 
Dala 
Dalagrlva 

Daaratha 



Das&rha 

Dasl;oddharana- vr 

paftcam! 

Dasra 



Daks.ayana 

Dadima 
(promogrande) 



d. 



266 GARUpA PURA^A A STUDY 

Dana gift 1.51.9 (bhamidana as the higest); 205.78 

(of a transcript of ItihSsapurSna is reward- 
ed with merit twice that of Brahmadana); 
213.17 (the fruits of Bhu); 213.18 (Godana 
as the best) ; (it protects the family); 213.19 
(of food as superior) ; 213.20 (of KanyS and 
other dSnas are not in par with annad&na); 
213.24 (one of the traditional dharmas); 
IT. 3.12 (given by a person, -stands by him 
later on); 4.2-3 (effects of Godana); 4.5 
(to be made to a proper person); 4.9 (even 
if less if it is done with one's own band it 
grows like the offering made into fire); 4.10 
(the bed and virgin given as dSna should 
not be sold); 4.1 1 (to be done when one is 
alive and uncertain of existence); (easy exit 
from this world effected by the Patheya 
d5na); (i.e. d&na of previous for a journey); 
4,12 (if not done, one undergoes trouble); 
4.40 (of bed, at the time of vrjayajfia); 4.44 
undiminishing result of BhQridana made at 
the time of tlrthayStra, observance of 
vrata sraddha); 5.25 (the Yamadutas 
terrify one who has not made a dSna of his 
wealth); 8.16 (13 in no.); 8.27 (Varuna 
receives and leaves it at the hand of Visnu 
and Visnu at Bhaskara's and preta enjoys 
the benefit from Bhaskara); 20.1-24 (the 
supreme dana which takes one from 
Yamaloka to Svarga); 21.2 (benefit of 
bhtimi ); 21.4 (benefits of dlpa); 21,5 
(Dlpa to be done in Caturdas*! for those 
who died in the months of Abvina, KSrttika 
and MSgha); 21.6-8 (to be given always for 
welfare); 31 3 (of bhumi, as the best); 32.1 
(for certain cases of death injunction to do 
dlpa); 35.22 (capable of rnaking the giver 
cross Vaitarini); 35.23 (appropriate time 
for doing); 35.25 (description of ). 



APPENIX 7 INDEX OF THE NAMES IN GP. 267 

Damodara d. I. 45.7 (saluted); 45.21 (); 131.11 (saluted 

in Rohinyasi;am:C vrata); 225.1 (saluted in 
Mrtyustotra)* 

D5s"arathi m. I. 52.25 (just as his wife Slta could get 

(Rama) over trouble, one who bathes in Phalgutl- 

rtha shall get all the merits of good 
conduct); 194.17 (the Killer of demon 
requested to protect daily). 

Dsha cremation II. 5.50-57 (the actions that follow the 
dahakarma); 23.32 (has his abode in the 
direction of Vayu) ; (one surrouding 
Citragupta). 

DigambarSb. (a sect II. 34.13 (and other men of bad conduct 
of Jainas) go to Naraka). 

Digdas'amT vr. I. 135.3 (to be observed in dadaml for a 

year) (its benefits) ; 135.6 (vrata). 

Diti w. I. 6.25 (one of the wives of Ka^yapa); 

6.39 (sons and daughter of). 
d. 46.7 (one of the 32 devas). 

Ditija I. 72,1 (the country called Indranlla, how 

it was formed at); 73.2 (Vaidttrya, its origin 
by the sound of). 

DilTpa k. m. I. 138.30 (s. r.) (son of Arh^uman). 

k. m. 140.33 (1. r.) (son of BhSmasena). 

Diva heaven I. 217.5 (the doer of good goes to). 

Divaftjaya m. I. 6.3 (son of Udaradhl). 

Divaspati d. I. 87.54 (Indra at the time of Raucya, the 

13thManu). 

Divakara (sun) d. I. 36.8 (propitiated); 45.32 (has padma- 
hasta); 50.29 (is bowed to in the morning 
and midday); 70.1 (mythological reference 
to his picking up the ratnablja (blood) 
from the Asura and was obstructed on his 
way by mighty Rsvana); 142.26 (the story 
about the greatness of a PativratS on whose 
curse the sun did not rise) ; 206.32 (to be 
propitiated standing); 216.2 (7 suns rise 



268 



GARUpA PURAtfA - A STUDY" 



Diviratha 
DivodSsa 

Divya 



Dlptiketu 

Diptiman 

Dlrghatama 

Dlrghabahu 

Duhkha 

Duhissana 
Dundubhi 



Durgama 
I>urg5 



up at the end of 1000 Gaturyuga cycles 
who drink all waters and dry up the 
3 worlds). 
k. m. I. 139.70 (1. r.) son of AnapSla). 

k. m, I. 139.10 (1. r.) (son of Bhlmaratha). 

k. m. 140.20(1 r.) (son of aradv3n and Ahalya, 

called Divodasa the 2nd). 
k. m. I. 139.36 (1. r.) (one of the 8 sons of 

Sattvata). 
k. m. I. 138.2 (s. r.) (son of Manu); 138.5 (son of 

Manu, whose son NabhSga became a 



m. 
s. 

k. m. 
k. m. 



k. m. 
k. m. 

a drum 



I. 87.35 (son ofDaksa SSvarniManu). 

I. 87.32 (at the time of Savarni Manu) 

I. 139.9 (1. r.) (son of Ka^ya). 

I, 138.35 (s. r.) (son of Khatvariga). 

I. 199.6 (indicated by augury); 199.8("); 

199.26 ("); 199.30 ("); 199.33 ("); 218.1 

(the root-cause of). 

I. 145.20 (brother of Duryodhana). 

I. 47.25 (a Kailasa type of temple); 

56.3 (at the time of Medhstithi, king of 

Plaksadvlpa) ; 

56.11 (one of the 7 sons of DyutimSn at 

Krauncadvlpa); 

139.45 (son of Turnburu); 

136.56 (name of Vasudeva ?); 

II. 12.70 reference to the sound made by 
him when the Brahmins were talking to 
Pretas). 

I. 139.65 (sonofDhrta). 
I. 10.3 (to be worshipped); 
24.2 (propitiated in Tripuraptija) ; 
24.8 ( ta y. 28.3 (assigned to one of the doors 
alapaja); 38J (worshipped in 
as best among mothers) (one who 
all Kama and Artha); 38.2 (and other 
goddesses to be worshipped in order); 



APPENDIX 7 INDEX OF THE NAMES IN GP. 269 

46.11; 126.6 (worshipped); 129.9 (one of the 
goddesses to be worshipped starting from 
the MSrgatrtlya); 133.4 (to be propitiated 
on Navaml); 133.8 (a temple golden or 
silver; is constructed for); 133.12 (goddesses 
surrounding); 13313-14 (colours of); 
133.14 (propitiated as seated on Mahisa); 
133.16 (offering 5 year old mahisa to Kali, 
a form of); 134.4 (saluted in MahSnavami- 
vrata); 137. 14 (if propitiated on Saptaml 
gets all desired things); 137.17 (the As^aml 
called) (the divine mothers to be worshipped 
on); 201 36 (when propitiated protects 
elephants). 
Durdama k. m. I. 139.21 (I. r.) (son of Bhadra^reni). 

Duryodhana k. m. I. 140.37 (1. r.) (born to Dhrtarastra and 
GSndhari); 145.10 (though timid harasses 
Pandavas); (wins the dice against 
Yudhisthira with the state of 12 years 
exile); 145 23 (requested _by Pandavas for 
their share of kingdom, and was not pre- 
pared to give); 145.33 (his fight with 
Bhima). 

Durlabha m. I. 87.56 (son of Bhautya Manu). 

Durvasas s. 5.12 (one of the sons of Atri and Anasuya); 

215.19 (as one who uttered A^carya an 
Upapurana); 22^.32 (his curse could 
not affect 6acTpati as he was a devotee of 
Visnu) . 

Dusyanta k. m. 1.140,5 (1. r.) (son of Ainila). 

Ddramitra d. I. 6.61 (one of 49 Marut devatas). 

Durva (a kind of I. 131.1 (to be propitiated in Bhadrapada, 

grass) Astarm). 

DurvSstaml- vr. I. 131.1,2 (worshipping DQrva, Gaurt, 

vrata Gane^a and 6iva in Bhadrapada). 

Dusana m. I. 15.91 (Visnu in the form of RSma as 

killer of); 142.13, 143,16 (his arrival at 
Dandaka, instructed by 



270 

Drtfha 
Drdhanemi 

Dfdhavrata 
Drdhasenaka 



Dfdhesu 
Deva 



Devaka 



Devakl 



Etevaksatra 
l>*vaganah 



of deities) 
Devadatta 

Devadyota 



GARU]?A PURXJjIA A STUDY 

m. 87.52 (son of Raucya Manu). 

k, m. I. 140.14 (1. r.) (son of Satyadhrti). 

m. I. 87.18 (son of Raivata Manu). 

m. I. 141.10 (son of mab'ruma). 

k. m. I. 138.20 (s. r.) (son of JDhundhumSra); 

138.21 (three sons of). 

1.87.43 (son of Rudraputra Manu the 

llth). 

I. 2-42 (Visnu as); 4.3 (Visnu) ; 83.69 
(nadl, the river at Gay3 is referred to as 
Devanadl) ; 

139.37 (1. r.) (one of the 8 sons of 

Bhajamana) ; 

139.47 (1. r.) (son of Vasudeva and 

Sahadeva) ; 

139.50 (1. r.) (son of ara, son of VidQ- 

ratha) . 

k. m. I. 138.14 (s, r.) (son of Ananta). 
k. m. 139.46 (1. r.) (son of Ahuka); 139.46 

(Vasudeva's marriage with DevakT, a 

daughter of). 
w. I. 15.141 (Visnu (Krsjja) as son of); 

15.142 (Visnu as one who makes happy); 

139,46 (daughter of Devaka); 139.56 

(wife of Vasudeva); 139.57 (6 sons of); 

144.1 (VSsudeva was born to Vasudeva 

and); 145.15 (whose son, Arjuna got as a 

friend). 

k. in. I. 139.34 (1. r.) (son of Devamata). 
d. I. 87.29 (nine) ; 87.33 (twenty at the time 

of SSvarni Manu). 
(worship I. 205.73 (to be done in the 

itself) 

I- 23.45 (one of the Nadls) ; 

II. 22.40 (one of the 10 Vayus). 

k ' ra ' J * l39 -*2 (1. r.) (son of Upamadgu). 
I- 139.33 (1. r .) (son of Karambhl). 
I- 138.47 (s. r .) (son of Krtiratha) . 



d. 



k. m. 



k. m. 



k. m. 



morning 



m. 



Devalaka 
Devaloka 
Devavarddhaki d. 



APPENDIX 7INDEX OF THE NAMES IN GP. 271 

Devamldhusa k. m. I. 139.50 (1. r.) (son of 6ura, son of 

Viduratha). 

Devayajna (worship I. 205.140 (offering Homa is). 
of devas) 
Devayanl k. m. I. 139.18 (1. r.) (wife of Nahusa, gave 

to 2 son). 

Devarata k. m. I. 138.45 (s. r.) (son of Suketu). 

k. m. 139.7 (I. r.) (son of Vi^ vamitra) , 
Devala s. I, 6.34 (son of Pratyasa). 

d. 46.26 (VSstu according to), 
(a caste) II. 34.23 (shall become Candala). 

I. 89.27 (manes at ; saluted in Pitrstotra). 
I. 6.34 (ViSvakarma, son of PrabhSsa is 
famous as). 
Devavan m. I. 87.46 (son of Daksaputra Manu); 

k. m. 139.42 (1 . r.) (one of the 3 sons of AkrQra). 
Deva^rl s. I. 87.18 (at the time of Raivata Manu). 

Devas-restha m. I, 87.46 (son of Daksaputra Manu). 
Devahuti w. I. 5.21 (daughter ofDaksa; was given in 

marriage to Kardama). 
Devanika m, I. 87.42 (one of the sons of Rudraputra, 

the llth Manu); 

m. 138.40 (son of Ksemadhanva). 
Devantaka m. I. 143.43 (the Raksasa whom Hanaman 

killed), 
k. m. I. 140.33 (1- r.) (son of Pratlpa). 

I. 126.1-10 (yields enjoyment and releases 
from bondage). 
1.56.12 (when Dyutimsn ruled Krauftca- 

l!?S9.36 (1- r.) (one of the 8 sons ofSatt- 
vata) . 

1.87.19 (one of the 4 Devatagana* at the 
time of Raivata Manu). 

d I 5 32 (SatI spoken as"; was not invited by 

' Daksa for the sacrifice); J98.6 (by propUj- 
ation etc. her grace is always available), 



Devapi 

Devarcana (worship 

of gods) 
Devavrt 



mt. 



Dev&vrdha 
Devasvamedhas d 
Devi 



k. m. 



272 



Devendra 
Daitya 

DySvSprthivl 
(heaven and earth) 
Dyuti 



GARU9A PURStfA A STUDY 

199.1 (the Cudamani is drawn contem- 
plating on" etc.). 
d. 222.25. See also Indra. 
demon I. 131.11 (Nrsirhha as killer of ). 

I. 89.54- (said to be led by Pitrs.). 



DyutimSn 



Drupada 
Drupada 



Druhipa 
Druhya 

Drona 



d. 

s. 



Dropa (ka) 
Draupadl 

Dvaparayuga 



I. 6.64 (one of the 49 Marut devatas); 

87.36 (at the time of Daksa Savaroi 

Manu); 

s. 87.48 (at the time of Daksaputra Manu). 
m. I. 54.1 (one of the 10 sons of Priyavrata). 
rat. 56.9 (one of the 7 mountains, at the time of 

JyotismSn in Ku^advlpa). 

56.1 1 (at Krauncadvipa, 7 sons of). 
k. m. I. 140.24 (1. r.) (son of Prsata). 
mantra I. 50.45 (to be recited); 214.14 (if recited 

100 tiroes, destroys pollution caused by 

touch of Candala, and remnent of food 

taken or vomitted). 
m. I. 6.31 (son of Dhava). 

k. m. I. 139.18 (1. r.) (one of the 3 sons of 
Yayati and armistha); 139.64 (race of). 

mt. I. 56.6 

m. 140.21 (married Krpi) j 145.14 (with whose 
permission DhrtarSstra gave half the king- 
dom to sons of Pa^du^; 145.29 (bis battle 
with Dhrstadyumna); 145.30 (ascending 
heaven) 

I. 192.42 (as a measure); 202.75 (defined 
as equal to 4 Adhakas). 

w. 1.140.38 (1. r.) (sons of)- 145.13 (her 
Svayarhvara and her marriage with 
Pajidavas); 145.21 (Pandava's penance in 
forest with, and incognitio); 145.36 (her 
wail). 

I- 215.10 (Dharrna has 2 limbs in); (people 
Hveupto 104 years); people born ofDvija 
andKsatra); 215.11 division by VySsa, a form 



APPENDIX 7 INDEX os THE NAMES XN GP. 



273 



Dvara 



DvSrakS 



Dvija 



Dvijjyoti 
Dvipendra 
(elephant) 


d. 


I. 
I. 


Dvimldliaka 


m. 


I 


Dvimurdha 


m. 


I. 


Dviraj^aka 




I. 


Dvivida 


m. 


I, 


(monkey) 
Dvi^ukra 


m. 
d. 


1' 
I, 



of Visnu, of the Veda); 215.22 (the burden 
of the world removed by Hari) (Dharraa 
has only one branch), (Acyuta becomes 
black); 215.23 (at that time people become 
DuracSrins, and madyapins (the qualities 
vary according to the age & also nature 
of men); 215 26 (nature of men in); 215.37 
(bond is broken by Paricarya in). 
I. 47.2 (in a temple should be 12 in no), 
47.13 (description of construction of a 
temple based on measurement of ); 47.14 
(made equal to an eighth part of 4 times 
fore-arm) (or may be made twice that 
breadth); 47.15 (Pstha perforated as in 
the DvSra). 

place 1.44.14- (Hari in the form of-stones at); 
45.25 (^alagrama at); 66.6 (one of the 
sacred places); 81.5 the merits of the 
place); 145.15 (Arjuna's marriage with 
Subhadra at); II. 28.3 (DvSravatT, one 
of the 7 cities which yields mok^a}. 
twice- I. 89.36 (the manes of whom shine with 
born the cool lustre of moon leaves); 201.6 
(food served to) ; 205.91 (permitted to trade 
in adversity); 214.2 (polluted by Sudra 
gets purified by Paficagaya); 214.20-21 
(gets free from pollution by fasting night 
and taking PafScagavya). 
I. 6.58 (one of the 49 Marut-devtas). 
1.69.1 (Muktaphalas obtained from). 

I. 140.8 (one of the 3 sons of Suhotra). 

I. 6.43 (one of the sons ofDanu). 

I. 47.28 (effect of building a temple having 

16 sides). 

I. 143.42 (who destroyed Lanka); 

144.10 (a monkey defeated by Krs.na). 

I. 6.59 (one of 59 Marut devatSs). 



274 GAfe.UI?A PURS^A A 

Dvlpa k. m. 140.12 (1. r.) (son of Para) (Nrpa). 

Dvairatha m. I. 56.8 (one of the 7 Putras of JyotismSn 

in Kus"advlpa) . 

Dhana (wealth) 1.199.4 (indicated by Cttdamaiji) ; 199.5 

(") 199 7 (its destruction); 199.8 (getting 
of("); 199.9 ("); 199.10 (destruction of ); 
199.11 ("); 199.12 (getting of "); 199.17 
(destruction of"); 199.21 (getting of"); 
199.25 (indication by Cudarnani, of lossing); 
199.28 ("); 199 30 (indication by CfldSmani, 
of getting); 199.35 (getting of"); 205.86 
(3 kinds of) (which are again divided in 
7 ways); 87 (division of possession for 
classes of society); 88 (3 sources of wealth 
for Brahmins) ; 89 (3 sources of wealth for 
a Ksatriya); 90 (3 sorrces of wealth for a 
Vais"ya and udra); 98 (how earned by 
different Varnas); 99 (of Brahmins); 100 
(no Dosa if got unasked). 
I. 222.50 (are respectfully praised, to get 
wealth). 

I. 12.4 (saluted). 

k. m. I. 139.22 (1. r.) (son of Durdama) (4 sons 
of). 

I. 6.55; 58. 13 (one of those who dwell in 

Ravimandala in AsVayuji); 129.24; 
23.45 (one of the NSdis). 
m. 141.7 (son of Krtanjaya); 

II. 22.40 (one of the 10 VSyus). 

d. I. 17,1 (SurySrcana as narrated to); 137.16 
(worshipped in Pratipada); 137.18 
(propitiated in Da^aml). 

d. 89.47 (one of the 4 other class of Pitrs). 

Dhanapala I. 132.9 (belonging to Vlra, a Brahmin of 

(name of a bull) P&tallputra) ; 132.15 (the story of its loss 

and recovery). 



Dhanavanta 

Dhanadhipati 
Dhanaka 

Dhanafijaya 
(a lerpent) 



Dhanada 



APPENDIX 1 INDEX OF THte NAMES IN GP. 



275 



DhanifthS star I. 59.8 (its deity is VSsava); 59.15 (one of 

the stars auspicious for new wear); 59.22 
(one of the tJrdhvamukha stars); 59.34 
(the three on a Bhauma day causes a Yoga, 
which causes death, disease etc.); 59.42 
(Budha in ; causes Viayoga) ; 59.44 (good 
for Jatakarma etc.); 60.11 (one of the stars 
good for adorning); 6 1 . 1 (northern YatrS 
can be undertaken in the 7 stars commenc- 
ing with); 61.11 (good for adorning) 

Dhanurveda I. 215.21 (one of the 18 Vidyas). 

Dhanya d. I. 89.43 (one of the 9 clans of Pitrs). 

Dhanvantari k. m. I. 1.25 (the 12th incarnation of Visnu); 

131.9 (1. r.) (son of Dlrghatama, who took 
up medicine as profession); 142.4 (his 
springing up with nectar from milky 
ocean while being churned); 

142.5 (Ayurveda with 8 limbs narrated to 
Sus"rutaby); 145.41; 145.42; 146.174 (as 
an interlocutor); 175.1 (said to have 
described medical science to Su^ruta); 

196.10 (requested to protect from apathya); 
197.55 (as an interlocutor); 201 (). 

202.1 (medical science said to have been 

narrated by him to Sudruta). 

Dharana a measure I. 73.18 (one tenth of a Pala). 
Dharma (raja) d. I. 5.2 (creation of); 5.30 (sons of); 139.52 
(Yama) (as father of Yudhist,hira) ; 52.16 (saluted 

on Krsna Gaturda^l) ; 

197.33 (assigned & worshipped in 

GSrudividya). 

righteousnass 205.4 (Sanatana based on Smrtis'astra etc); 
205.9 (cause of an end for Mundane 
existence); (Sukha comes from) (thejfiana 
and then Moksa); 205.10 (Samanyadharma 
for Brahmana, Ksatriya etc.); 205.13 (of a 
Brahmacarin) ; 205.14-16 (of a Grhastha); 
205.17-18 (of a Vanavasin); 205.19-21 (of a 



2 76 GARUI?A PURXlsIA A STtJDY 

ParivrSt); 205.22 (samanyao of Varnl and 
Lingi); 205.23- 153 (of a Grhastha etc); 
II. 9.7-9 (appears dreadful for sinners and 
contrary for good). 
Dharma d. 89.43 (one of the 9 class of Pitrs). 

k. m. 139.20 (1. r.) (son of Haihaya). 

k. m. 139.64 (1. r.) (son of Gandhara). 

m. 141.10 (son of Suvrata). 

213.1 (sara); 213.4 (dana is the best); 
213.5 (protecting life as the important); 
213.9 (one who lives for Dharma and Artha 
crosses difficulties); 213.24 (Satya etc. are 
Sanatana ); 215.5 (in Krta-yuga); 2158 
(in Treta-yuga); 215.10 (in DvSparayuga); 
215.22 (has only one Pa da at the end of 
Dvapara); 222.10 (DhySna as the best ); 
II. 2.30 (Artha & Kama are born of); 2.31 
(is maintained by one's ardent faith and 
not by mass of wealth); 3.15 (to be done, 
so long as the body is healthy); (when one 
is not well, he cannot get it done for him); 
3.16 (after death the person who has not 
done so, roams with thirst day & night); 
4.42 (even if little is done it is rewarded); 
24.1-8 (description of dharma and adharma}', 
31.3 (Satya as the supreme ). 

Dharmada d. I. 89.47 (one of the 4 other clans of 

Pitrs). 

Dharmade^a (country) II. 2.9 (is that, where Kj^asnra deer is 
found); 2.10 (all good things are there). 

Dharmanetra k. m. I. 139.20 (1. r .) (son of Dharma). 

Dharraapa m . I. 87.52 (son of Raucya Manu). 

Dharmayttpaaplace I. 83.32 (a place at Gaya, where the 
performer of Sraddha discharges his debts 
to manes). 

Dharmarata m. I. 87 .51 (son of Raucya Manu). 



a P lace H. 6.44 (an account of ) 
rSjnpura '* 



APPENDIX 7 INDEX OF THE NAMES IN GP. 



277 



Dharma^astra 
DharmSranya 



I. 215.21 (one of the 18 Vidyas). 
1.83.11 (Dharma at ); 83.31 (merits of 
doing 6raddha at); 83. 39 (merits of giving 
Arghyaat); 84.15 (Pioda given at 11 ) 84.16 
(one gets the fruit of Vajapeya sacrifice at ). 
Dhava d. I, 6.29 (one of the 8 Vasus), 

m. 6.31 (Druhina son of ). 
Dhataki mt. I. 56.16 (one of the 2 described as born 

of Sabala, ruler of Pukara). 

Dhata d. I. 5.7 (one of the 2 sons of Bhrgu and 

Khyriti); 5.9 (married Ayati, daughter of 
Manu). 

d. 6.37 (one of the 12 suns born of Aditi and 
Katyapa); 17.8; 28.1 (assigned at the 
doorway in Gopalapuja); 30.6 (saluted in 
SridharSrcana); 31.14 (saluted in Vi?ovSr- 
cana); 32.17 (saluted in Paficatattvarcana) ; 
32.20 (worshipped); 34.16 (worshipped); 
58.7 (one of those who resides in Surya- 
mandala in Caitramasa); 58.13 (one of 
those who resides in Sun in Awayuji). 
d. 69.45 (one of the 7 other clans of Pitrs). 

DhatrT d. I. 134.4 (saluted with others in Maha- 

navamlvrata). 
Dhamavrata vr. I. 137.3 (to be observed in Karttika which 

conveys the observer to Suryaloka). 

Dharana I. 218.20 (defined); (one who does two 

times is considered as Yogin); 218.22 (10 
kinds of) ; 227.18 (one of the 6 limbs of 
Yoga); 227.25 (12 are enjoyined for those 
who meditate on Brahman for such a 
period as they would require for 10 Praga- 
yamas); 227.26 (is that till which time 
mind is not moved from its meditative 
position); 229.13 (the 6th in the 8 fold 
limbs of Yoga as per Glta). 

Dharmika (a follower 1.213.13 (is praised by all and not a 
ofdharma) DhanSdhya). 



278 
Dhars^aka 

Dhlmftn 

Dhundhuman 
Dhundhumara 

DhntapapS 
Dhumra 



GARUpA PURS^AA STUDY 



Dhftmravarpa 
Dhumraksa 

Dhilrara^va 

Dhrta 

Dhrtaratra 



Dhrtavrata 
Dhrti 



k. m. 
k. m. 

k. m. 
k. m. 

r. 



d. 

m. 



k. m. 
k. in, 



k. m. 



k. m. 
w. 



I. 138.15 (s. r.) (son of Dhrtha, though 
born a Ksatriya, became a Vaisya). 
1.139.2 (1. r.) (one of the 6 sons of PurQ- 
ravas). 

I. 138.9 (s. r.) (son of Kevala). 
I. 139.20 (s. r.) epithet of DrdhasVa, son 
of KuvalSsVaka). 

I. 56.10 (one of those in Ku^advlpa^ cap- 
able of removing all sins). 
I. 143.41 (one of the warriors who 
destroyed Lanka); 199.3 (one of the 
symbols used in knowing the augury thro' 
Cttdamani) ; 199.4 ("); 199.8 ( J> ) ; 199.12 
() ; 199.16 ("); 199.20; 199.24 ("); 
199.28 ("); 199.32 ("). 
I. 129.21 (attribute of Ganapatl). 
I. 143.41 (one of the warriors who destroy- 
ed Lanka); 143.43 (stayed with Rama and 
others to kill enemies). 
I. 138 12 (s. r.) (son of Gandraka). 
I. 139.65 (1. r.) (son of Dharma). 
I. 58.17 (one of the 7 who dwell in 
Bhaskaramandala in Maghamasa) ; 129.24 
(one of the serpents); 129.25 (to be 
worshipped every month and in Bhadra, 
SrSvana Suklapaficaml) ; 

140.36 (1. r.) (born to AmbikS, thro' 
VySsa); 140.37 (birth of 100 sons 
Duryodhana etc. from Gandhari and); 
145.7-8; 145.14 (with consent of Drona and 
Bhisma invites PSndavas & gives them half 
of the kingdom). 

L 139.74 (1. r.) (son of Dhrti). 

I. 5.23 (one of the 24 daughters of Dakja); 

5.28 (Niyama born of); 206.37 (one of the 

Rsipatnfs propitiated). 

56.8 (one of the 7 sons of JyotismSn at Ku;J- 

advlpa) . 

87.51 (sonofRaucya Manu). 



APPENDIX 7 INDEX OF THE NAMES IN GP. 



279 



k. m. 

k. m. 



DhrtimRn 



Dhrs^a 



m. 

k. m. 
k. m, 
rn. 

k. m. 
k. m. 
k. m. 
Dhrstadyumna k. m. 



Dhrstak&vya 
Dhrstaketu 



Dhrstiketu 

Dhenuka 

Dhenuka 



m, 
m. 

s. 



Dhenukarapya f. 
Dhaumya s. 

Dhyana (meditation) 



Dhruva k. m. 



d. 
k. m. 

d. 

Dhruvasandhi m. 
Dhvaja 
(Flag) 
10 



138.57 (s. r.) (son of Vltahavya). 

139.30 (I. r.) (son of Babhru). 

I. 87.52 (at the time of Raucya Manu); 

140.14 (1. r.) (son of Yavamtnara) (son of ). 

I. 87.56 (son of Bhautya Manu). 

138.2 (s. r ) (son of Manu). 

139.44 (1. r.) (son of Kukura). 

I. 87.14 (son of Manu). 

I. 138.46 (s. r.) (son of Sudhrti). 

139 13 (1. r.) (son of SukumSra). 

HO. 24 (1. r.) (son of Dhrstadyumna). 

1.140.24 (1. r.) (son of Drupada) ; 145.29 

(his battle with Drona). 

I. 87.35 (son of Daksa Savarni Manu). 

I. 144.9 (Asura killed by Krsna). 

I. 56.15 (one of the 7 at the time of 

SakadvIpesVara, Bhavya). 

83.27 (in GayS merits of doing Esraddha at). 

I. 145.21 (accompanies Pandavas from the 

forest when they leave for Virata). 

I. 222.10 (praised as the best Dharma); 

222.14 (spoken as the best to destroy the 

sinful deeds); 222.55 (most Pavitra) ; 227.18 

(one of 6 Angas of Yoga); 227'27 (definition 

of); 227.48 (it destroys all bad and gets 

exalted position); 229.13 (one of the 8 

Angas of Yoga as per Gits). 

I. 5.34 (Daksa cursed by Rudra, to be born 

in the line of); 6.1 (son of UttSnapada 

and Suniti); 6.2 (3nisti, son of); 6.30 

(Bhagavan Kala; son of). 

6.61 (one of the 49 Marutdevatas). 

56.2 (one of the 7 sons of Medhatithi, of 

Plaksadvlpa). 

6.29 (one of the Vasus). 

I. 138.43 (son of Pu?paka). 

I. 47.30 (etc. erected when building 

temple); 199.S (symbol used in knowing 



280 



GARUlpA PURXJilA A STUDY 



augury thro' Cudamani); 199.4 (); 199- 5 
GO; 199.6 (); 199.7 G,); 199.8 G,)J 199- 12 
GO; 199.16 GO; 199.20 GO; 199-24 GO; 
199.28 GO; 199.32 (). 

Dhvani d. I. 6.30 (one of those bora of). 

6.63 (one of 49 Marut devatas). 

Dhvaiiksa I. 199.3 (one of the symbols used in know- 

ing augury thro' Gudamaoi); 199.7 (,0> 
199.11 (,0; 199.15 GO 5 199.19 (); 199.23 

GO; 199.27 G,); I99.<u (,0; 199.35 GO. 

Nakula k. .n. I. 139.53 (1. r.) (son of Msdrl, wife of 

Pandu); (got by Abvin Nssatya); 
(mangoose) 214.1 (is always pure); 217.25 (one who 

takes away ghee shall be born as). 
Nakia m. I. 54.15 (son of Prthu). 

Naksatra (star) I. 69.16; 69.20 (msla). 

Naga (a place at I. 83.11 (the debts one owes of Pitrs are 

G.xya) cleared by the sight of Isvara at). 

Nanda d. I. 15.142 (attribute of Visnu) ; 131.9 

(offering Arghya to) ; 194.8 (ka) (requested 

to protect) ; 56.2 (one of the 7 sons of 

Medhatithi). 

Nandana I. 47.22 (a Vairaja class of temple). 

NandigrSma a place I. 143 14 (Bharatas stay at). 
Nar,dighos.a a ratha I. 145.16 (got by Arjuna from Agni). 
Nanditlrtha a place I. 81.20. 

I. 47.23 (a Vairaja class of temple). 



Nandivardhana 



NandTsvara 



Nabha 



k. m. 138.45 (s rO (son of Udavasu). 

d. I. 215.18 (ivadharma an UpapurSna 

narrated by), 
m. 1.6.48 (one of the sons of Vipracitti and 

Sirhhika). 

m. 87.6 (one of the sons of SvSrocisa Manu). 
m. 87.26 (one of the sons of Vaivasvats 

Manu). 
k. m. 138.39 (s. r.) (NabhSlj, son of Nala, 

(Pundarika, son of). 



APPENDIX 7 INDEX OF tHB NAMES IN GP. 



281 



Namuci 



Naya 



Naraka 



m. 
s. 

k. m. 
k. m. 

m. 



hell 



Naran5rsyana d. 



I. 6.49 (one of demons born in the family 
of Prahlada). 
I. 87.13 (son of Manu). 
87.22 (at the time of Csksusa Manu). 
138.9 (s r.) (son of Sudhrti). 
140.6(1 r.} (son ofManyu). 
I. 6.49 (one of the Daityas born in the 
family of Prahlada); 144.10 (defeated by 
Krsna). 

57.4-7 (in PuskaradvTpa, the namess of); 
82.8 (one who does Yajna, raddha and 
PindadSna does not go to); 83,52 (Pitrs 
are afraid of); 84.27 (by offering Pipda at 
Gaya, the people go to heaven from); 
84.38 (called by name Avici) (those who 
reach there shall be redeemed by offering 
ofPinda); 217.5 (by the sin one goes to); 
217.12-13 (one is born as various things, 
after release from) ; 217.31 (one who takes 
anothers house shall go to Raurava and 
other Narakas); 217.34-35 (the characte- 
ristics of one just liberated from); 218,35 
(for the practicer of As1,Sngayoga, no suffe- 
ring at); 221.4-5 (where after by torture by 
Yam a one is questioned as to why he 
has not worshipped the Lord); 222.32 
(worship of Vasudeva keeps the hel! away 
for one); 222.49 (one who treats all alike 
shall not go to) ; II. 4.6 (the Godana to 
an improper takes the giver to); (the 
receiver's family gets ruined for 21 gene- 
rations); 5.28 (Kumbhlpmka and other 
hells); 14.19 (not giving charity one is 
born a Daridra, does sin and goes to); 
15.40 (by bad acts of descendants one 
goes to). 

I. 1.17 (as the 4th AvatSra Visnu did 
penance); 4.3 (attribute of Visnu); 141.15 
(Visnu addressed as). 



282 

Narasimha the 
man.lion form 
(NSrasiriiha 
NrsJrhha) 



GARUPA PURXlsIA A 

d. I. 1.26 (12th AvatSra of Vsnu); 7.6 (saluted 
in SurySrcana); 



Narastrllakjaaa 
(physiognomy) 
NarSntaka 
Narijyanta 

Nala 



NannadS 



11.30 (the Mudra called); 12.4 (saluted in 
Pujanukrama); 15.115 (attribute of Visnu); 
45.11 (saluted); 45.17 (requested to 
protect) ; 66.20; 86.28 (one becomes victori- 
ous in battle by his devotion to); 131. 11 
(saluted in Rohinyastamf); H2.7 (in which 
form Visnu kills Hiraijyaka^ipu, protects 
the Vedadharma); 194.10 (requested to 
protect in the forest); 196.7; 196.15 (request- 
ed to protect in all directions always); 
223.1 (Stotraon); 2235 (Diva's meditation 
on the form of); 223.10 (on the desire 
of iva, appears in the form of); 223. 12-1 7 
(Stotra addressed by iva to); 223.22-24 
(stotra on). 

1.63.1-8 (narration of); 65.1-112 (as told 
by Samudra). 

m. I, 15.92 (Vi?vu as killer of). 

k. m. I. 138.2 (s. r.) (sonofManu). 

k. m, 138.8 (s. r.) (son of Marutta). 

k. m. I. 138.39 (s. r.) (son of Nisadha). 
(a monkey) 143.40 (builder of Setu). 



NalikSvana 



Nalinl 



Navakhysti 
Navavyftha 
Navtiraddha 



w. 



I 78.1 (mythological reference to the 

of the demon thrown by 'fire in the region 

of etc.). 

I. 71.4 (in MSnikyagiri where VSsuki 
dropped the biles of Bala). 
I. 56,15 (one of the 7 at the time of Bhavya, 
ruler of akadvipa); 140.17 (wife of 



12th day after 



I. 87.13 (son of Manu). 
See Vyaha 

II. 16.44 (performed on 
death). 



APPENDIX 7 INDEX OF THE NAMES IN GP. 



283 



Nahusa k. m. I. 139.7 (1. r.) (son of Ay u) (4 sons of), 

k. m. 139.17 (I. r.) (5 sons of). 

Naga (serpent) I. 2.48 (Vinata made a D5sl by); 2.50 

(Garuda was blessed that he will release 
his mother from the servitude under); 19.1 
(Pranelvara mantra to remove poison of) 
(places where if bitten, people won't 
survive); 4-3.2 (younger brother of Vasuki) ; 
68.3 (pearls obtained from Nagendra etc. 
are not lustrous though auspicious); 86.25 
(one who is bitten by a Naga is released by 
propitiating the 8); 137.17 (to be pro- 
pitiated in Sastfn); 196.10 (requested to 
protect); 197.27 (assigned to particular 
places in the GarudTvidya); 197.30 (2 ways 
ofNyasafor); 197.49 (Garuda is contemp- 
ted upon for the destruction of); 197.52 
(Garuda addressed as the destroyer of). 

Nagadvlpa T. 55.4 (one of the 9 Dvlpas). 

Nagavlthi m. I. 627 (born ofYami). 

NSgSdri rnt. I. 83.40 (at Gaya on the eastern side of 

Brahmasada). 

NSgnajit d. I. 28.10 (saluted in Gopalapiija). 

Natya&la I. 47.40 (constructed in temples). 

Nadi (di) II. 22.38-39 (10 in number; Ida, PingalS 

etc.). 

NSnSkranda- a place II.6.34 (the Preta eats the 9th Masika at); 
pura 6.35 (the Preta weeps seeing the crying 

Ganas of). 
Nabha m. I. 87-25 (Nabha) (one of the sons of Vaiva- 

svata Manu). 
NabhSga k. m. I. 138.2 (s. r.) (son of Manu). 

k. m. 138.5 (s. r.) (son of Dista, who became a 

Vai^ya). 

k. m. 138.31 (son of ruta). 
Nabhi m. 1.54.10 (one of the 9 sons of Agnldhra, 

Jambudvipe&ara); 54.12 (Rsabha born 

of Marudevi and). 



284 GARUpA PURSJilA A STUDY 

a place 83.23 (situated at the centre in Gay3). 
Narada I. 2-5; 2.6 ("); 2.7 5.3 (creation of ); 6.16 

(the 1000 sons of Daksa going to the ends 
of earth as instructed by); 6.17 (cursed 
by Daks, a to take a birth); 6.18 (born as 
son of Ka:>yapa); 15.95 (Vi^nu addressed 
as); 28.4 (assigned place in Gopalapuja); 
30.8 (saluted in ridhar3rcana) ; 31.21 
(saluted in Visnvarcana) ; 34.42 (saluted 
in Hayagrlva pGja); 58.8 (one of those 
who stay in Bhanuratha in Jyes^ha}; 
135,5 (to be worshipped in Caitra, with 
garlands of Damanaka); 196.9; 215.19 
(the 6th Upapurana spoken by); 224.1 
(Kulamrta-stotra uttered by Hara to); 
224.4; 224.10; 224.19; 224.22 (as 
Surarsi); 228.1 (Atmajnana narrated by 
Bhagavan to). 

Narasirhha I. 215.17 (one of the Upapuranas). 

Nsrasimhi d. w. I. 38.5 (Durga addressed as) 

Naraca (an iron I. 70.5. 

arrow) 

NSrSyana d. I. 1.10 (all his anecdotes requested to be 

told); 1.12; 5.8 (birth of rl, consort of); 
7.6 (saluted in SarySdipuja); 11.35 (to 
be saluted in Navavyuharcana) ; 12.4 
(saluted in Pujanukrama); 15.74 (attribute 
of Visnu); 32.5 (one of the 5 forms of 
Vinu); 32.6 (saluted in pancatattvSrcana); 
32.13 ("); 32.30 ("); 45.2 (saluted); 45.16; 
50.40; 57.9 (His manifestation); 81.6 
(one of the Tfrthas); 86.27 (by worshipping 
whom one shall become the master of 
people); 126.7 (propitiation of in general 
worship); 131.13 (saluted in Rohin- 
yastamivrata) ; 139.1 (Brahma as son of); 
141.12 (has no decay) (creator); 194.14 
(requested to protect intellect); 194.21 
(contemplated as destroyer of all afflictions); 



APPENDIX 7 INDEX OF THE NAMES IN GP. 



285 



194.29 (requested to destroy all fever) 
196.3 (Mantra called salutation to); 196.8 
(requested to protect in the sky); 196.11 
(requested to protect in the morning); 
221.1 (contemplation on); 222.2 (what are 
His Dana, Tlrtha, Tapas and Adhvara); 
222.3 (the Tlrthas do not deserve compari- 
son even with the 16th part of His name); 
222.6 (greatness of constant worship ofj; 
222.36 (one who has thought on His con- 
stantly, shall be relived of bondage); 222.42 
(all Karmas good or bad to be dedic- 
ted to). 

Narayaijabali II. 11. 29 (one who does it for Pitrs shall 

(vidhi) be made free from all troubles); 17.39-51 

(the performance of which discharges the 
Pretas from Pretatva). 

Narayani d. w. I. 38.2 (worshipped in order starting from 

Marga trtlya) ; 129.9 ("); 178.1 (offering 

to). 

Nan woman 214,1 (one of those who are always pure); 

Nasatya d. I. 139.53 (one of AsVins ref. to as father of 

Nakula). 

Nasikya a place I. 81.20 

Nikara I. 69.33 (a measure of weight). 

Nikumbha k. m. I. 138.21 (s. r.) (son of Harya^va)"; 

m. 143.44 (killed by Rama). 

Nighna k. m. I. 139.39 (l.r.) (son of Anamitra). 

Nicula s. I. 87.6 (one of the 7 at the time of Svaro- 

cia Manu). 

Nitala L 57.2 (one of the 7 worlds). 

Nitya d. I. 194.2 (attribute of Visnu). 

Nityaklinna d. w I. 198.1 (Puja of Tripura). 
Nitya^raddha I. 33,1-10 (description of). 

Nitya d. I. 198.7 (requested to destroy disease). 

NityarunS d. I. 198.8 (worshipped in TripurSpQja). 

Nimi k. m. I. 138.17 (s. r.) (son of Iksv&ku). 

k. m. 139.37 (l.r.) (one of the 8 sons of Bhaja- 

rnSna). 



286 

Nimittaka 
Niyati 



GARUpA PURSJilA A STUDY 



m. 
w. 



Niyama m. 

(restraint of the mind) 

Niramitra rn. 



m. 

Niranjana d, 

NirSkrti m. 

Nirutsaka s. 

Nirrti, Nairrti d. 
(regent of South- 
western quarter) 
Nirgama (a door) 



Nirdeha 

Nirbhaya 

Nivrti 

Nivrtadvaita 

drjti 



Nis'jlrflpa 
Xisadha 

Nissda n caste 



m. 
m. 

k. m, 
d. 

k, m. 

s. 

rat. 

m. 



Nita m. 

Nnisara 

Nlrafija (|a?) Lotus 

Nil, 

a monkey 



I. HI. 4 (son of Dandapani). 

I. 5.9 (one of the daughters of Manu ; 

wifeofVidhata). 

I. 5.28 (born of Dhrti). 

218.12 (5 in no.); 229.13 (one of the 8 

limbs of Yoga). 

1.8717 (son of Raivata Manu); 87.39 

(son of 10th Manu (Dharmaputra)) ; 

140.40 (son of Renumatl). 

141.9 (son of Ayutayu). 

I. 4.3 (attribute of Vis^u). 

I. 87.35 (son of Daksa Savariji Manu). 

I. 87.52 (at the time of Raucya Manu). 
1.59.6 (deity of Mula); 133.17 (offering 
to) (Karma requested to protect in) 5 

205.129 (a direction). 

I. 47 4 (in a temple should be 1/3 or 1/5 
of the &ukSrighri); 47.9 (on the 4 sides 

should be one fifth of length of Garbha). 

I. 87.31 (son of SSvarni Manu). 

I. 87.13 (son of Manu). 

I. 139.31 (1. r) (son of Vr$ol). 

I. 1953 (attribute of Visgu). 

I. 139.57 (1. r.) (son of RevatI and 
Balabhadra). 

I. 87.52 (at the time of Raucya Manu). 
I. 54.8 (on the right side of Meru). 
138.38 (son of Atithi). 

I. 6.6 (their origin and habitation at 
Vindhyasaila); 222.49 (merits of one who 
treats JsOdra etc. and Dvija alike), 
I. 141.11 (son ofSubala). 
1.108.109.110.111 (for kings); 112 (); 
J 3 ();! 14; 115. 

I. 72.1 (eyes of the demon Bala resembl- 
ing). 

I. 54.8 (son of Ajamldha aud Nalinl). 
143.41. 



APPENDIX 7 INDEX OF THE NAMES IN GP. 



287 



Nllakantha 

Nflagriva 

Nllaparvata 

Nllotpala 

Nrkessarin 

Nrcaksu 

NrpafVjaya 

Nryajna 
Nrsirhha 
Nrhari 
Nedis^ha 



d. 
d 

m 

(lotus) 
d. 



d. 



k. m 
Nepala (a region) 



Naigameya 
Naimija 



Nyaya 

Paftcagavya (the five 
products of the cow) 
Paiicaratra 

Paficahasta m 

(a kind of horse) 
Pancendriya (five 
organs) 



Patanga 



Padma 



70.10 (PadmarSgas resembling the colour); 
70.12 (PadmarSga from Saugandhika like). 
I. 19.26 (worshipped for removal o r poison). 
I. 129.21 (attribute of Ganapati). 
I. 81.28 (merits of bathing at the Tirtha). 
I. 223.8 (Visnu resembling colour of). 
I. 13.7 (requested to protect in Nairti). 
1. 141.2 (son of Sumthaka). 
I. 141.2 (son ofMedhavlI); 141.3 (son of 
Medhavi II). 

1.205.140 (Atithipujana is). 
See above Narasimha. 
I. 86.10 (one of the Avataras). 
I. 87.26 (one of the sons of Vaivasvata 
Manu). 

138.15 (s. r.) (son of NabhSga). 
I. 79.1 (the mythological reference to the 
medas dropped at). 
I. 6.33 (one of the sons of Kumara). 
I. 1.3 (Suta's arrival at); 66.6 (greatness 
of); 81.7. 

I. 215.21 (one of the 18 VidySs). 
I. 137.7; 214.2 (as purifier); 214.65 (is 
Malapaha). 

I. 137.9 (Brahmins well-versed in to be 
invited in Tithivarapuja). 
I. 87.35 (son of Daksa Savarni Manu); 
201.4 (Madhyama). 

II. 2.18 (individually are responsible for 
bringing chaos to deer, elephant, Patanga, 
bee and fish respectively) (collectively they 
will cause more havoc). 

bird II. 3.17 (one for whom Aurdhvadehika rite 
is not performed shall become). 
I. 47.25 (a Kailasa type of temple). 
Lotus 70.8 (PadmarSga in colour resembling); 
47.28 (effect of building temple in the 
shape of); 227.16; 

serpent 129.25 (to be worshipped every month and 
in Bhadra, ravana ukla Paflcaml). 



11 



288 



GARUDA PURA"#A A STUDY 



Padmanabha d. I. 2.14 (Rudra's meditation on); 13.2 
(saluted in Vaisnavapafijara); 15.12 (,j); 
34.31; 45.7 (a form of Visnu); 87.37 (killer 
ofKalakaksa enemy of Devas at the time 
of Daksa Savarrji the 9th Manu); 131.11 
(saluted in Rohinyastaml) ; 194.29 (saluted 
in Vaisnavakavaca); 196.13 (requested to 
protect in the night); 197.12 (is stationed in 
the west). 

Padmaraga (gem) I. 68.9; 70.6 (obtained from off-sea waters 
of SirhhaJa); 70.14; 70 21 (VijStis of) ; 70.23 
(nature of Vijatis of); 70.27 (cannot be 
scratched except with vajra or kuruvinda); 
70.31 (quality of a good variety) ; 70. 32 
(effect of good quality); 70.33 (the price 
fixed for the Tandula weight of vajra is 
equal to Masa weight of ); 71.28 (marakata 
valued higher than the value of); 71-29 
(Marakata defective is valued much 
loweer than that of defective ); 72, f] 
(wearing Jndranlla brings similar eiFect 
as an wearing); 72.9 (3 groups is Indranlia 
as in); 72.10 (same test for Indranlla 
as for); 72-11-12 (Indranlla of equal 
weight bears more heat, though should not 
be put to test on that score); 72.19 (value 
of a Masa of Padmaraga is same as price of 
4 times by weight of Indranlla); 73.6 (the 
quality of VaidQrya is similar to the quality 
of Padmaraga known from their colour); 
74.2 (description of ); 74.4 (defined). 

I. 75.1 (nails of Daitya thrown by Vilyu 

in), 

I. 138.43 (son of Agnivarna). 

I. 5.5 (creation of Daksa and his wife by); 

142.25 (approached by Devas to restore 

sunlight). 

I. 55.9 (passing thro' the central region); 

I. 55,7 (passing thro' the central region). 



Padmavann. f. 



Padmavarpa 

Padmasarhbhav 
(BrahmS} 

Payasvinl 
PayojujI 



m, 
ad. 



APPENDIX 7 INDEX OF THE NAMfcS IN GP. 



289 



Para d. I. 2.42 (attribute of Vi?ou). 

s. 87.37 (one of the 3 at time of Daksa 

Savarni the 9th Manu). 

ParamStmS d. I. 212 (attribute of Visnu); 4.3 ("). 
Paramananda d. I, 196.2 (Visnu) (saluted as). 
Paramdvara d. I. 2.15 (attribute of Vis.nu); 16.3 (" of 

Visnu); 18.10 (Parames'aj MrtyunjaySr- 
cana uttered by); 30.13 (stotra for); 31.10 
(of Visnu with all ornaments etc.); 31.16 
(of Visnu); 32.13 ("); 32.24 ("); 34.29 
(") 34.33 (ParesSvara "); 40.1 ("); 
43.25 ("). 
d. 2.30 (of Siva ?); 1^9.6 (as an interloctuor 

Siva is addressed as). 

Paramet,hi m. 1.54.13 (son of Intradyumma). 

Parau m. 1.87.9 (one of thesons of Auttama Manu). 

ParasSurama d. I. 142.8 (an incarnation of Hari, as son 

of Jamadagni) (kills the Ksatriyas for 21 
times); 142.9 (kills Kartavirya and makes 
gift of the world to Kafyapa) (settles on 
the Mt. Mahendra); 194.17 (reuested to 
destory one's all enemies). 

Paraha m. I. 87.17 (son of Raivata Manu\ 

Paraka (an atonement) I. 214.7 (for dwelling at the house of an 
Antyaja); 214.11 (for visiting the house 
of antyaja); 214.16 (for molestation); 
214.62 (capable of destorying all sins) 
(course to be followed in the Vrata of), 
Paratpara d. I. 197.51 (Garuda conceived as). 

Paralara s. I. 1.29 (Visnu in the 17th Avatara born 

as son of Satyavatl and Paralara; created 
the branches of Vedictree); 15.72 (Vi ou 
called as) ; 93.5 (one of the 14 Law givers); 
1 07. Kdharma according to) ; 215.20 (one 
of the UnapurSnas; spoken by). 

Parlksit k. m. I. 140.25 (1. r.) (one of the sons of Ku.u); 

5 140.40 (son of AbWmanyul; 145.39 (,n.tal- 

led in throne after Pandavas). 
Parjanya s. I. 87.18 (at the time of Raivata Manu). 



290 GARUpA PURAljIA A STUDY 

Paryuita (a preta II. 12.38 (an old Brahmana was invited as 
known as) the priest, and as he came late, Paryujita 
consumed the food and served the rema- 
inder. Hence he became Paryujita); 
12.44. 
Pala I. 202.75 (a measure of weight); II, 

22.49 ("). 
Pavamana m. I. 5.16 (one of the sons of Vahni and 

SvSha). 
Pavitra r. I. 56.10 (and others are PSpaharas, in the 

Kusadvtpa when JyotismSn ruled). 
d. 87.58 (one of the 5 clans of gods at the 

time ofBhautya Manu). 

Pa^upati I. 81.14 (one of the lirthas). 

Pamh'u m. 1.87.26 (one of the sons of Vaivasvata 

Manu); 

k. m. 138.6 (s. r.) (son of Vatsapriti). 

PSficala I. 140.19 (a country, whose ruler was 

Mukula); 145.13 (Paodavas' arrival at; 
and winning the hands of Draupadl). 
Patallputra a place I, 132.8 (Brahmin called Vlra at). 
Pstfilna (a kind I. 69.7. (Muktaphalas resembling the back 

offish) of). 

Pandava the sons of I. 145.1 (Krsna's fight for the case of); 
Psodu 145.10 (their enmity with Kurus); (teased 
by Duryodhana); 145.14-15 (getting half 
the kingdom at Indraprastha and obser- 
vance of Rajasiiya); 145.22 (after their 
period of exile, claiming their share); 
145.23 (claiming for at the least 5 villages); 
229.9 (as a name of Arjuna) (GitS 
narrated to). 

Patala netherworld 1.12.4 (Ananta as Adhipati of); 15.60 
(Visnu as cause of); 15.151 (Visnu as 
resident of); 57.1; 57.2 (one of the 7 
worlds); 69.24 (Muktaphalas obtained 
from); 89.24 (where the demons worship 
the manes). 



APPENDIX 1 INDEX OF THE NAM&5 IN Gt. 



291 



k. m. 



Pantha 



Papa 

Para 

Paralaukika 

ParasSavah 

Parasika 

Parijata 

Pariplava 

Paribhadra 

Pariyatra 

Partha (Arjuna) m. 

ParvanaiSraddha 



m. 
mt. 
k. m 



Parvatt 



Parsatasagara 

(Parsata 



Palita 
Pavaka 

Pasanda 
Pingala 

Pingala 



(offering of balls II J 
of rice) ( the 



II. 5.32 (the Preta is so called at the 
entrance to the hourse where debth ourred) 
6.33 (by offering Pinda the Devatas of 
Grha vastu get pleased). 
II. 34.10 (signs of those who are born to 
Manusyas on accout of their). 
I. 140.12 (1. r.) (son of Prthusena). 
I. 69.23 (one of the 8 types of Muktaphalas) 
I. 69.23 (one of the 8 kinds of Mukta- 
phalas). 

I. 69.24 (Muktaphalas obtained from) . 
flower I. 144.10 brought by Krsna). 
I. 141.3 (son ofNrpanjaya). 
I. 55.6. 
I. 13P.40 (s. r.) (son of Ruru). 

I. 139.53 (1. r.) (son of Prtha, got by 
Indra); 229.13 (Glta Addressed to). 

II. 32.11 (to be done after the end of 
pollution if there be any in between). 

I. 137.16 (to be worshipped on Paiicaml); 
185.14 (Siva addressed as an interlocutor 
as dear to). 

I. 14530 (where the Prthvipalas were 
killed. Patromymic name of Drupada and 
his son). 

k. m. I. 139.28 (1. r.) (one of the 5 sons of 
Rukmakavaca). 

I. 5.16 (born of SvadhS and Vahni); 
141.13 14 (dissolves in ether at the time of 
Pralaya) . 

I. 196.11 (Buddha requested to protect 
from the association of) . 

serpent I. 39.2 (saluted in SurySrcana); 129.26 (its 
worship every month and in Bhadra, 
^ravaua-Suklapancami takes one to 

heaven), 

II. 22.39 (one of the lONsdis). 

I. 197.47 (Garuda contemplated as). 

8l!C )> D.J""^" 

the gods are 



d. w. 



fire. 



GARtJl?A PURA"[A A STUDY 



Pitara 



Pitamaha 
Pitrloka 



d. 



Pitystotra (stotra on 
manes) 



Pitryajna 

Pinakadhrk 

Pipllika 



d. 
ant 



Pstambaradhara d. 
Plvara 



Pundarlka 



k. in, 



pleased); 5.64-65 (to be given for 10 days); 
5.68-7] (the growth of the limbs by the 
offer of ); 5.72 (to be given with flesh on 
the 10th day); 5.76 (from which one has 
born goes along its course after the 1 3th 
day after death); 14.9-13 (offering Piijda 
for different categories of death of a Bala, 
Yuva etc.). 

I. 5.3 (creation of );5.17 (Mena & Vaitarnl 
born to Svadha and); 5.27 (married Svadha, 
one of the daughters created by Daksa); 
89.57 (said to drink soma juice, possessed 
of astral bodies); 177.65 (prescription which 
gets Mok?a for); II. 11.29 (merits of offering 
NarSyanabali to); 11.30 (troubles on 
account of nothing to compensate it); 
11.31 (one must be devoted to). 

I. 2.13 (Brahma addressed as, an inter- 
locutor). 

II. 8.8 (on account of the performance of 
the Vrsotsarjana, the Preta reaches). 

I. 88.1 (uttered by Markandeya); 89.13-48 

(text of); 89.39 (manes requested to destory 

demons and ward of calamities etc.); 

89.42 (requested to protect from Rak?asa, 

Bhuta etc.). 

I. 205.140 (doing tarpana is). 

1.5.34 (epithet of 6iva). 

I. 217.26 (one who takes away bread shall 
become). 

I. 6.56 (are born of KrodhS, wife of 
Kas"yapa). 

I. 131.14 (epithet of Visnu). 
I. 56.11 (born of Dyutiman at Kraunca- 
dvlpa) . 

I. 138.39 (s. r.) (son of Nabhas). 
I. 56.13 (one of the 7 mountain streams). 
I. 12.5 (epithet of Visuu); 13.4 (requested 
to protect); I. 15.9 (Vi?nu addressed as) ; 



APPENDIX 7 INDEX OF THE NAMES IN GP. 



293 



Pur>dra 

Puny a (merit) 



Punarvasu (a star) 



k. m. 



83.55 (one who goes to Kotitlrtha shall 
atiain); 131.11 (an epithet of Visnu, 
saluted) ; 194.20 (one takes refuge at, when 
black a form as that of Yama is beheld). 
I. 68.18 (quality of Vajras obtained from). 
I. 213.23 (accruing from seeing holy men 
is greater than visiting holy places; the 
former gives immediate benefit and the 
latter in due course). 

1.59.3 (star of Aditya); 59.14 (auspicious 
for journey) ; 59.15 (auspicious for wearing 
upper garment); 59.19 (one of the Pariva- 
ni'ukha stars); 59.36 (Amrta-yoga caused 
by Guru in) ; 59.44 (auspicious for 
Jatakarma etc.); 
139.45 (1. r.) (son ofDundubhi). 
k. in. I. 138.18 (s.r.) (son of abSda or Vikuksi); 
k. m. 139,66 (1. r.) (son of Srnjaya) ; 
k. rn. 140.16 (1. r.) (son of SudhTra); 

Purandara (Indra) d. 1.51.17 (one desirous of getting children 
to propitiate always). 

I. 215.13 (narrated by Vyasa to Suta) (the 
greatness of one who knows the 18); 215.16 
(18 in no.); -215.17 (the 18 Upapuranas); 
215.21 (one of the 18 VidytSs); See also 
Itihasa-purana. 

II. 28.3 (one of the 7 cities which confer 
final emancipation). 

m. I. 87.21 (one of the sons of Gaksusa Manu). 

k. m. I. 139.74 (1. r.) (his Variiba narrated). 

k. m. I. 140.1 (father of Janamajeya). 

k. tn. 140.18 (1. r.) (son of Su^anti). 

k m. I. 138.23 (s.r.) (one of the three sons of 
BindumahyaV 138.24 (with NaramadS 
begets Trasadasyu). 

1.87.8 (enemy of Indra at the time of 
Svarocisa Manu and killed by M- 
sudana assuming elephant form), 
k. m. I. HO-9 (1. r.) (son of HastP. 



Puranjaya 



Purana 



Puri 



Puru 



Purukutsa 



Purukrtsara m. 



Puramlcjha 



294 



GARUIJA PURXlsIA A STUDY 



Pururguru 

Purusottama 



Puruhotra 
Pururavas 



Pulaka (gem) 
Pulastya 



Pulaha 



m. I. 87.42 (one of the sons of the llth Manu, 
son of Rudra). 

d. I. 4.6 (attribute of Vistju); 12.4- (saluted in 
the course of PuiS for the successful com- 
pletion of pujS); 13.3 (addressed as having 
an axe and worshipped); 13.11 (Vi?(m 
saluted as); 29.1 (is predominently wor- 
shipped in theTrailokyamohimpuja); 29.2 
(worshipped); 29.3 (stupifies the 3 worlds); 
45.10 (a form of Visnu holding lotus, conch, 
mace and disc is saluted); 66.3 (in the 
Navavyuha the 8th image is) ; 83.7 (by the 
worship of whom one is not born again); 
86.18 (worshipper of whom shall obtain 
Jfiana, Sri etc.); 86.27 (by the worship of 
whom one shall get all the desired objects}; 
131.10 (saluted in RohinyastamTvrata); 
137.12 (saluted in the VSravrata) ; 45.29 
(description the class of s"alagrama called) ; 
66.7 (one of the tirtha); 
d. 86.19 ("raja, attribute of Surya ?). 
k m. I. 139.35 (1. r.) (son of Anu). 

k. m I. 138.3 (s. r. ) (son of 115 and Budha); 
139.2 (marriage with Orvai) (six sons of ); 
145.2 (in whose line the Kurus were 
bom) 1 4-5.3 (gets Ayu as a son of Urva^I 
and). 

I. 68JO; 77.1-2 (origin of); 77.3 (merits 
of certain qualities & colours of); 77.4 
(a pale in weight valued at 500 Riipyas?). 

s- I. 5.3 (creation by Lord); 5.13; 5.26 (with 
Prtti one of the daughters of Dharraa 
Dakayana gets Dattoli as son); 58.7 
(resides in the Solar region in the month 
of Gaitra); 87.2 at the time of SvSyam- 
bhuva Manu); 135.5 (to be worshipped in 
Caitra with Damanaka flower). 

3 - 1-5-3 (his creation by the Lord); 5.13 
(wedsKsama); 2.26; 58.8 (resides in solar 



APPENDIX 7 INDEX OF THE NAMES IN GP. 



295 



Pulomaja 
PulotnS 

Puskara 



PuskarSk$a 



m. 



m. 
w. 



m. 



k, m 
d. 
w. 



Pupaka 



(an aerial car 

Kubera) 

Puspadanta 

Pu?pabhadra 

PusparSga 



Puspavan 
Pusya, PusyS 
12 



of 



gem 



rnt. 
k m 

star 



region); 87.2 (at the time of Svayambhuva 
Maim); 135.5 (to be worshipped in Gaitra 
with Damanaka). 

I. 6.32 (son of A.nila and 6tva in the line 
of Uttanapada). 

I. 6.44 (one of the sons of Danu). 
6.46 (one of the two daughters of Vaisva- 
nara, married Marlci. their sons). 
I. 15.157 (Vi?ou addressed as the ksetra 
and as lord of Ksetra and as the Dvlpa 
called); 54.4 (one of the Dvlpas); 56.G 
(Cabala as ruler of) ; 56.18 (surrounded by 
sweet water); 57.4 (Narakasin the dreadful 
Dvlpa called) ; 66.6 (one of the Tirthas) ; 
81.7; 222.18; 225.4 (Visnu as lord of). 
90.3 (son of Varuna, had a beautiful 
daughter (Maninl) by the celestial nymph 
PramlocS.). 

, 138.37 (s. r.) (born of Bharata). 
I. 131.18 (Visnu addressed as). 
I. 5.23 (one of the 13 created by Daksa and 
married by Daksayana); 5.28 (Lobha, lorn 
of); 206.36 (saluted daily). 
I. 89.45 (one of the 7 other clans of pitrs). 
I. 47.19 (one of 5 classes of temples). 47.20 
(quadrilateral); 47.24 (the 9 types of); 
138.42 (sonof Hiraoyanabha). 
142.14 (used by Rama for his return to 
Ayodhya)'. 143.47. 

I. 46.6 (one the 32 Devas). 

II. 6.3 (in Yamapura). 

I 689- 68.44 (exports make imitation 
diamonds out of); 73.1 (test); 74.1 (my- 
thological origin from the skin of the 
demon Bala). 
I. 56.9 (in Kuladvlpa). 
140.28 (1. r.) (son of ^?abha). 
I 59 14 (auspicious for journey); 59.15 
(auspicious for dress, upper garment); 



296 



PujS^va 
Put ana 



PurO 



k. m. 



PrthS 



Prthivi 



Prthivldhara 
Prthu 



Prthuka 



Ptthujava 
PfthudSna 



GARUIDA PURSJsIA A STUDY 

59.22 (one of the 9 Ordhvamukha stars); 
59.35 (etc. cause AutpStikayoga on Friday); 
59.44 (auspicious for Jatakarma etc.); 61.11 
(auspicious for Kanyadana etc.). 

k. m, I. 138.22 (s. r.) son of Hita^va). 

w. I. 15.79 (Visnu addressed as killer of); 
46.21; 133.17 (assigned to Nairrti direction 
in Mahanavamlvrata) ; 144.2 (her death 
at the hands of Krsna); 194.18, 
I. 139.18 (1. r.) (one of the sons of Yayati 
and Sarmistna) See also Pururavas. 

I. 6.37 (one of the 12 Suns); 17,8; 46.5 (one 
of the celestials worshipped in Vastupuja); 
58.13 (reside in star Avayuji when sun is 
there). 

II. 22. 39 (one of 1 Nadis). 

I. 139.51 (daughter of ura); 139.52 (given 
as daughter to Kuntiraja); 139.52 (married 
by Pandu); See also Kunti. 
I- 75.1; 197.2 (one of the Mandaladhipas); 
197.8 (assigned in the direction of Indra- 
devata); 197.22 (assigned to the feet in 
Garudividya); 197-23 (assigned to one's 
body); 197,38 (assigned to east); See also 
Prthvi. 

I. 47.26 (a Malaka type of temple). 
m - 1.6.8 (birth of); 6.9 (Antardhana was 

son of); 

m - 54.15 (son of Vibhu); 
k. m. 138.18 (s. r.) (son of Anenas); 
k.m. 139.43 (1. r .) (son of Citraka); 
a Salagrama 45,22 (description of). 

I. 87.23 (one of the class Gaijas). 
I- 139.26 (1. r.); (one of the best among the 
sons of Sa^abindu), 

I - I39 ;27 (I. r.) (one of the best of the sons 
of Sasabindu). 
L 139.27 (1. r .) ( one of the best among the 



earth 



A. 



k. 



APPENDIX 7 INDEX OF THE NAMES IN GP. 



297 



Prthurukma k. m. 



Prthulaka 
Pfthulaujasa 

Prthusravah 



Pfthusena 
Prthvldhara 

Prsata 
Pjrsadasva 

Pr$adhra 
Paila 



I. 139.28 (1. r.) |(oiie of the 5 sons of 

Rukmakavaca) . 
k. m. I. 139.71 (1. r.) (son of Caturanga). 

I. 6.40 (the 4 sons of Hiranyaka^ipu were 

known to be). 

m. I, 87.35 (son of Daksasavarni Manu). 
k. m, 139.27 (1. r.) (one of the best among the 

sons of Sasabindu). 
k. m. I. 140.11 (1. r.) (son of Rucirabva). 

d. I. 46.10 (and 7 others surrounding Brahma 

in Vastupuja). 

k. m. I. 140.23 (1. r.) (son of Somalia). 
k. m. I. 138.16 (s. r.) (son ofVirupa). 

k. m. I. 87.26 (one of the sons of Vaivasvata 
Manu); 138.2; 138,4 (killed a cow and 
became a Sudra). 

s. 1,215.12 (a disciple of Vyasa to whom 
Rgveda was taught). 
I. 214.31 (a kind of Sura (drink)). 
a country I. 68,17 (Vajras at). 

k. m, 139.70 (1 r.) (one of the several sons of 

Bali). 

Paurandarapada I. 132.1 (said to be conferred on the 

(place of Indra) observer of &uklaslamlvrata in the month 

of Pausa). 

Pauravl w. I. 139.56 (wife of Vasudeva). 

Paurnamasa m. I. 5.10 (born to Sambhuti, thro' Marici). 
Paulamah m. I. 6.47 (son of Marica). 

Pausna d. I. 59.9 (lord of star Revatl). 

Prakrti d. I. 198.8 (worshipped in Jvalamalinlkrama). 

Pracanda d. I. 194.29 (saluted in Vaisnavakavaca); 

194.29 (rOpa " ). 

Pracanda d. w. 1.133.12 (manifestation of DurgS). 

Pracetah d. I. 135.5 (to be worshipped in Caitra with 

garlands of Damanaka). 
k. m. 139.65 (1. r.) (son of Durgama). 

Prajapati d. 1.4.21 (His creation of world); 6.14 

(Brahma) (wishing to create); 89.55 (saluted .by 

Ruci); 5.13 (Pulaha , birth of sons to 



Paundra 



298 



PURS^IA A STtJDV 



Ksama and); 6.15 (Vlranaprajspati, 

wedding Asiknl). 
1.205.67 (Japa to be made of); 205.68 

(one who contemplates on "shall remove 

all fear); 218.17 (if it is known, Brahma 

favours), 

I. 87.11 (Devagana). 

139 10 (1. r.) (son of DivodSsa) (known as 

Satrajit in history). 
m. I. 87.39 (son of 10th Manu). 
k. m. I. 139.15 (1. r.) (son of Ksatravrddha). 
k. m- 139.49 (1. r.) (son of Sami). 
k. m. I. 139.62 (1. r.) (son of Vajra). 

I. 140.38 (1. r.) (son of Yudhisl;hira and 

Draupadl). 
k. m. I. 140.4 (1. r.) (son of RatinSra). 

Pratistha (installation) I. 48.1 (of all Devas). 

PratisthSna a place I. 142.19 (a Brahmin Kausika who livet 

at). 

d. I. 6.59 (one of the 49 Marut-gods). 
m. 1.54.14 (son of PratShSra, in the line of 

Agnldhra). 

k. m. I. 141.6 (1. r.) (son of PratlvySh). 
k. m. I. 138.47 (J. r.) (son of Manu). 
k. m. I. 140.33 (1. r.) (son of Dilipa) (his 3 sons), 
k. m. I. 140.6 (son of Bhanuratha). 
m. I. 54.14 (son of Paramesthl) (in the line of 

Agnldhra). 

door II. 9.5 (of Dharmadhvaja). 
keeper 

k, m I. 140.27 (1. r.) (son of Vasu). 
m. I. 87.17 (son of Raivata Manu). 

1.21819 (described); 227.18 (one of the 

6 accomplishments of yoga); 227.22; 227.23; 

229.13. 

I. 6.29 (one of the 8 Vasus); 6.34 (Devala 

was son of ). 

I. 47.8 (are one fourth the height of 

Sikhara). 



Pranava syllable c om' 



Pratardana d. 
(nah) k. m, 



PratapavSn 
Pratiksatra 

Pratibahu 
Pratibindhya 

Pratiratha 



Prat is ad rk 
Pratiharta 

Pratltaka 

Pratlndhaka 

Pratlpa 

Pratlvya 

Pratlhara 

PratlhSra, 
Pratihara 
Pratyagra 
Pratyai'iga 

Pratyahsra (restrain- 
ing organs) 

PratyQ?a 



(dr- 
cum ambulation) 



AtPENDIX 7 INDEX Of 1 THE NAMJSS IN GP. 



299 



Pradyumna m 



I. 139.61 (one of 3 sons of Kr?na); 7.6 
(worshipped in Suryapuja); 8.15 (requested 
to protect); 12.4 (worshipped); 12.14 
(worshipped in Cakrapuja); 15.89 (attri- 
bute of Visiju); 32.5 (Visnu, in the form 
of to protect world); 32.6 (saluted in pan- 
catattvSrcana); 32.13 (); 32.30 (); 43.18 
(assigned to south); 144.8 (killer ofam- 
bara); 194.6 (requested to protect the 
nose); 194.29 (requested to destory all 
fears); 1952 (saluted). 
a iSalagrama 45.9 (saluted); 45,15; 45.28 

(is that having 6 Gakras); 66.2. 

Prabha d. I. 40.6 (saluted in MahesVarlpujs). 

Prabhakara m. 1.56.8 (one of the 7 sons of Jyotisman in 

Kuaadvlpa). 
PrabhSsa d. I. 6.29 (one of the 8 Vasus); 

a place 81.4 (mentioned as a best Tlrtha, where 
Somanatha is); 83.13 (merits of seeing the 
lord at); 83.33 (merits of performing raddha 
at); 86.1 (at Gaya, Pretas'ila exists at 3 
places, of which one at); 'II. 28.19 (benefit 
of dying at). 

I. 58.11 (lives in Solar region); 90.1 
(appeared from the waters of the river); 
90.2 (addresses Ruci); 90.3 (asks his 
willingness to take her daughter got from 
Puskara, son of Varuna). 
I 66 6 (one of the Tlrthas); 51.29 (merites 
of making a gift at); 81.2 (best Tlrtha); 

143.11. . . . 

m I. 87.12 (a demon, killed by Han m the 
form of a fish); 194.18 (reference to his 
death at the hands of Kr$oa\ 
deluge I. 141,13 (3 types of); (* . 

rence of); 215.4 (of the world); 
(PrSkrtika described). 
I 87.47 (son of Daksaputra Maxro). 
I. 87.56 (son of Bhautya 



Praraloca (a w 
celestial nymph) 



Prayaga 



Pralamba 



Pralaya 



Pravaha 
Pravira 



m. 
m. 



300 

Prasadrk 
Prasu^ruta 
Prasata 
PrasGti 



Prasrti 
Prasena 
PrastalSksa 
PrasWra 

Prastha 

Prahasta 
Prahlada 



GARU$A PURSJilA A 



Prana 



d. 

k. m. 

d. 

w. 



k. m. 
m. 

m. 



in. 
m 



Praclnabarhis m. 
m. 

PrScetas m. 

Prajapatya vr. 



m. 

ra, 
s. 
life breath 



I. 6.63 (one of the 49 Marut devas). 
I. 138.44 (s. r.) (son of Maru), 
L 87.23 (one of the Gaija (clans)). 
I. 5.20 (born to Svayambhuva Manu& 
atarupa); 5.21 (was given in marriage 
to Daksa). 

I. 202.73 (a measure of weight, defined 1 . 
I. 139.39 (1. r.) (son of Anamitra). 
I. 87.14 (son of Tamasa Manu). 
1.54.14 (son of Pratihartta, in the line of 
Agnidhra). 

I. 202.74 (measure of weight defined); 
202.76. 

I. H3.45 (killed by Rama). 
I 6.40 (one of the 4 sons of Hiranyafca^ipu) 
(and devoted to Visnu); 6.49 (demons 
born in the line of); 1 5.90 (Vi?nu address- 
ed as in the 1000 names of Visnu); 1-19 
(his birth as Datta to Atri and Anasuya 
to whom Anvlksiki was narrated). 
I. 6.3 (son of &nisl;i in the line of 
UttSnapada). 

6.9 (son of Havirdhana in the line of 
Utt&napada); 6.10 (10 sons of Samudtl 
and). 

I. 6.11 (the sons of PrScInabarhi and 
Samudrl). 

I. 214.7 (to be preformed for purification); 
214.48 (made of its observance of for a 
ruler). 

I. 5.9 (son of Ayati & Dhats), 
6.31 (son of ManoharS). 

87.6 (at the time of Svarocia Manu); 
197.20 Cin the Garudlvidya PrSr^a is 
contemplated upon as burning); 218.13; 
218-19 (its control); 222.19 (its control 
is less meritorious than contemplating 
on); 227.18 (control beneficial in Yoga); 
229.13 (symyama, one of the 8 limbs of 



APPENDIX 7 INDEX OF THE NAMES IN Gp. 



301 



Pranah 

Pradha 
Prasada 



Priyabhrtya 
Priyavrata 

Prlti 
Pretaku^da 

Pretaloka 
Prosvhapadi 

Plaksa 



Yoga); II. 1932; 22.40 (one of the 
10 VSyus remaining in one's body); 22.42 
(as conveyor of food within the body); 
22.44 (controller of fire within body). 

d. I. 87.41 (inmates of heaven at the time of 
10th Manu, divided into 100 clans). 

w. I. 6.25 (one of the 14 wives of Kasyapa). 

temple I. 47.1 ("iaksaoa of); 47.10 (Laksana in 
general); 47.16 (Mandapamana has been 
narrated and another form of structure is 
then told); 47.18 (dimensions of Nemi etc-); 
47.19 (description according to their 
measure and origin); (their 5 divisions); 
47.21 (forty types of temple from the above 
5 divisions); 47.33 47.34 (the type called 
Meru is said to be best); 47.36 (vary 
according as the image of deity housed 
in); 47.37 (many kinds of); 47.38 (for 
deities self-originated, no niyama in); 
47.41 (the devatas are located in the 
respective quarters in); 47.42 (Mathas 
located nearby for Upajivins); 47.43 (Suras 
to be placed and worshipped in), 
m . I. 8 7, 1 3 (son of Manu) . 

m. I. 5.20 (son of Svayambhuva Manu and 

atariipa); 51.1 (son of). 
w. I. 5.13 (Pulastya's wife; Dattoli as son of); 

I. 86.1 (Preta&lfi at Gaya exists in one of 
the forms as); (others being PrabhSsa and 
GaySsuraSiras). 

II. 10.1 (Pretas discharged from, how 
eat). 

star. I. 59.36 (Uttara, Kuja in causes Amrta- 
yoga). 

I. 54.4 (one of the 7 dvlpas); 54,9 (the 
people are not subject to Yugavasthas, who 
live at); 59.1 (sons of MedhStithi, ruler 
of); 56-2 (the 7 sons later were rulers of). 



302 
Phanlndra 



Phalgucandi 
Phalgutlrtha 



Phalguni 



Phalgvlsa 

Baka (a demon) m. 



Badrikftsrama 



Bandhuka 



Babhru 



GARU]?A PURXlvIA -A STUDY 

I. 71.4 (VSsuki mentioned as; reference 
to mythological account of biles of demon 
Bala having been dropped by), 
d. w. I. 83.16 (worshipped at Gaya). 

1.83.18 fat Gaya); 83.19 (all the sacred 
waters on earth mix at); 83.20 (claimed to 
be most sacred at Gaya); 84. 13 (PitSmaha 
is worshipped at); 84.14 (Gadadhara 
worshipped at); 84.20 (Devaditarpana on 
4th day at); 

59.4 (Uttara, star of Aryama); (Purva; 
star of Bhagyadevata); 59.5 (Uttara 
traya, to be avoided on Saturday for 
certain acts); 59.37 (purva , Amrtayoga 
caused by 6ukra in) . 

I. 83.16 (by worshipping whom at Gaya, 
one clears his debts to manes). 
I. 145.12 (killed by Paridavae while at 
Ekacakra), 

a crane 2 1 7.28 (the stealthy remover of fire becomes). 
I. 81.6 (one of the sacred places); 2.2 
SQtas statement about his visit io). 
I. 70.7. 



Star I. 



k. 



Babhruvahana k. m 
Bahijada ^ 



Bala 



(name of 
a tree) 

I. 47.27 (a Trip (v) sfapa type of temple). 
k. m. I. 139.30 (1. r.) (son of Romapada). 

139.37 (1. r.) (one of the 8 sons of Bhaj- 
mana). 

II. 17.5 (in the Tretayuga, at Mahodaya- 
pura) (his story) 

d. I. 89.50 (one of the clans of pitrs); 5.3 
(creation of); 89.41 (requested to protect 
in the south). 

(an asura) I. 5.8 (born to rt and Hari); 68.1 
(defeated Indra etc.); 68.2 (was requested 
by Devas to be a cow at their sacrifice and 
was killed by them); 68.3 (story of be- 
coming a cow for the welfare of the 
Devas and the world); 68.4 (his Avayavas 
becoming Ratna on account of his Sattva- 



Balabhadra 



Balakas'va 
BalSdhrya 

Balahaka 
Bali 



Bahukarmaka 

Bahugati 
Bahuda 

Bahuputra 

Bahurupa 
Bahurupa 



APPENDIX 7 INDEX OF THE NAMES IN GP. 303 

guna); 80.1 (esa collecting his Antra 
(bowels), thro' it is Kerala and high 
quality Vidrumas appeared there). 
m. 144.10 (killed by Kr oa). 

d. I. 86.18 (merits of worshipping Him 
at Gaya); 86.26 ("); 139.56 (son of 
Vasudeva and Rohini) 131.9 (son of 
Vasudeva and Devaki; arghya offered to ) 
144.1; 11.34 (worshipped); 139.57 (his wife 
RevatI and his sons). 

k. m. I. 139.4 (1. r.) (son of Apajapaka). 

d. I. 6.64 (?) (one of the 49 Marut devas). 

mi. I. 56.6 (in PlaksadvTpa). 
m. I. 1.27 (Visnu assumed dwarf from and 
begged 3 feet space from); 6.41 (born of 
Virocana and 100 sons were born to) (in 
the line of Uttanapada); 48.71; 87.34 
(son of Virocana who was Indra at the 
time of Savarni Manu) ; reference to his 
offer of 3 feet measures of place to Visnu); 
87.41 (enemy of devas at the time of 10th 
Manu, and killed by Hari); 

k. m. 139.69 (L r.) (son of Sutapa); 139.69,70 
(several sons of ) ; 
205.140 (offering is Bhutayajna). 

k. m. I. 141.9 (son of Svaksetra). 
k. m. I. 140.2 (1. r.) (son of Sambhu?). 
w. 1.6.22 (one of the daughters of Daksa; 

given to Bahuputra). 
m. I. 6.22 (to whom Bahuda was given by 

Daksa). 

d. I- 6.35 (one of the 11 Rudras). 

d w. 1.48.14 (one oftheDevatSs assigned in 

the middle in the installation of deities). 

k.m. (s.r.)I- 138.57 (son of Dhrti). 



'm. 



I 6.41 (one of the 100 sons of Bali); 
144.8 (whose daughter was married by 



13 



304 



B&rhadraliiah 
BalakhilyriU 

Bslacaiidr.i 



d. 



B -"'hu k. m. 

Bahula 

Bind.i 

Bindumahya k, m 

Bindusara 
Buddha m 



Buddhi 



Buddhirat r 

Budha ( a planet) 



GARUJDA PURXlvIA -A STUDY 

Pradyumna's son Aniruddha); 144.9 (in the 
fight between Hari and arikara, except 2 
all the other of his 1000 arms were cut 
off); 196.13 (requested to protect from. 
enemies and Raksasas). 
I. 140,27-141.11 (kings called). 
I. 5.14 (60 in number born of Kratu and 
Sumati). 

I. 129.21 (one of the forms of Ganapati). 
1.6.41 (son of Sarhhlada, one of the sons 
of Hiranyaka&pu) ; 87.4 (enemy oflndra 
and killed by Visnu at the time of 
Svayambhuva Manu). 

I. 138.28 (s.r.) (son of Vrka, who became 
a king). 
. m. I. 141.8 (son of 6uddhodana) (in the royal 

line). 

k. m. I. 139.55 (1. r.) (son of Rajadhidevi, 
Rsjsdhideva, son ofJsura). 
I. 138.22 (s. r.) (son of Mandhata); 138.23 
(3 sons of); (had 50 daughters married to 
Saubhari muni). 

I. 81.21 (one of the Tlrthas, Visr^upado- 

daka). 

I. 1.3? (Jinasuta, would be born in Klka^a, 
at the end of Kaliyuga to destory the 
enemies of celestials, as an Avatara of god; ; 
44-4; 86.11 (worshipped as an avatfira of 
god); 145.40 (Vasudeva is said to be taking 
form of for destroying enemies of 
celestials); 196.11 freqested to protect from 
the assembly of heretics). 

I. 5.24 (one of the 24 maidens created by 
Dafcsa and married by Dharma Dsksayana); 
5-29 (Bodha said to be born of). 

54 



of 



d. 



' (son of Nara, in the 
Agnidhra, King of Jambudvlpa). 
7.3 (worshipped in Suryapuja); 16.16 
(saluted in Visnupqjs); 23.11 (worshipped 



APPENDIX 7 INDEX OF 1HE NAMES IN GP. 



305 



Budhastaml 

Brka 

Brhatkarma 

Brhada^va 

Brhadlu 

Brhaduktha 

Brhadgurja 

Brhaddhanu 
Brhadbalah 

Brhadbhanu 

Brhadbhraja 
Byhaddyumna 
Byhanmana 
Brhaspati 



in Sivarcana); 39.10 (worshipped in 
Suryapuja); 39.14 (worshipped in "); 58.10 
resides in Asadha); 59.27 (Dvada^i good on); 
59.29; 59.31 (journey forbidden on the day 
of); 59. 34 (Revatl etc. are to be avoided 
in); 59.36 (in Krttika causes Amrtayoga); 
59.40 (in Anuradha causes Siddhayoga); 
59.42 (in Dhanis^hS causes Vi?ayoga); 60.1 
(Daia period of); 60.4 (yields women, Riijya 
etc. in its Dais); 60.7 (mithuna is his Ksetra); 
60.8 (kanya is his Ksetra); 61.13 (is good in 
4); 61.15 (good in 11); 62.16 (Siddhikarya, 
Mantra and Yatra are remembered in); 
132.6 (worshipped in Budhastami); 132.7 
(Bija Mantra of); 136.7; 136.10 (as an 
attribute of Visnu); H8.3 (as husband of 
Ila and father of Raja, Rudra, Purtiravas); 
139,2 (son of Soma and Tara); 
145.2 (son of Soma) (in the narration of 
story of Mahabharata); 
k. m. I. 138.10 (s r.) (son of Vegavan). 

vr. 132.8 (story about). 

k. m. I. 13828 (s r.) son of Ruruka). 

k. m. I. 139.72 (1. r.) (son of Bhadraratha); 

k. m. 140.10 (1. r.) (son of Brhaddhanu). 

k. m. I. 138.20 (s. r.) (son of SrSvasta); 

k. m. 141.6 (1. r.) (son of VatsavyQha). 

k. m. I. 140.10 (son of Ajamidha). 

k. m. I. 138.45 (s. r.) (son of DevarSta). 

s. 1.87.6 (at the time of Svaroci a Manu). 

k. m. I. 140.10 (1. r.) (son of Brhadlsu). 

I. 141.5 (name of princes who would be 
born in the race of Ikjvaku). 

k m. I. 139.72 (1. r.) (son of Brhatkarma); 

k'. m'. 140.19 (1. r.) (one of the 5 sons of Mukula). 

k. m. I. 141.7 (son of Krtajit). 

m I. 87.35 (son of Daksa Savaroi, 9th Manu). 

km L 139.73 (1-r.) (son of Brhadbhanu) 
d." ' 1.7-3 (saluted in Suryadipujana) ; 17.5 



306 

(a planet) 



Bodha 

Brahmadatta 

Brahmamandira 

Brahmayajfia 

Brahmaraksas 



Brahmaloka 



GARUpA PURXJilA A STUIJV 

(assigned to Yamy a in SurySrcana); 23,11 
(worshipped in iaivSrcana) ; 39. 1 4 (saluted 
in SurySrcana); 58.26 (description of his 
Ratha); 59.28 (full moon and new moon 
good on the day of); 205.131 (requested to 
protect); 93.5 (one of the 14 law-giver); 

k. m. 139.37 (1. r.) (one of the 8 sons of Bhaja- 
mana). 

m. I. 5.29 (born of Buddhi ?). 

k. m. I. 140.13 (I. r.) son of A^vaha and Krti). 
I. 47.24 (a Pujpaka type of temple), 
I. 205.140 (teaching is). 

I. 177.65 (prescription to convey them to 
Moksa) ; 

II. 1.12 (one who abducts another's wife 
shall become). 

1.2.7 (Vyasa's narration of his visit to); 
4.35 (the place for Brahmins); 4.36 (pJace 
for those who remain BrahmacSrins); 36,15 
(Gayatn japa conveys one to); 37.2 (attai- 
ned by Gayatrijapa); 51.10 (is attained 
by VidyadSna to Brahmins); 81.30 (the 
best Tlrtha Gay a is considered convey one 
to); 82.8 (attained by performing Sraddha, 
PindadSna etc. at Gaya); 82.13 ("); 83.8; 
(by worshipping Brahma one gets); 'sS. 1 8 
(by worshipping Gadadhara at Gaya 
after bath at Phalgutlrtha, one shall convey 
21 people to); 83.20 (bathing at Brahma- 
sadas, conveys one to); 83,22 (bathing at 
Aksayavata conveys one to); 83.23 (bath- 
mg atAksayava^a conveys one to); 83.24 
(by doing Sraddha at Ramahrda, one con- 
^' ^25 (doing ^addha 

r< t GayS > conve y* one to); 
(doing ^ddha at certain spots at 
conveys Pitrkula to); 83 .29 (bathing 
Gaya conveys Pitrkula to); 83 34 (by 
at certain J> c f? 



83 
83. 



APPENDIX 7 INDEX OF THE NAMES IN GP. 



307 



Pitrkula to) ; 83.35 (attained as a result of 
offering Pincja); 83.37 (by doing 6rSddha 
etc. at Gay5 one shall obtain); 83.65 
(bathing at the confluence of Nii^cirS. at 
Gaya one attains); 86.3 (raddha at Preta- 
6ila conveys one to); 86.6 (mt. Kraunca- 
pada conveys one to); 86.19 (Pindadana 
at Gaya in the presence of Gods, conveys 
one to); 86.20 (pujana also yields); 86.25 
("); 86.31 ("); 86.37 (by Sraddha, Pinda- 
dana etc one shall attain); 205.72 (in 
Yajana for Devas, invocation is made of 
those Devas at); II. 7.10; 9.9 (one who 
has done good deeds reaches). 
Brahmasadas I. 83.21 (one of the Tlrthas at Gaya). 

BrahmS I- 2.5 (as narrator of GP.); 2.9 (as an 

interloctutor) ; 2.37; 4.11 (as a form of 
Visnu); 4.12 (rescuing earth); 4.19 (crea- 
tion of); 4.28(");5.18 (creating Manu as 
a manifestation of self); 8 14 (His place 
in the worship of Visnu); 8.15 ("); 11.25 
(His place in NavavyQharcana); 11.35 
(worshipped); 12.4; 18.18 (worshipped); 
31.21 (worshipped); 32.32 (Visnu saluted as 
master of ); 32.34 (as a form of Visnu); 
34.42 (saluted); 35 2 (Gayatrl as head of); 
37.8; 40.11 (saluted); 42.6 (one of the 
Tantudevata); 42.11 (offering made to 
Atman as a form of); 43.1 (seeking pro- 
tection from Visou); 43.9 (one of the 
Tantudevata); 43.10 (one of the Devata 
in the sacred thread); 46-9; 46.10; 46.19; 
48.61 (worshipped); 50.58 (to be wonhi- 
53 1 (as an interlocutor); 58.20 
interlocutor); 59.2 (Devata of 
73 1 (as an interlouctor); 
ha as told by); 82.13; 83.8 
(merits' of worshipping); 86.25 _(h 89.6 



pped); 
(as an 
Rohinl) ; 



(his appearance 



before Ruci); 89.56 



308 GARUpA PURXijIA A 

(saluted by Puci); 89.65 (asked Ruci 
to create); 126.8 (worshipped); 137.18 
(worshipped); 138.1 and 143.1; 145.2 
(born from Vi^nu's navel); 139.1; 142.25 
(Devas approach Him when darkness per- 
vaded on account of the course of 
Kanaka's wife); 205.1 (as an interlocutor) 
205.66 (as household fire); 205.74 (the 
trinity should not be looked upon as 
separate); 205.133 (to be worshipped); 
II. 7.5-6 (his Tapas at the navel of Visnu) 
(His creation of the world etc.); 19.12 
(resides always in mandalas) (drawn in 
connection with urdhvadehika); 31.2 (com- 
mends the donor of earth); 
I. 81.11 (a tirtha at Gays); 

d. I. 2.19 (Visnu is said to be among Brah- 
mins); 2.20; 2,44; 4,3 (as an attribute of 
Visnu); 15.2 (as an attribute of Visnu); 
30.8 (an attribute of Visnu); 
a alagrama 45.22; 45.31 (description of). 

Brahmani (nl) d. I. 38.5 (assigned and worshipped in 
DurgSpuja); 59.10 (is well established in 
the east in Piatipannavamlpuja); 134.3 
(to be propitiated in Mahanavami) ; 198.2 
(invoked in the east and worshipped); 
198.9 (worshipped). 

Brahmanda 215.20 (10th UpapurSna). 

BrahmSranya f. I. 83.40 (at GayS). 

Brahmelvara d. I. 83.15 (at Gay5) (by worshipping whom 
one gets free from the sin accruing from 
the murder of a Brahmin). 
I- 59.7 (Abhijit (noon) is known as). 
d ' I- 6.38 (one of the Suns); 17.7 (). 
Bhagavati d. w. I. 38.5 (worshipped in Durgapftja) 

Bhaglratha k . m , L m ^ ^ ^ ^ Q 

brought Gaaga to earth). 



Bhadraka 
Bhadrakah 



APPENDIX 7 INDEX OF THE NAMES IN GP. 309 

Bhajam&na k. m. I. 139,36 (1. r.) (one of the 8 sons of 
Sattata); 139.37 (8 sons of); 13943 (father 
ofKukuraand Kambalabarhisah). 

Bhajina k. m. I. 139.36 (1. r.) (one of the 8 sons of 

Sattvata). 

Bhadra d. I. 28.2 (assigned to the east in the Gopala- 

PHJa); 
palanquin 47.31 (dimension of ). 

d. 87.50 (Indra at the time of Dakaputra 
Manu) (Rtadhamti). 

I. 47.22 (a Vairaja class of temple). 
d. I. 134.4 (worshipped in the MahSnavamT- 
vrata). 

Bhadradeva k. m I. 139.58 (1. r.) (one of the 6 sons of Vasu- 

deva and Devakl). 
Bhaclraratha k. m. I. 139.72 (I. r.) (son of Haryanga). 

Bhadrairenya k m. I. 1 39.21 (I. r.) (son of MahismSn). 
Bhadrasenaka k. m. I, 139.58 (1. r.) (one of the 6 sons of Vasu- 

deva and Devakl). 
Bhadra d. w. I. 38.2 (etc. worshipped in the month 

M5rga&ra, commencing from 3rd day); 

129.9 ^worshipped as a manifestation of 

energy). 

w. 139,56 (wife of Vasudeva). 
BhadrsJva m. 1,54.11 (one of the 9 sons ofAgnldhra, 

ruler of Jambudvip); 
mt. 55.1 (in the east). 

Bhanandana k. m. I. 131.5 (s. r.) (son of Nribhaga). 

BharanT star I. 59.9 (Yama as the Devata of), 59.16 (an 

Adhovaktrastar); 59.42 (Vijayoga caused 
by Bhargava); 59.45 (will cause death in 
journey). 

Bharata m. 54.12 (son of abha in the line of 

Agnidhra who stationed at Salagi-Sma, 

wasaVratl); 54.13 (his son was Sumati); 

k.m. 138.36 (s.r.) (son of Dakratha); 148.10 

(Ramayana story); 143.4; 143.7 (ourne, 



310 



Bharatairama 
(a place) 

BharadvSja 
Bharga 



Bhargabhunii 
Bhallata 

BhallStaka 
Bhava (iaiva) 



Bhavana 



lihavesvara 

Bhavya 

Bhasrna 

Bh&ga 
Bhadrapada 



GARUI?A PURXJilA A STUDY 

Msndavi); H3.8 (and 3atrughna going to 
their uncle Yudhajit); 143.12 (with army 
going to Rama and requesting him to 
return to Ayodhya and rule); 143.13 (ruled 
the kingdom till Rama's return, remained 
as aspector); 138.37 (s. r.) (son of); 
k. m. 139.2* (1. r.) (son of Taiajangha); 
k, in. 140.5 (s. r). son of DusSyanta and 
Sakuntala); 145.3 (in the line of Ayu). 
I. 83.40 (at GayS, on the east of 
Brahmasadas); 83.41 (merits of doing 
6raddha at), 
s. I, 58.14 (and others are lords in Karttika); 

87.27 (at the time of Vaivasvata Manu). 
w. I. 58.16 (an Apsaras who lives in solar 

region in Pausamasa in Vasanta K&la) ; 
k. m. 139.13 (i. r.) (son of Vltihotra). 
k. m. 1.139.13(1.^ (son of Bharga). 
d. 1.46.7 (one of the 32 Devas assigned in 

Vastu). 

gem I. 71,22 (a type of Marakata). 
d. 1,5.26 (married Sati); 6.13 (by whose 
curse, Daksa was born to Maris5, wife of 
Pracinabarhiah). 

I. 47.24 (a Puspaka class of temple). 
I. 142.10 (Rama, son of DasSaratha is 
spoken as). 

I. 193.16 (&iva as an interlocutor addressed 
as). 

I. 54-.1 (born in the line ofAgnidhra); 
56,14 (ruler of 6kadvTpa; 7 sons of). 
I. 2.13 (Vi|nu spoken as besmeared with); 
214.25 (as purifier); 214.26 (ten things 
which are purified by). 

I. 202.75 (a measure of weight, denned as 
20 Palas). 

1.59.9 (Purva, Ajya as lord of ); and 
(Uttaxa, Ahirbtadhna as lord of). 



m, 



d. 



m. 



ash 



star 



APPENDIX 7 INDEX OF THE NAMES IN GP 3il 

Bhanava m. I. 6.27 (born of Bhanu). 

BhS.nu w. I. 6.?4 (one of 10 daughters ofDak$a 

given toDharma); 6.27 (Bhanavas were 
born of). 

Sun d. 15.82 (as a form of Visnu); 52.19 (to be 
worshipped on Saptaml); 58.9 (when it is 
in Jyetha, HshS and Rathasvana reside 
there); 5929 (purifies Dvada^l); 62.1 (is 
situated in the Ra^is from the rise); 70.9 
(Sphatika class). 
k. m. 139.63 (1 r.) (son of Bharga). 

BhanumatJ w. 1.6.22 (one of the daughters of Daks.a, 

married by Bahuputra). 
Bhanuman k. m. I. 138.50 (s. r.) (son of Siradhvaja). 

Bhanuratha k. m, I. 141. 6 (son of BrhadasVa). 
Bhaminl w. I. 6.22 (one of the daughters ofDakja, 

given to Bahuputra). 

BhSrata (name of I. 55.2 (situated in the south); 55.3; 

country) II. 1.6 (Devas born again to do acts of 

merit at); 

(epic) 145.1 (narration of). 
BhSratI d. w. I. 198.8 (worshipped). 

BhSrgava (a constella- I. 19.7; 23.1 1 (worshipped); 39.11 (worshipp- 
tionj ed); 39.14 (saluted); 59.30 (requested to 

purify Saptaml); 59.42 (inBharaijI causes 
Visayoga); 60.2 (Da& period of); 60.8 
(Tula is the place of ); 
k. rn. 139.63 (1. r.) (son of Vahni); 
s. (Para^urSma); 215.20 (an UpapurSpa 

spoken by). 

BhSvya d. I. 87.23 (one of the Ganas, clans). 

Bhasa d. I 6.63 (one of the 49 Marut devatas), 

BhSsak d. I. 6.51 (were born of BhSsl). 

Bhasi d. w. I. 6.50 (born of TSmra); 6.51 (BhSsas were 

born of). 

Bhaskara (Sun) I. 58. 1 (his Rathas are 9 in no.); 58.16 (the 

7 who dwell in Mandala in the Pauja 

month in spring); 58.18 ( in 

14 



312 



Bhitti 



BhTma 



Bhlmadvadasi 
Bhlraaratha 

BlnrnarathS 

Bhimarathah 
Bhimasena 

BhlsanS 

Bhlsma 



Bhlsmaka 



GARUQA PURAlilA A STUDY 

59.26 (As.tarai auspicious on the day of); 
137.17 (gives wealth in Saptaml); 205.123 
(merits of bathing in); 205.135 (worshipp- 
ed). 

wall I. 47.2 (in a temple should be 48); 47.7 
(built on 12 divisions) ; (height made equal 
to 4 parts of); 47.8 (height of Sikhara, 
double that of); 47.11 (twice the breadths 
of Garbha). 

m. I. 127.1 (his observance of DvSda& Vrata 
inMagha); 139.53 (son of PfthS, got by 
VSyu); 145.9; 145. 33-145.34 iDuryodhana, 
killed by); 145.38 (consoling Yudhisthira, 
after the war). 

k. m. (1. r.) 139.3 (son of Amavasu); 139.32 (son 
\ i 

of Vikrti). 

vr. I. 127.2 (origin of). 

k. m. I. 139.10 (1. r.) (son of KetumSn); 

k. m. I. 139.32 (1. r.) (son of Vikrti). 

r. I. 55.8 (flowing the central region). 

m. 87.16 (enemy of Sibi) ; (killed by Hari). 

k. m. I. 140.30 (1. r.) (one of the sons of Somapi). 

k. m. 140,33 (1. r.) (son of Rksa). 

d. w. I. 198.5 (worshipped in Vayukona in 
TripurSpuja). 

k. m. I. 83,26 (tarpana, at particular place in 
Gaya, its merits); 140.35 (born to antanu 
and Gai'iga); 145.4 (endowed with all 
qualities); 145.14 (permitting Pfindavas to 
be invited and given half the kingdom); 
145.25 (was the commander in the Bharata 
war on the side of Duryodhana on the 
opening day); 145.27 (laid on the bed of 
100 arrows by Arjuna & ^ikhandl, awaited 
UttarSyana, meditating on GadSdhara and 
left his body). 

gem I. 73.1 (its test); 76.1 (ratna); 76.2 
( pSsSna 3 resembling); 76.3 (mani. worn 
in the neck set in 'gold' gets ail Sarhpat); 



Al?]?ENDl& 7 INDEX OF THE NAMES IN GP. 



313 



Bhi?mapancaka vr. 
Bhujiys w. 

Bhuvana (a world) 
Bhtltapa d. 

Bhutayajna 

Bhutasantapana m. 
BhQti d. 

Bhutikrt d. 

Bhutida d. 

d. 



Bhute^a 



BhQtes'vara 
Bhudhara 
Bhupa 
Bhamisuta 



d. 
d. 



76.5 (inani, if endowed with good quali- 
tiegj adorning the finger, good effects of); 
76.6-7 (effects of good & bad kinds of); 
76.8 (its value depends on its place of 
origin). 

I. 123.3 (observed in the month Kartika, 
on the 1 1th day in bright fortnight). 
I. 145,7 (through whom Vyasa begot 
Vidura), 

11,5.2 (.16 in no. in Yamaloka). 
I. 185 25 (6iva addressed as an interlocutor). 
I. 205.140 (offering Bali is). 

I. 6.42 (one of the sons of Hiranyaksa). 

I. 89.43 (one of the 9 class of Pitrs). 

I, 89.43 (one of the 9 clas of Pitrs). 

I. 89-43 (one of the 9 clans of Pitrs). 

I. 89.47 (one of the 4 other clans of Pitrs). 

I. 2.16 (as an epithet of Visnu); 

6.54 (6iva addressed as an interlocutor); 

58.28 ( " ); 177.27 ( " ); 185.28 ( " ); 189. 



BhOnaukha 




Bhdri 


k. m. 




k. m. 


Bhftridyumna 


m. 


Bhfiridravas 


k. m. 


Bhflri^renl 


m. 


Bhurvaraha 


d. 



Bhrgu 



a place II. 28-20 (merits of dying at). 

I. 47.26 (a Malaka type of temple), 
k. m. I. 138.6 (s. r.) (son of Khanitra). 
(Mars)I. 58.25 (Ratha of); 59.25 (TrtiyS good on 
the day of ) ; See Kuja. 
I. 47.26 (a Malaka type of temple). 
I. 140.34 (1. r.) (son of Somadatta) ; 
141.10 (son of Senajit). 
I. 87.39 (son of 10th Manu, Dharmaputra). 
I. 140.34 (1- r.) (sonofBhuri). 
I. 87.38 (son of 10th Manu, Dharmaputra). 
I. 12.4 (saluted). 

I. 2.7 (reference to his visit to Brahmaloka 
and requesting BrahmS to divulge the 
essence of GarudapurSna); 5.2 (creation 
of)- 5.7 (married KhySti, daughter of 
Daksa); (DhatS and VidhStS * - 



s. 



born to 



Bhr.iigis'a 
Bhairava 



314 GARU1?A PURS^A A STU>Y 

Khyati and); 5.26 ("); 16.9 (as an 
interlocutor); 16.16 (his son saluted); 
46,4 (assigned as VSstu god) ; 46.5; 52.3; 
58.12 (resides in BhSdrapada when Sun is 
there); 135.5 (to be worshipped in Caitra, 
with garlands of Damanaka). 

Bhrguksetra (a place) II. 28.19 (mertis of death at). 
I. 5.34 (an epithet of iva). 
1.20.14 (is invoked); 24.6 (worshipped); 
24.7 (worshipping the 9); 34.34 (worship 
of) (Mnlamantra for); 40.9; 197.48 (Garuda 
conceived as); 198.1 (as an interlocutor); 
198.2 ( 3) ); 198.4(Unmatta) (worshipped in 
Agnikona); 198.5 (); 199 (as an inter- 
locutor); 200 (,,). 

I. 139.38 (1. r.) (son of Mahabhoja). 
I. 58.25 (his Ratha); 59.28 (Trayoda^ good 
on the day of); 59.34 (the 3 DhanisthSs 
causes Mrtyu, roga etc.); 59.42 (in Uttara- 
sadha causes Visayoga); 61.13 (good in 
4th house); 62.13 (is known as Ugra); 67.5 
(the nature of the time when the wind 
flows on right side in). 

I. 54,16 (son of DhlmSn of JambQdvlpa). 

I. 87.58 (one of the 5 clans of gods at the 

time of Bhautya Manu). 

I. 157.8 (epithet of Visnu). 

I. 196.9 (requested to protect). 



Bhoja 



If. m, 



Bhauraa (Mars) d. 



Bhauvana 
Bhrajins 



m. 
d. 

d. 



BhrSjijnu 
Makaradhvaja d. 
(god of love) 

Makaraksa m 



Magha 



Maiigala 
(planet Mars) 



star 



d. 



I. 143.44 (killed by Rama). 

I 59.3 {of Pitrdevata); 59.16 (are Adhovak- 
tras); 59.45 (will cause death in Journey); 
61.9 (?) (to do Journey towards south in), 
1. 2.46 (Hari identifying Himself with); 
7.3 (saluted); 23.10 (saluted); 59.26 (Sasthl 
good on the day of); 59.41 (in AsVinT 
causes Siddhayoga). 



APPENDIX 7 INDEX OF THE NAMES IN GP. 315 



Mangala d. 



Mani 



gem 



Mandapa 



Maijdalevara m. 
Ma(a)taAga 
(elephant) 
Matai'jga (atGaya) 



Matsya fish 



Matsyaputa 
MathurS (a place) 



I. 38.2 (etc, one worshipped in order com- 
mencing from Trtiya in MSrga&rs.a); 129.9 
(worshipped as a manifestation of energy); 
134.4 (saluted). 

1.70.17 (good features of); 70.18 (bad 
features of); 70.19 (one with Dosa brings 
calamities); 70.28 (names of good variety 
given already); 70.29 (bad varieties never 
to be worn) ; 70.34 (ratnaj when consi- 
dered as valuable); 72.3; 72.5; 73.12 
(for all Jatis there are Vijatis); 73.14; 73.15 
(shall get 6 times value if Dosahlnas); 
73.16 (the above value not always obtained 
on the earth); 73.19 (vidhi told for fixing 
the value). 

I. 47.16 (construction of a temple based 
on the measurement of); 47.28-29 (effect 
of building in different shapes); 47.30; 
47.31; 47.32 (dimensions of); 47.40 
(smaller in temples for housing Vahanas). 
I. 87.5 (son of SvSrocisa Manu). 
I. 68.17 (Vajras of); 68.18 (quality ofVajra 
from); 69.6 (Muktaphalas obtained from). 
83.31 (vSpl of, at DharmSranya, merits 
of raddha at); 83.32; 83.41 (by doing 
6raddha at BharatasVama, one shall 
attain); 83.64 ("vapT, merits of bathing in) 
84.15 ("). 

I. 2.40 (God's words that He protects the 
world with Avat&ras like); 69.1 (Muktap- 
halas obtained from); 69.7; 86.10 (the 
1st AvatSra of Visnu); 87.2 (killer of Pra- 
lambha); 142.2 (in this form the lord 
killed the demon Hayagrlva and recovered 
theVedas). 
I. 69.36 (vessel used in cleaning Maukti- 

kas). 

I. 81.11; 144.11 (Ugrasena installed at); 

II.28.3 (merits of). 



316 



Madanatra- 
yodas"i 
Madanatura 
Madamoha 
MadirSnaka 
Madgura (a kind 
offish) 
Madhu (honey) 



GARUIJA PURXljIA A STUt)V 

vi. I. 137.1 (KSmadeva to be worshipped 

with Damanaka etc. in), 
d. w. I. 198.8 (worshipped in TripurapGJa). 
d. w. 198.8 (worshipped in TripurSpujS). 



MadhusVl 

Madhusudana 

Visnu 



f. 

s. 
d. 



I. 139.50 (wife of Vasudeva). 
I. 217.25 (stealing whose flesh one shall be 
born as a crow)' 

1.48.35; 75.2 (quality of Karketana of the 
colour of). 

k. m. 139.23 (1. r.) (one of the 5 sons of Arjuna). 
k. m. 139.24 (1. r.) (son of Vrsajeoa) (the origin 

of Vrsniv am 8*3). 

k. m. 139.34 (1. r.) (son of Devakgatra). 
Madhucchanda k. m. I. 139.7 (I. r.) (son of VisVamitra) . 
Madhuratha k. m. I. 139.33 (1. r.) (son of Bhimaratha). 
Madhuvana f. I. 143.37 (Hanuman burning fruit (trees) 

at). 

I. 87.22 (at the time of Caksusa Manu). 
I. 50.58 (saluted); 81.15 (in MandSra 
mentioned in the list of Tlrthas); 87.8 
(assuming the form of elephant, killed 
Purukutsara); (at the time of Sv5roci?a 
Manu); 131.10 (saluted); 194.12 (requested 
to destroy all enemies); 222,12 (benefits of 
meditating on); 222.32 (efficacy of contem- 
plation on). 

a SSlagrama I. 45.4 (saluted). 

Manasyu k. m. I. 140.1 (1. r.) (son of Janamejaya\ 

Manu m. I, 5.12 (creation of SvSyambhuva ); 5.2 

(2 daughters of); 5.18; 5.19 (); 5.2L 
(daughters of); 87.1 (14 in number); {first 
is Svayambhuva ) (his sons were Agnidhra 
etc); 91.1 (Svayambhuva etc.); (propitiated 
Hari). 

6.65 (etc, worshipping Hari). 

the second 87.5 (SvSrocisa, his son was Maijd.alevara). 

the third 87.9 (sons of Auttama ). 

the fourth 87.13 (sons of TSmasa"). 

the fifth 87.17 (sons of Raivata ). 

the sixth 87.21 (sons of Caksu?a ). 



APPENDIX 7 INDEX OF THE NAMES IN GP. 



317 



Manudeva 
Manojava 



Mandara 



6.4 (birth of Caks,ua Manu, as son of 
Ripu). 

the seventh 138.2 (Vaivasvata Manu, his birth and his 
sons etc). 

138.3 (father of Ila) ; 87.25 (sons of 
Vaivasvata , were devoted to Visnu); 87.26 
(sons of); 142.3 (and the Vedas protected 
by KeSava in the form of a fish); 143. 2 (the 
time of Ikjvaku from). 

the eighth 87.31 (sons of SSvarnya , the Bhavisya). 
87.35 (son of Daksasavarni, the ninth ) 
87.38 (sons of Dharmaputra, the 10th). 
87.42 (sons of Rudraputra, the llth). 
87.46 (sons of Dakaputraj the 12th). 
87.51 (sons of Raucya., the 13th). 
87.55 (sons of Bhautya, the 14th). 
93.14 (as a Law-maker); 73.17 (according) 
to whom a Suvarna'is 16 mSska by weight); 
II. 29.10 (smrti 5 quotation from). 

I, 141.6 (son of Pratitaka). 

I. 87.24 (name of Indra at the time of 

Cakjusa Manu). 

I. 40.5 (saluted); 
a knot I. 42.9 (one of the 10 knots of the sacred 

thread put on the Lord), 
w. I. 6.22 (one of the daughters of Daksa, 

married by Bahuputra). 
w. I. 6.31 (sons of). 
(Saturn) I. 61.13 (good in 4); 61.14 (good in 6). 

m. 156.11 (one of the 7 sons of Dyutiman in 
Krauricadvlpa); 

47.22 (a Vairaja class of temple); 
1.24 (churning with) ; 56.9 (is the 7th of 
the mountains in Ku&dvlpa); 142.3 
(carried by Hari, in the form of a monkey). 
I. 47.24 (a Puspaka class of temple). 
I. 205.61 (theirnumber); (their motive to 
devour Sun); 205.62 (the Mantra capable 
of driving them). 



k. m. 
d. 



Manonmanl d. w. 



Manorama 

Manohara 
Manda 

Mandaga 



mt, 



Mandira 

Mandeha (a group of 
demons) 



318 



GARUI?A PURX^A -A STUDY 



Manyu k. m. 

Mayanadl r. 



Marakata 



Maru 
Marut 

Marutta 
Marudvatl 



Malaya 
Ma&vaka 



gem. 



MarlcasaptamJ vr, 
Marici s. 



k. m. 
k. m. 
d. 

k, m. 
k. m. 
w. 



Marudvanta m. 



I. 140.6 (1. r.) (son of Vitatha) 
1.83.40 (atGaya; BrahmSrariya situated 
to the west of). 

I. 68,9; 7L5 (formation of); 71.7 (the 
qualities which shows their auspicious 
nature); 71.9 (merits of the place where 
it formed); 71.15 (the one which places 
our mind is deemed to be good); 71.18 
(description of a bad quality); 71. 19 (the 
variety neither to be bought nor to be 
worn); 71.20 (bad qualities of); 71,22 
(though possessed of shades and colours 
gets decoloured on contact with wind); 
71.27 (different occasions to wear flawless 
set in gold); 71.28 (valued higher than 
that of PadmarSSga) ; (if defective, value 
is much lowered than that of Padma- 
raga), 

I. 130.1 (worship of Kartikeya in Bhadra- 
pada). 

I. 5.3 (created by Brahma); 5.10 (married 
Sarhbhuti); 5.26 ("); 87.2 (at the time of 
Svayambhuva Manu>, 87.37 Daksa Savariji 
Manu); 89.52 (etc. said to be led by Pitrs); 
135.5 (to be worshipped in Caitra with 
garlands of Damanaka flowers); 143.1. 
I. 138.44(s. r.) (sonofSlghra); 
138.47 (s. r.) (son of HaryasSva). 
I. 6.58 (49 in no.); 87.28 (")* 
139.64(1. r.) (son of Karandhama) . 
I. 138.8 (s. r .) (son of Avik ? ita). 
I. 6.24 (a daughter of Daksa married by 
Kri'a&va); 6.26 (Marudvanta born of). 
I. 6.26 (born to MarudvatI, wife of 



Hit. 

m. 
d. 



I. 55.6. 

I. 56.14 (one of the 7 sons of BhSvya; lord 

of Sakadvlpa) . 

I. 18. 17 (worshipped); 23.14 (worshipped); 

23.27 (); 40.4 (saluted), 



APPENDIX 7 INDEX OF THE NAMES IN GP. 



319 



Mahskali 

MahScandi 

Mahatala 
Mahgtma 

Mahadeva (iva) d. 



Mahadaitya m 
Mahadruma rr 

Mahadhrti 

Mahan 

Mahanadt 



Mahanavami vr 

Mahanabha m 
MahSnlla 

15 



a place 66.7 (merits of the place); 81,10 (at 

UjjayinT, one of the Tlrthas); 
m. 87.24 (was enemy at the time of Gaksu?a 

Manu and was killed by Hari 3 in the form 

of a horse). 

d. w. I. 38.5 (Durga). 
d. w. I. 83.15 (at Mundaprstha, in Gaya) (merits 

of worshipping). 

I. 57.2 (one of the 7 regions), 
d. I. 89.46 (one of the clans of Pitrs). 

I. 6.23 (interlocutor); 31.22 (interlocutor); 
32.2 (,,h 32.15 (); 34.3 (); 34.5 (); 
34.24 (); 34.29 (); 39.14 (); 41.3 (),- 
84.26 (attained great benefits by doing 
little penance at Mundaprstha at Gaya); 
185.12 (interlocutor); 185.14 (); 185.16 
()! 190.19 (); 191.14 (); 191.19 (); 
224.24 (His Stotra on Visnu, narration of); 
I. 15.33 (an epithet of Visnu); 15.37 (). 
I. 87.59 (enemy of gods at the time of 
Bhautya Manu; killed by Hari himself ). 
m. I. 56.14 (one of the 7 sons of Bhavya, ruler 

of &5kadvlpa). 

k. m. I. 138.48 (s. r.) (son ofVibudha). 
d. I. 89.46 (one of the 5 clans of Pitrs). 
r. I. 55.8 (flowing in the central region); 

81.26 (one of the Tirthas) ; 

(at GayS) 82.10 (RasavahS, as creation of Visou); 
83.41 (Gampakavana at Gay5, situated to 
the west of); 83.45 (Tarpana to Pitrs offered, 
with the waters of); 84.5 (ikaddha done 
again & again at, takes Pitrs to Svarga) ; 
85.23 (one of the sacred spots at GayS). 
I. 133.3 (observed in Sukla?tamT, UttWf- 
'adha); 134.6 (merits of Puja). 
m. I. 6.42 (one of the sons of "" 
gem I. 72.18 (Indranlla is called so 
exits blue rays in milk). 



320 



GARUIpA PURAtfA A STUDY 



Mahanem! d. 

Mahapadma (a 
Serpent) 



Mahapraya 
Mahabala 



Mahababu 



m. 
m. 
m. 

m. 
d. 

m. 

m. 



Mahsbhoja 
Mah&mann 

MahSinlna 
MahSroma 
Mahalaksml 
(consort of 

Visnu) 



k, m. 
k. m. 

d. 

k. m. 
d. w. 



Mahavisiju d. 


I. 


Mahavfra m. 


I. 


Mahav!rya k. m. 


I. 


Maha^ala k. m. 


I. 


Mahita d. 


I. 


MahimJWHn d. 


I. 


Mahisasura m. 


I. 


MahismSn k, m. 


I. 


Mahendra mt. 


I. 

Cf 


Mahendrarji d. w. 


*>\ 

I. 


Mahe&ana (6iva) d. 


I. 


Maheseisa \iva) d. 


I. 


Mahe^vara (6iva) d. 


I. 



I. 15.140 (Visnu addressed as). 

1.6.55 (born to Kadru); 58.15 (lord of 

Margablrsa); 

I. 47.25 (a KailSsa type of temple). 

I. 143.44 (demon killed by Rama). 

I. 87.17 (son of Raivata Manu). 

I. 6.44 (one of the sons of Danu wife of 

Kabyapa); 

87.21 (son of Caksusa Manu); 

89.46 (one of the clans of Pitrs). 

I. 6.42 (one of the sons of HiranySksa); 
6.44 (one of the sons of Danu, wife of 
Kasyapa). 

I. 139.36 (1. r.) (one of the 8 sons of SStt- 
vata). 

I. 139.67 (1. r.) (son of Mahassla, better 
known by the name U^Inara). 
I. 13.10 (Vi?nu saluted as). 
1. 138.48 (s. r.) (son of KrtirSta). 
I. 10.1 (saluted); 10.3 ("); 18.18 (wor- 
shipped); 45.32 (worshipped) ; 59.12 
(portion in Astaml and AmavSsya); 81.27 
(the Ksetra where She is worshipped). 
I. 15.4 See Vi?nu. 

I. 56.16 (son of Puskara, SabaleiJa). 
I. 138.46 (s. r ) (son of Brhaduktha). 
I. 139.67 (1. r.) (son of Janamejaya). 
I. 89.46 (one of the 5 clans of Pitrs). 
I. 89.46 (one of the clans of Pitrs). 
I. 13.13 (killed by KatySyanl). 
I. 339.21 (1. r.) (son of Sshanji). 
L55.6; 81.16; 142.9 (Paras\irSIma 
settling on). 

I. 198.8 (worshipped in TripurSpujS). 

I. 14.2 (an interlocutor); 40.3 ("). 

I. 34.54 (an interlocutor). 

1.6.18 (Daksa's curse on); 25.8; 40.2 

(worshipped); 33.5 (addressed as an inter- 



APPENDIX 7 INDEX OF THE^NAMES IN GP. 321 

locutor); 42.15 (addressed as an inter- 
locutor); 43.25 (worshipped); 45.31 (wor- 
shipped); 137.18 (worshipped); 182.21 
(as an interlocutor); 190.28 ("); 190-30 ("); 
191.13 ("); 192.45 ("); 196.1 ("); 197.55 
(Garudlvidya as narrated to Gaurl by); 
II. 4.50. 
(Visnu) d. 15.37; 15.38. 

Ma(a)he^varr d. w. I. 24.6 (worshipped in Tripuradipuja); 
(Consort of iva) 27.1; 86.22 (merits of worshipping). 

Mahodayapura II. 17.5 (Babhruvahana was king at). 

Mahodara m. I. 143.44 (killed by Rama). 

(a demon) 

Magadha s. I. 87.57 (at the time of Bhautya Manu); 

I. 141.8 (princes of). 
Magha a month I 172.31 (a season commences with); 205. 

119 (one should bath in the morning in). 

MSnikyagiri rat. I. 7 1 .4 (the mythological reference to the 
biles of Bala dropped by Vasuki at). 

Mandavi w. I. 143.7 (daughter of Ku&adhvaja); 

(married by Bharata). 

MSgdavya s. 142.22 (while undergoing painful troubles, 

was made to swing by Kausika seated on 
wife's shoulder); 142.23 (his curse). 

Matrgauas d. I. 223.1-2 (addressing amkara, express 

their desire to devour the world); 223.18 
(were formerly created by &va to destroy 
Andhaka). 

Madrl w . I- 145.8 (wife of Pandu, births of sons to). 

Madhava d. I. 15,32 ( Visnu addressed as); 15.37; 58.8 

(in j y eh a when Sun chere) 83^7 
(merits of propitiating on) ; 87.55 (killing 
Iima taking the form of a peacock); 
131.10 (saluted in Astamlvrata); 
a ^alagrama I. 45.3 (saluted). 



322 

Msnasa 



Msndhata 

MayS 
Mari?a 



Marlca 



Marlci 
Markandeya 



Malika 

Masaka 
MSsopavasa 

Mahirnati (a 
place) 

Mahendrl 



GARU$A PURA^AA STU>Y 

mt. I. 56.5 (the 7 in ^almala); 58,5; 84.6 (by 
going to Uttara one shall attain Siddhi^J 
84.7 (PhjdadSna at Dak?ina removes three 
debts). 

k. m. I. 138.22 (s. r.) (son of YuvanS^va); 125.1 

(observed EkSdas'lvrata). 
a city II. 28.3 (yields Moska). 
w 1,6.12 (wife often Pracetas) (birth of 

Daksa thro' her on account of the curse of 



Mahe^varl 



I, 139.51 (10 sons, Vasudeva etc. born to). 
m. I. 143.18 (demon in the form ofa deer); 
143.19 (wailing aloud & calling Rama and 
Laksmapa) ; 
I. 215.20 (an Upapurana). 

s. I. 6.46 (wives of); 6.47 (60 sons of). 

s. 1.5.9 (son of Mrkandu); 15.34 (Vijiju 

addressed as worshipped by) ; 83.17 
(I^vara, merits of worshipping) ; 88.1 
(Pitrstotra as uttered by Ruci, narrated 
by) ; 88.28 (story of Ruci arrated by); (to 
Krauncuki); 89.1 (addressing KrauncukiJ; 
225.1 (Stotra uttered by ). 

I. 47. 19 (one of the 5 classes of temples); 
47.20 (Vrttayata-circular) ; 47.26 (the 9 
types of temples of the class of ) (Malaka). 
I. 70.33 (as a measure of weight); 72.19 
73,17. 

vr. I. 122.1-6 (to be observed in Ekadas'l 
Suklapaksa in AsVini). 
181.18. 

d. w. I. 134.3 (worshipped); 198.4 (") ; 198.9("). 
d. w. 1.38.5 (saluted); 40.1; 40.2 ("),- 40.14 

(Puja); 59.10 (her place or position); 

134.3 (worshipped in Mahanavamlvrata); 

198.2 ; 198,9 ("). 



APPENDIX 7 INDEX OF T&E NAMES IN GP. 



323 



a stream 



Mahe^vara 




I. 


Mita 


d. 


I. 


Mltra 


d. 


I. 


Mitradeva 


m, 


5 
I. 


Mitrabindu 


m. 


I. 


Mi travan 


m. 


I. 


Mitravaha 


m. 


I. 


Mitrasaha 


k. m. 


I. 


MItrayu 


"k. m, 


I. 


Mitravrnd?* 


d. w. 


I. 


MftnamsiS, 




I. 


Mukula 


k. m. 


I. 


Mukull 




(ri 
I. 


Mukta 


s. 


I. 


Mukta, Mukta - 


gem 


I. 


phala (marji) 




ge 



Muktapanlya gem 



83.50 (at Gaya, merits of raddha at). 

I. 215.20 (the 13th Upapurana), 

I. 6.60 (one of the 49 Marut devas). 

I. 6.38 (one of the Suns); 17.7 ("); 48.53; 

59.6 (Lord of AnuradhsO. 

I. 87.47 (son of Daksaputra Manu). 

I. 87.47 (son of Daksaputra Manu). 

I. 87.47 (son of Daksaputra Manu). 

I. 87.47 (son of Daksaputra Manu). 

I. 138.33 (s. r.) (son of Sudasa). 

I. 140.22 (1. r.) (son of Divodasa). 

I. 28.11 (worshipped). 

I. 215.21 (one of the 18 Vidyas). 

I. 140.18 (1. r.) (son of Haryaiva); 140.19 

(ruled Paficala); (5 sons of). 

I. 47.25 (a KailSsa type of temple). 

I. 87.57 (at the time of Bhautya Manu). 

I. 68.9 (Mani); 68.49; 69.11; 69.14 (effects of 

gems obtained from Ahi^ira^ ; 69.22; 71.23 

(an unset Vijati of the gem shall shoot up 

rays) . 

I. 70.21 (Padmaragas obtained from); 70.22 
(nature of Padmaraga called). 

II. 19.23 (the 6 things which yield). 

I. 47.10 (its measurement and place of 
location). 



Mukti 

Mukhamandapa 
(Pavilion in front 

of a temple) 
Mukhabai-ia m. I. 141 2 (son of Nrcaksu) (in the line of 



Mukhyah 

Muctikunda 
Muni 



Mxistfka 



d. 



s. 
m . 



Muhurttajas m. 



I. 87.33 (people of heaven at the time of 

Savarni Manu). 

I. 138.23 (one of the sons of Bindumahya). 

I. 6.25 (one of the wives of KaSyapa). 

56. 1 1 (one of the 7 sons of DyutimSn in 

Krauncadvlpa). 

87.10 (at the time of Auttama Manu). 

I. 15.80 (wrestler slayed by Krsna); 144.6; 

47.27 (a Trip (v) istapa type of temple). 

I. 6.27 (born of MuhurtS daughter of 

Daksa). 



324 

Muhurtta 

MQrcchanS 
Mala (la) 

Mulaka 
Mykandu 

Mrga 
(Mrgablrsa) 



Mrga 
Mrgavyadha 



d. 



star 



d. 



Mrnala (lotus fire) 



Mftaganga 
Mrtyu (Yam a) 
Mrtyunjaya 



MedhS 



Medhatithi 



Medhavi 

Menaka 

Men5 



PURSisIA A STUDY 

I. 6.24 (one of 10 daughters of Daksa 
married by Kr^SsVa); 6.27 (MuhQrtajas 
were born of). 

II. 23.31 (has his abode in the Agneya 
direction of Citragupta's). 

I. 59.6 (of Nirrti Devata) ; 59. 14 .good for 
journey); 59.16 (Adhovaktra); 59,36 (Amrta- 
yoga caused by Sun in), 
k. m. I. 138.34 (s, r.) (son of ASvaka). 

m. I. 5.9 (son of VidhatS and Niyati; father of 

Markandeya). 
star I, 59.14 (good for journey); 59.19 (a 

Parsvamukha star); 59.44 (good forjata- 

karma etc.); 61.11 (good for Kanyadana 

etc.). 
k. m. I. 138.2 (s. r.) (son of Manu). 

1.6.36 (one of the 11 Rudras). 

I. 77.2; 79.1 (Sphatika resembling colour 

of); 132.12 l the story of Kauslka going 

to the tank to fetch ). 

r. I. 53.9 (flowing in the central region), 
d, I, 52.16 (worshipped in Caturdasl). 
d. I. 18.1 (Arcana), 
stotra I, 225.1-8. 
w. I. 5.23 (one of the 24 maiden created by 

Daksa); 5.29 (ruta was born to), 
m. 54.1 (one of the sons of Priyavrata) (Cf. 

next); 54.2 (sons of), 
m. I. 54.1 (one of the sons of Priyavrata); 56.1 

(PlaksadvlpesVara, 7 sons of ). 
s. 87.36(at the time of Daksa Savari?i Manu). 

k. m. 140.4 (1. r.) (son of Pratiratha). 
k. m. 140.9 (1. r.) (son of Kanva). 

I, 141.2 (son of MukhabSna). 

141.3 (son of Sunaya). 
d. vv, I. 58.9 (lives in Jyestha when Sun is there), 
w. I. 5.17 (born to pitrs and SvadhS; went 

to Himacala^; 5.33 (SatI was born again to 

Mena and Himavan) . 



m. 

m. 



APPENDIX 7 INDEX OF THE NAMES IN GP. 



325 



Meru 

rat. 
Merudevi d. 

Maithill (Slta) w. 



Mainda a monkey 
Mohini d, w. 



Mauktika gem. 



Yajurveda 




Yajna 


m. 


Yati 


k. m. 


Yadu 


k. m. 


Yama 


d. 



(The god of d. 
death 



I. 47.22 (a Vairaja class of temple); 47.34 
(is said to be the best among temples). 
54.6 (in JambQdvlpa) (its extent); 55.2 
(Kiriipurusavara lying south of). 
I- 1.21 (In 8th incarnation, Visnu's birth 
as Urukrama to Nabhi and; 54.12(Rsabha 
born as son of Nabhi and'. 

I. 143.32 (Hanuman addressing ); 143.35 
(Hanuman requests Ravana to return her 
to Rama). 

I. 143.42 (in the Ramayana story). 
I. 1.25 (reference to Visnu stupifying other 
in the form of ); 29.1 (worshipped); 40.7 
(saluted); 198.10 ("). 

I. 69.4 (of the 8 classes, the ones obtained 
from conch shell and elephant are the 
best in rank); 69.6; 69.22; 69.35; 69.36 
(process of cleaning); 69.38 (method of 
wearing it as an ornament); 69.39-40 
(test to find the genuineness of ); 69.41-42 
(characteristics of a quality); See also 
Mukta, Muktaphala. 

1.215.13 (was taught by Vyasa to his 
disciple Vaii'ampayana). 
1.5.22 (born to Akflti and Ruci); 196.10 
(requested to protect). 

I. 139.17 (1. r.) (one of the 5 sons of 
Nahusa) . 

I. 139.18 (1. r.) (son of YaySti); 139.19 
(the three sons of). 

I, 5.22 (12 in no. bom of Yajna and 
Daksina). 

15.23 (Vis^u addressed as Pad of ); 15.55 
(Visnu as cause of); 16.13 (established 
in South); 31.21 (saluted); 32.17 (saluted); 
34.43 (worshipped); 40.11 (saluted); 52.16 
(worshipped); 59.9 (lord ofBhara^): 52,16 
(worshipped); 59.9 (lord 



of Bharanl); 



326 GARUpA PURXtxIA A STUDY 

84.11 (Kavya vaha); 32.17 (in the story 
of Kaus'ika, VijayS offered to Yama and 
the latter's requet to VijayS to stay in 
His place); 132.18 (weds Vijaya aad 
departs for his world); 137.16 (worshipped 
inDvitiya and Pancaml); 219.26 (addres- 
sing confidentially his Purusas not to 
harass devotees of Visnu); 221-4 (asking 
sufferers at heaven why they have not pro- 
pitiated Ke^ava). 

II. 5.18 (remains four armed, adorned 
with conch etc.); 5.19 (his conducts to- 
wards men 1 ; 8.1 (hears the words of 
3ravanas); 20.15 (his Datas); 23.22 

(epithets of); 34.8 (Vaivasvata is the 
punishing authrority for secret sins) ; 

I. 93. 4 (one of the 14 law givers), 
self-control I. 229.13 (one of the Angas of Yoga). 
Yamaja (tiwn) I. 201.3 (type of horse to be rejected). 

YamalSrjuna rn. I. 15.94 (Visnu addressed as destroyer of); 

144.3 (killed by Krsaa). 

Yamaloka (place II. 1.10 (request to narrate how men 

of Yama} reach); 5.1 (Nirnaya, Pramapa, Vistara 

& Mahatmya, requested to be described); 

5.2 (narration of"); 5.3 (PramSna of); 

(86 thousand Yojanas away from earth); 

20.4 (description of one who goes to 

Svarga from) ; 23. 1 (extent, asked for) ; 

23.3; 34.9 (one who does not perform 

PrSyascitta, shall be born again after 

suffering). 
Yamuna r. I. 18.17 (worshipped) ; 23.14 (assigned at 

the door); 23.28 (is VSstvadhipa at the 

door) ; 28.1 (worshipped at the door); 

30.6 (saluted); 31.14 (saluted); 34.18 

(worshipped); 126.2. 
Yayati k. m. I. 139.17 (1. r.) (one of the 5 sons of 

Nahu?a); 139.18 (begot 2 sons thro' 

Devayant); 139.18 (got 3 sons thro' 



APPENDIX 7INDEX OF THE NAMES IN GP. 327 

Yavlnara k. m. I. 140.14 (1. r.) (son of Dvimlda). 

k. m. 140.19 (1. r.) (one of the 5 sons of Mukula). 
Yasas m. I. 5.30 (born to Dharma). 

Y aba II. 22,39 (one of the 10 Nadis). 

Ya^'oda w . I. 131.9 (Arghya offered to"; in Astami- 

vrata). 

Yajnavalkya s. 1.92.17 (obtained the favour oFVi?pu to 

lay down rules of conduct); 93.1 (Dharma 
according to); 93.3 (as interlocutor); 94 
(as interlocutor); 95 (); 93.7-13 (Varna- 
dharma according to); 94.1-32 (,,); 
95.1-33 (Grhasthadharma-nirnaya accord- 
ing to) ; 96.1-72 (Grhasthavidhi according 
to,; 97.1-10 (Dravya^uddhi according to); 
98.1-19 (Danavidhi according to); 99.1-39 
(Sraddhavidhi according to); 100.1-16 
(narrating Vinayakopasrsta laksana); 101. l- 
12 (Grahaaanti according to); 102.1-16 
(Vanaprasthadharma according to); 103.1-5 
(Bhiksudharma according to); 104.1-4 
(description of what happens to a sinner as 
told by); 105.1-70 (); 106.1-25 (pollution 
by death accordig to). 

YSdava a race I. 15.129 (Visnu addressed as one mindful 

of the welfare of ); 145.39 (annihilation of ). 

Yadavanandana d. I. 194.18 (requested to kill one's enemies 
(Balar&ma) with his plough). 

YSmab d. I, 87.3 (one of the 4 Somapayins). 

Yarn! w. 1.6.24 (one of the 1 daughters of Dakja, 

married by Kp&b'va); 6.27 (NSgavIthi born 

to). 

Yamyapura (the II. 5.79 (Preta's way to); 5.80 (the different 

abode of Yama) cities on the way to); 6.3 (reached by 

Preta on the 18th day). 

Yugantara k. m. I. 139.40 (1. r.) (son of Kuli) (a &iiveya}, 

Yudhajit k. m. I. 143.8 (maternal uncle of Bharata aad 

Satrughna). 

Yudhisthira k. m. I. 139.53 (born to PfthS, by God of 
Virtue); 145.9 (mighty and valiant); 145- 
16 



328 



Yuvana^va 


k. m. 


I. 




k. m. 


1 


Yuvan5;>vaka 


k. m. 


I, 


YQthI 




I. 

4.1 


Yonistoyfv 


r. 


tr 

r. 


Yaudheyi 


k. m. 


i. 


Raghu 


k. m. 


i. 




k. m. 


14 


Raja 


m. 


I. 




k. m. 


IE 


Rajogatra 


s. 


I. 

fr 


Raji 


k, m. 


U; 
I. 



Rati 

RatinSra 
Ratna 



Rathlnara 

Rathauja 
Raman a 
Kama (consort 



GARUDA PURfijvIA A STUDY 

18; 145.19 (dejected in dice by Duryo- 
dhana); 145.32 (his battle with alya); 
145.38 (his rule and performance of 
Asvamedha); 145.39 (his departure to the 
region of Visnu with his brothers, after 
establishing Pariksit at the throne); II. 12, 
15-73 (his dialogue with BhTsnaa on how 

Pretatva is obtained). 

I. 138.19 (s. r.) (son of Ardra). 
138.24 (s. r.) (son of Ambarlsa). 

I. 138.22 (s. r,) (son of Pnjs&a). 

I. 205.48 (one of the trees, used in cleaning 

the teeth). 

I. 56.7 (In Plaksadvlpa). 

I. 140.39 (1. r.) (son of Yudhi?thira). 

I. 139.19 (1. r.) (one of the 3 sons of Yadu), 

143.2 (born in the line of Iksv&ku). 

I. 54.16 (one of the 4 sons of Bhauvana). 

138.3 (s. r.) (son of Ils and Budha). 

I. 5.15 (one of the 7 sons of Vasistha and 

f?rja). 

I. 139.7 (1. r.) (one of the 4 sons of 

Nahusa); 139.14 (his 500 sons, killed by 

Indra). 

1.5.30 (wife of Kama and their son was 

Harsa); 40.7 (saluted). 

I. 140.4 (1. r.) (son of Rteyu). 

I. 68.1; 68.4; 68.5; 68.8; 68.12 (declared as 

faultless, result of wearing by kings); 68.46 

(all are scratched by diamond, itself not 

being scratched); 70.5; 222.48 (PujS to be 

done); See also Majji and other individual 

names. 

I- 138.16 (s. r.) (son of PrgadasVa; devoted 

to Vgsudeva). 

I. 87.10 (at the time of Auttama Manu). 
I. 6.31 (son of Manohara). 

I. 71.5 (gracing the region beyond 
Himalayas). 



w. 

k. m. 
gem 



k. m. 

s. 
m. 
d. w. 



APPENDIX 7 INDEX OF THE NAMES IN GP. 



329 



Rambhaka k. m. I. 139.7 (1. r.) (one of the 4 sons ofNahuja). 
Rambha d. w. I. 58.10 (dwells in Aadha when Sun is 

there); 58.19 ( in Phalguna). 
w. 132.9 (wife of Vlra, resident of PStaliputra). 

RambhStrtlya vr. I. 120.1 (observer to fast on 3rd day in 
bright fortnight in the month of Marga- 
lrsa); 120.2 (in Pausa to observe fast^. 

Ramya m. I. 54.11 (one of the sons of Agnidhra, 

Jambudvlpesvara). 

Ramyaka mt. I. 55.2 (situated on the north-west of 



Ravi (Sun) d. I. 42.6 (one of the Tantudevatas of the 

sacred thread); 51.18 (one who is desirous 
of health to worship); 58.6 (Chandas for); 
58.13 (when is at A^vayuji, the gods dwell 
there); 60.3 (effect of this Dafe); 60.20; 
62.13 (is fixed); 66.17 (as presiding deity); 
67.2 (and other planets are deemed to be 
permeating the right nostril thro' which 
wind flows); 67.9 (Daksinanadi said to 
resemble the colour of); 83.51 (merits of 
offering Pinda at Gaya at the foot of); 
130.1 (to be propitiated in Bhadrapadaj; 
137.14 (worshipped on Saptami); 143.2 (son 
of KasSyapa, son of Marlci) ; 205. 1 1 6 (at the 
time of his Sankramana, bathing at night 
is prescribed); 

m. 87.5 (one of the sons of SvSrocisa Manu). 

place I. 89.25 (where Nsgas worship the manes). 

w. I. 5.11 (one of the daughters of Smrti and 
Angiras). 

II. 142.18 (Sits when she was at Ravaoa's 
mansion thought only of ); 143.24 (friends- 
ship with Sugrlva); 143.31; 1*3.39 
(V5bhl|ana seeking protection from); 
143.49 (offering Piflda and Dana at Gayft 
and coronating Lava and Ku&); See also 
Rama below. 
Rajavarddhana k. m. I. 138.8 (s. r.) (sonofTama). 



Rasatala 

Raka 



Raghava (Ratna) d. 



330 



GARUpA PURAjvIA A STUDY 



Rajasuya (a sacrifice) I, 84.16 (Phala); 
Paijdavas). 



145.15 (performed by 



Rsjsdhidevi 



Rama 



I. 139.52 (daughter of 6ara); 139.55 (2 
sons of). 

I. 1.31 (as Visnu's 19th Avatara); 52.25 
greatness of wife of); 86.10 (as an Avatara 
ofVisnu)- 86.11 (D5b ! arathi); 138.36 (one 
of the 4 sons of Dasaratha); 138,37 (Kusa, 
Lava sons of); 142-10; 142.12 (to make his 
father's words true and to please his 
mother, his departure to forest and arrival 
at Citrakuta etc.); 142.17; 143.4; 143.5 
(devoted to parents) (learnt from Visvg- 
mitra about Astras); (kills Tadaka) ; 143,6 
(kills Subahu at the sacrifice of Vis"vamitra) 
(married Jnaki, attending the sacrifice 
performed by Janaka) ; 143.10 (his departure 
for Snigaverapura with Sita & Lak?mana 
discarding the kingdom); 143.13 (Bharata's 
rule of his kingom); 143,14 (moves to the 
hermitage of Atri); 143.15 (maks obseisance 
to Sutlksna and Agastya and reaches 
DancIakSranya); 143.16 (disgraces JsGrpaija- 
kha); 143.18 (kills Khara, Dusa^a etc.); 
143.19 (on Sita's request to get the deer, 
chased Marica and killed him); 143.20 
(at the instigation of Sita, Laksmapa 
follows the path of); 143.22 (returns and 
finds the Parnat&ls empty); 143.25 
(coronates Sugriva at Kiskindha, remaining 
atRsyamnka); H3. 32 (Hanuman consoles 
Sita telling that He is Duta of ) ; (and aske 
for something which Rama may identify); 
143.35 (at the court of Lanka Hanuman 
reveals his identity as messenger of); 143.37 
(Hanuman returns to); 143.38 (goes to 
Lankapurl); 143.39 (confers the wealth of 
Lanka on VibhTsaija taken as refuge); 
143.40 (crosses the ocean); 143.43 (kills ail 



APPENDIX 7 INDEX OF THE NAMES IN 



331 



s. 
m. 

R am a.gi ryasV a ma 
(a place) 

Ramatlrtha (a 
place) 

Ramaratha k. m. 

Ramahrada a 

RSmSyana 

RamesVara (a place) 
Ravaiia m. 



RavapagangS, r. 

Ravani ^Indrajit) m. 
Rahu (a planet) d. 



Ripu 
Rukma 



k, m. 
k. m. 



Rukraakavaca k, m. 
Rukm&rtgada m. 



Raksas as); 143.50 (rules for 11000 years); 

I. 87.32 (at the time of Savani \Manu); 

I. 139.6 (1. r.) (son of Jamadagni) (ie. 

Paras"ur5ma). 

I. 81.8. 

I. 83.4 (at GayS, merits of performing 

6rSddha at); 83.33 and 83.64 (merits of 

bathing atl. 

I. 138.53 (s. r.) (son of Anenas). 

I. 83.24 (at Gaya ; merits of performing 

raddha at). 

I. 143.1 (narration of merits of hearing). 

I. 81.9 ; 83.14; 86.31, 

I. 15.91 (Visflu addressed as destroyer of); 
142.14 (killed by Rama); 143.18 (instigated 
by 6tirpanakha, came to abduct Sita); 
143.21 (abducted Sita); (defeated Jatayu 
and reached Laiika); 143.30 (HanumSn 
saw Sita scolded by); 143.35 (Hanuman 
addressed); 143.46. 

I, 70.4 (in Simhalades'a); 70.14 (nature of 
Kuruvindakas obtained from). 
I. 143.46 (killed by Laksmana). 
I. 7.3 (saluted) ; 16 16 (saluted); 17.6 
(worshipped); 19.7; 19.8 (its rule over the 
day in the order); 23,11 (worshipped); 
39.13; 39. 14 (saluted); 60.2 (Das'a period 
of); 60.5 (effects of Dasa of); 61.15 (good 
in llth house); 67.2 (etc. are deemed to be 
controlling the right nostril); 205.116 
(bathing in night permitted only when 
one sees). 

I. 6-3 (son of Divafijaya in the line of 
UttSnapSda); 6.4 (r!mSn, son of). 
I. 139.28 (1. r.) (one of the 5 sons of 
Rukmakavaca). 

I. 139.28 (1. r.) (son of &tagu) (5 sons of), 
I. 125.7 (obtained Moksa, after observing 



332 GARUr)A PURA"J*[A A STUDV 

EkSdasi Vrataj remaining awake and 
hearing Puraija). 

Rukmini (consort d.w. I. 28.10 (worshipped); 139.60 (one of the 
ofKr?na) 16000 wives of Krsna); H4.6; 144.8 (her 

son Pradyumna). 

Rucaka I. 47.22 (a VairSja class of temple) 

Ruci m. 1.1.20 (Yajna born to); 5.2 (creation of ); 

5.21 (marry AkGti, daughter of Svayam- 
bhuva Manu); 882 (the Prajapati, an 
account of the story of ); 88.28 (his story 
narrated by Markandeya to Krauncuki); 
89.50 (Pitr Stotra uttered by); 89.63 (with 
whose Stotra Pitrs get pleased and offered 
him a boon); 90.2 (Pramlocas' words to); 
90.7 (get a son named Raucya thro 1 
Manim, daugher of Pramloca). 

Rucirasva k. m. I. 140.11 (1. r.) (son of Senajit). 

Rudra I. 1.2 (saluted); 2,8 (as an interlocutor); 

2.9 ("); 2.10 (His contemplation on Visou); 
2,29 (an interlocutor); 2.30 ("); 2.36 
(heard the 18 Vidyas etc. fromBari); 
2.37 (an interlocutor); 2.38 ("); 2.43 ("); 
2.46 ("); 2.55 ("); 2.56 I"); 3 1 (heard 
the PurSna from Visnu); 3.8 ( J> ); 4.2 (as 
an interlocutor); 4.8 ("); 4.11 (Hari 
becomes rupi at the end of a Kalpa, dest- 
roys the world) ; 5.2 (His creation) ; 5.6 
(Sail, daughter of Daksa, given to); 
5.32 (not invited for Dakayajna); 5.34 
(gets angry and destroys Daksayajfta); 
6.27 (an interlocutor); 6.35; 8.2 (an inter- 
locutor); 9.2 (an interlocutor); 15.67 
(Visnu as soul of); 15.108 (agitated by 
Visnu); 16.2 (an interlocutor); 23.5; 23.41; 
25.10; 27.1 (the goddess addressed as seated 
in the heart of); 30.7 (an interlocutor); 
30.17 (); 31.4 ("); 31. 16 ("); 31.26 (Visnu 
saluted as worthy of worship by); 31 29 (an 
interlocutor); 32.18 ("); 33.6 (*); 34.15 ("); 



APPENDIX 7 INDEX OF THE NAMES IN GP. 333 

34.21 ("); 34.33 (worshipped); 34.38 (an 
interlocutor); 34.40 ("); 34.41 
("); 34.53 ("); 35.2 (GayatrT spoken 
as sikh&); 36.1 (an interlocutor); 39.9 (); 
39.4 (); 39.6 (); 39.10 (); 39.11 (); 
39.7 (worshipped); 39.2 (); 39.4 (); 39.10 
(); 40.3 (); 40.14 (); 42.7; 42.17 (to 
be worshipped 1st in PavitrSrohana); 46.8 
(worshipped); 50.28 (Divakara addre- 
ssed as); 54.9 (an interlocutor); 55.3 (); 55.5 
(); 57.9 (); 59.1 () (star of); 59.43 
(an interlocutor); 59,5 (,,); 62.12 (); 
63.14 (); 63.17 (); 66.14 (); 83.5 
(worshiped at Gayatirtha); 86.9 (Maha 
as an Avatara of Visnu); K6.30 ("isvara, 
worshiped of); 86.33 (an interlocutor); 
87.9 (an interlocutor); 147.1 (mythical 
reference to origin of fever '.from the eyes of); 

177.1 G (an interlocutor); 177, 19,47,67, 70, 
73, 83(,,); 178.90,); 178.10 (); 178.20 
(an interlocutor); 178.22 (); 179.2 (); 
182.19 (); 182.21 (); 182.26 (); 183.4 
183.13 (); f,,)5 ^ 83 - 16 (); 184.24 (); 
185.3 (); 185.20 (); 185.24 (); 185.36 
(); 186.3 (); 186.7 (); 186.14 {); 187.2 
(); 187.14 (); 188.2 (): 189.14 (); 

190.2 (); 190.14 (); 190.15 (); 190.18 
(); 191.3 (); 192.23 (,,V, 197.50 (wor- 
shipped); II. 19.12 (resides in the Mandala 
drawn for Qrdhvadehika karma). 

Rudra d. I. 6.36 (11 in number); 8 7.29. 

Rudra k. m. I. 138.3 (s. r.) (son of IlS and Bttdha). 

Rudrapada (a place) 84.20 (at Gaya, merits of doing raddha 

at); 84.23. 

Rudraputrab. I. 5.6 (were in many and were valarous); 

Rudraloka I. 86.30 (obtained as a merit of worshipping 

Rudrae^vara);. 

II. 20.3 (Dana by giving which one can 

live for a long time at). 



334 

Rudra (a knot) 
Rudraksa 

Rudhira 



Rurti 



Revanta 
Raivata 

Roniaka 

Ronaapada 
Rohaka 



gem 



m. 



Ruruka 

Rurubhairava 
Rusadratha 
Reijumatl 

Revata 
Revati 


d. 
k. m. 
k. m. 
d. 
k. m. 
w 

k. m, 

star 



GARUpA PURSljIA A STUDY 

I. 42.9 (in the sacred thread). 
I. 172.19 (is worn while reciting Mantras), 
68.10; 78.2 (the formation of); 78.3 (the 
qualities of and test for); (the colour of a 
fully matured). 

I. 6.4 (son ofCaksusa Manu) (^rlrnan, as 
son of ). 

24.7 (one of the 8 Bhairavas). 
. 138.40 (s. r.) (son of Ahlnaka). 

I. 138.28 (s, r.) (son of Vijaya). 
I. 198.2. 

I. 139.68 (I. r .) (son Titiksu). 

I. 140.39 (wife of Nakula, one of the 
Psndavas); ( c f. Karenumatl, Mbh. Adi. 
95.79). 

I. 138.14 (s. r.) (son of Devaka). 

1.38.5; 59.9 (star of Pausa); 59.14 
(auspicious for journey); 59.19 (Padva- 
mukha); 59.34 ("traya cause on the day of 
Budha, Mrtyu, Rogaetc.); 59.41 (Siddha- 
yoga caused by Venus in); 59.43 (Visayoga 
caused byganiin); 59.44 (good forjata- 
karma etc.); 60.11; 61.11 (good if well 
situated). 

II. 4.47-8 (merits of setting free a black 
bull on PQrpima and). 

138.14 (daughter ofRevata); 138.57 (wife 
of Balabhadra, mother of &Srana etc.), 

I. 86.22 (at Gaya); (merits of worshipping). 

I. 6.36 (one of the II Rudras). 

I. 138.4 (s. r.) (son ofRevata). 

I. 80.2 (said to be one of the best varieties 

of Vidruma). 

I- 139.30 (1. r.) (son of Vidarbha). 
139.71 (1. r .) (son of Dharmaratha), 

II- 12.41 (the story of one who has himself 
eaten the food intended for Devas and 
p 'trs); 12.43 (had face resembling a 
a mountain). 



d. 
d. 

k. m. 
gem 



APPENDIX 7 INDEX OF THE NAMES IN GP. 



335 



Rohiij! (star) I. 59.2 (of Brahma); 59.15 (auspicious for 

wearing garments); 59.22 (Ordhvamukha); 
59.35 (causes on the day of Guru, Autpfttika- 
yoga) ; 59.40 (Saturn in , causes Siddha- 
yoga); 59.43 (iiukra in , causes Visayoga); 

w. ]39.56 (wife of Vasudeva); (mother of 

Balabhadraka). 

Rohita m. I. 56.5 (one of the sons of Vapusman, 

almalesa); 

d. 87.49 (one of the Ganas at the time of 
Daksaputra Manu). 

k. m. I. 138.27 (s.r.) (son of HarisScandra). 

m. I. 89.67 (son of Ruci) ; 90.7 (birth of). 

k. m. 1.140.2 (1. r.) (son of Vatsajati); 140.3 
(sonsiof). 
I. 85.10 ; 217.31. 



Robitaka 
Raucya 

Raudrava 

Raurava (a 

Naraka) 

Laksmana 



m. I. 138.36; 142.11; 143.4 (son of Dasaratha) ; 
143.7 (marries Urmila); 138.37 (sons of); 
143.20 (under instigation of Sita goes to 
rescue RSma) ; 143.38 (RSma reaches 
LankS with); 143 46 (kills Rava^i). 

Laksmana w. I. 139.60 (one of the 8 wives of Krsija); 

20.11 (worshipped). 

Lakstnl d. w. I. 5.23 (as one of 24 creations of Daka); 

10.3 (worshipped); 11.22 (Her place in 
Navavyuharcana); 11.40 (golden coloured) ; 
29.7 (worshipped); 34.39 (worshipped); 38.2 
(worshipped); 40.4 (saluted) ; 40.6 ("); 
66.21; 86.23 (worshipped at Gaya); 129.9 
(worshipped); 178.19 (requested to give 
Saubhsgya). 

Lak 9 rrrfnSra- (a ala- 1-45.26 (requested to protect); 45.27 (); 

yana grama) 66.1. 

Lafikapuri 1.143.21 (Ravanas abduction of Sita and 

his return to); 143.30 (burnt by HanumSn); 
143.39 (the wealth of which was conferred 
17 



336 

Lajisyanta 

Lambana 

Latnba 



Lambodara 

Laya 

Lava 

Lavana 



Lavall 



GARUpA 



A STUDY 



Lsbha 
Labhaga 

Lifiga (form 



Lekhnlj 

Lokfintara 

Lobha 

Vakra 

Vakratuijda 



Vajra 



by Rama on Vibhisana); 143.40 (Ramas 

arrival at); 143.42 (destruction of ); 14-2.14 

(VibhTs:ana installed at by Rama). 
m. I. 87.26 (one of the sons of Vaivasvata 

Manu); See Havisyanta. 
m. I. 56.8 (one of the 7 sons of Jyotisman in 

Kuh'advlpa). 
w. I. 6,24 (one of the 10 daughters ofDaksa 

married by Krs'ssJva); 6.27 (Ghosa born 

to). 

d. I. 129.21 (Vinayaka). 
m. I. 5.29 (Vinaya born to). 
k. in. I. 138.37 (s. r.) (son of Rama); 143.49 

(installed in throne by Rama). 
demon I. 143.50 (killed by atrughna); 6.10 (his 

daugher Samudri was married by PrSclna- 

barhis in the line of Prthu). 

I. 72.1 (a flower at Sirhhalades'a). 

I. 70.8 (Padmaraga resemling in colour). 
d. I. 87.40 (one of the 47 Marut devatas). 
s. I. 6.64- (at the time of 10th Manu). 

f 6iva) I. 47.11 (measurement of ) (should be 
equal with Pltha)- 47.13 (construction of a 
temple based on the measurement of). 

d. I. 87.23 (one of the clans (Gana)). 

I, 69.24 (MuktSphalas obtained from). 
I. 5.28 (born to Fustf). 

I. 47.27 (a Trip (v)istapa type of temple). 
I. 1 2 9.21 (a form of Vinayaka worshipped). 

k. m. 1.139.69 (1. r.) (one of the several sons of 
Bali). 
47.27 (a Trip (v)i ? tapa type of temple). 

gem 68.9; 68.15 (its Parlksa); 68.16 (mythologi- 
cal origin from Bala's bones); 68.17 (its 8 
kinds; according to the places of its 
availability); 68.18-19 (characteristics of a 
good variety); 68.23-25 (many coloured 
ones can be worn only by a king and not 
by others); 68,26; 68.27 (defective ones not 



APPENDIX 1 INDEX OF THE NAMES IN GP. 337 

to be acquired) ; 68.30 (characteristics of 
mined ones); 68.31-33 (difficult to get one 
devoid of Dosa) (merits of wearing a good 
one); 68.34-41 (finding the values of a 
flawless one weighing 20 Tandulas is doubly 
valued); 68.37 (is weighed not only with 
Tandulas); 68.38 (the greatness of the one 
which floats on water); 68.39 (defective 
one gets only l/10th of the value of a good 
one); 68.40; 68.41 (has little value if a 
defective one is set in ornament); 68,43 
(not to be worn by woman wishing for 
progeny) (otherwise long one to be reject- 
ed); 68.45 (methods to find the limitations 
made of Pusparaga etc.); 68.46 (can scratch 
all Ratnas and Dhatus, itself not being 
scratched); 68.47; 68.48; 68.49; 68.51 
(merits of); 70.23 (quality of a Vijsti); 
70.27 (only the Vajra or Kuruvinda could 
scratch PadmarSga and Indramla); 70,33 
(priced fixed for Tandu] a weight of Vajra 
is equal to Masa weight of Pad maraga); 
74.2 (certain stones resembling Vajra in 
colour) ; 

k. m. I. 139.62 (1. r.) (son of Aniruddha and 
Subhadra); 144,11 (") (succeeded Krsna 
as a king). 

Vajranabha k. m. I. 138.41 (s. r.) (son ofVuktha). 

Vata k. m. I. 139.48 (I. r) (son of Ugrasena). 

Vatuka d. w. I. 198.5 (saluted). 

Vadavamukha d. I 194.15 (requested to destroy the sins). 

Vatsajati k. m. I. 140.2 (1. r.) son of Sanjati). 

Vatsaprlti k. m. I. 138.5 (s. r.) (son of Bhanandana); 138.6 

(father of PSrh^u and Khanitra). 

Vatsara (year) I. 66.8-13 (names of cycle of years-nameiy 

Prabhava etc.). 

Vatsavyaha m. I. 141.5 (son of Uruksaya). 

Vanabandhu m. I. 87.17 (son of Raivata Manu). 



338 



GARUpA PURAljIA A STUDV 



Vanarnall d. 

Vapu w. 



Vapusman 



Vara d. 

Varada (one who d. 
grants boons) 



Vnrada 



d. 
r. 



Varanana d. 

[beautiful faced) 
YaiananS d. w. 

Varaha (an d. 
Avatara of 
Visnu) 



a boar 



m. 
d, 
d. 

d. 



Varuna 



Varic.1 



d. 
uu 

place 
mt. 



I. 194.6 (an attribute of Vis$u). 

I. 5.24 (one of the 13 daughters of Daksa 
married by Dharma DaksSyana); 5.29 
(VyavasSya born to). 

I. 54.1 (son of Priya.vra.ta.) ; 56.5 (was 
lord of 3almala ; and his sons-all 
mountains), 

I. 89.45 (one of the dans of Pitrs). 
I. 18.5 (Visnu worshipped as); 32.31 
(saJuted); II. 4.46 (Kri?a's reference to 
himself as). 

89.45 (one of the clans of Pitrs), 
I. 55.7 (flowing in the central region); 
81.17 (aTirtha). 
I. 2.17 (an attribute of Vision). 

I. 200.5 (Devi, as an interlocutor). 

I. 7.6 (saluted); 11.35 (worshipped); 86.10 

(as one of the Avataras) ; 86.28 (merits of 

worshipping); 131.11 (worshipped); 146.6 

(Vi?nu killed HiranySksa in the form of); 

(lifts the earth and protects the Gods); 

69.1 (Muktas obtained from); 69.3 (the 

lustreless and auspicious Muktaphalas 

obtained from); 69.8. 

1.87.31 (son of Savarni Manu). 

I. 6-38 (one of the Suns); 17.7. 

6.61 (one of the 49 Marut devas); 

15.22 (rain God) (Visnu saluted as master 

of); 31.21 (saluted); 58.10 (stays in A?adha 

when Sun is there); 59.8 (as Devata of 

Satabhisak) ; 88.55 (saluted by Ruci); 

87.43 (at the time of Rudraputra the llth 

Manu). 

I. 89.45 (one of the clans of Pitrs j. 
*-6.30 (son ofSoma). 

I- 69.24 (Muktaphalas obtained from). 
1.54.8 (their names and location in 
Jambudvipa). 



APPENDIX 7 INDEX ot THE NAMES IN GP. 339 



Varsopala hail 



Valabhl 
Valaya 

Va^avartti 

Vasavah 
Vasistha 



d. 



d. 



Vasi?thasrama 



Vasu 



Vasudeva 



Vasumanarjt 
Vahni 



I. 69.9 (a variety of Muktaphalas which 

resemble). 

I. 47.24 (a Pujpaka type of temple). 

I. 47.25 (a KailSsa type of temple). 

I, 87.11 (one of the 5 Devaganas at the 
time of Auttama Manu). 
I. 6.26 (born of Vasu, wife of Kr^asva). 
I. 5.3 (creation of ); 5.27 (marrying Urja); 
5.15 (his 7 sons who were all sages); 15 72 
(Visnu addressed as); 58.10 (dwells in 
Aadha when Sun is there); 135.5 (wor- 
shipped in Caitra, with garlands of 
Damanaka flowers). 

87.2 (one of the 7 sages at the time of 
Svayambhuva Manu). 
i. 87.27 (one of the sages at the time of 

Vaivasvata Manu). 
5. 93.5 (one of the 14 law-givers). 

83.65 (at Gaya; merits of bathing at); 
83.70 (lord of; worshipped at). 
d w. I. 6.25 (one of the 10 daughters of Daksa 
married by Kr&Sva); 6.26 (Vasavah born 
to) ; 87.28; 87.29 (8 in no.). 

B. 87.36 (at the time of Daksa Savarni Manu). 
k. m. 139.5 (1. r.) (one of the 4 sons of K)- 
k. m. 140.26 (l.r.) (son of Krtaka); 140.27 

(3 sons of). 

k. m I. 15.142 (Visnu spoken as priv a ); 131 ' 9 

(Arghya offered to); 139.47 (marned the 

daughter of Devaka) (got 2 sons thro 

Sahadeva); 139.51 (son of Sora ** 

MSrisa) ; 139.56 (referred to as 

139.57 (getting six sons thro' 

139.53 (his 6 sons killed by KaihJ, 

(birth of Vasudeva to Devakl^ 

k. m. I. 138.25 (s. r.) (son 

d. I. 5.16 (Daksa giving 

to); 5.26. 



his daughter SvM 



340 



GARU0A PURStvIA. A. 



Vayu 

Vayuskandha 
Varajpasl 



of the race of 



VSglsVara 
(Brahman) 
Vacab. 


d. 

m. 


Vacavrtha 


d. 


Vatapi 


m. 


Vamadeva 


s. 




d. 


6iva 


d. 


VSmana 


d. 



Varaha (a form of 
Visnu) 



k. m. 139,63 (1. r.) (a scion 
Turvasu). 
I. 206.36 (Tarpana offered to). 

I. 87.31 (son of SSvarni Manu). 

I. 87.58 (one of the 5 clans of gods at the 

time of Bhautya Manu). 

I. 6.49 (demon in the family of Prahlada). 

I. 7.6 (saluted); 

87.4 (Indra at the time of Svayambhuva 
Manu). 

40.7 (the 13 Kalas of ). 
I. 1.27 (15th Avatara of Hari); 15.4 (Visuu 
addressed as); 86,20; 131.10 (worshipped); 
194.10 (requesteded to protect); 196.7 
(requested to protect). 

aSala- I. 45.5 (saluted); 45.20 (Vartula and 
grama hrasva); 56.12 (in the Krauncadvlpa, ruled 

by Dyutiman). 

215.9 (the 8th Upapurana). 

d. I. 75T1 (mythological reference to the nails 

of the demons carried thrown in Padma- 

vana by). 

d. I. 6.64 (the division of Marut gods), 
a place I. 52.7 (merits of bathing at) ; 66'6 (merits 

of); 81.3 (best Tlrtha); 84.5 (merits of 

performing Sraddha at), 

I. 196.8 (requested to protect). 



VSrah! 



d. 



I. 4.12 (Hari, remains in the form of; 
rescues the earth); 24.6 (worshipped); 38.5 
(requested to protect); 134.3 (worshipped); 
198.4 (worshipped); 198.9 (). 
d. w. 59.11 (situated in south in Paficanii and 
Trayodasi). 

I. 55.4 (one of the 9 Dvlpas). 
a star I. 59.22 (Ordhvamukha) ; 197.12 (Karko- 



APPENDIX 7- INDEX OF THE NAMES IN GP. 



341 



taka and PadmanSbha are stationed in); 
I. 215.20 (the 1 1th Upapurana). 

Varuni m. I. 87.35 (the 9th Manu) (.Daksa Savaroi). 

Varsaparvanl w. I. 6.45 (one of the daughters of Svar- 

bhanu). 

Valin the monkey I. 143.25 filled by Rama). 
Vasava (India) d. I. 59.8 (lord of Dhanistfia), 
Vasuki I. 6.54 (one of the important serpents); 

17.9 (worshipped); 43.2 (his brother's words 
to Hari); 58.7 (dwells in Caitra when Sun 
is there); 71.1 (mythological reference to 
the biles of the demon Bala being carried 
by); 129.23 (to be worshipped on certain 
days in particular months); 129.25 ("). 

Vasudeva d. I. 1.13 (Visnu addressed as); 3.5 (Garuda 

becomes Valjana of Hari, by the grace 
of); 4.3; 7.6 (saluted); 12.4 (saluted); 
12.9 ("); 12.14 (one of these forming 
Navavyuha); 143; 31.23 (saluted); 323; 
32.6 (saluted); 32.17 ("); 32.19 (contem- 
plated upon); 32.21 (worshipped); 32.24 
("); 32.29 I,"); 32.40 (worshipped); 45.8 
(saluted); 126.6 (saluted) ; 131.10 (worship- 
ped in Astami); 131.19 (saluted); 136.6 
(saluted); 138.16 (Rathinara as a devotee 
of); 144.1 (born to Vasudeva); 145.15 
(Arjuna marrying SubhadrS the sister of); 
145.40 (His incarnation again to protect 
Devas and to destroy wicked); 194.5 
requested to protect); 194.24 (His Gakra 

\ 1 Qd. 9Q 

is requested to destroy sin); !*.** 
(requested to destroy all Jvaras); 195.1 
(Mantra saluting); 222.11 (the importance 
of contemplation on); 222.17 (His Mantra 
is always purifying); 222.22 P-Pf^ 
of contemplating upoa); 222.25 (benefit 
of having one's mind firm on); JA: 
(compared with shade of a tree); 222.47 (no 
greater Tlrtha than). 



342 GARUpA PURS^IA A STUDY 

a&ilagrama 1.45.14 (worshipped); 45.28 (") 
(worshipped); 66.2. 
I. 138.6 (s. r.) (son of Ksupa), 
I. 129.21 (as a form of Ganapati). 
I. 138.17 (s. r.) (son oflksvSku (known as 
SasSda) (had a son Puranjaya). 
I. 139.32 (1. r.) (son of Jlmtita). 
I. 6.63 (one of the 49 Marut devatas). 
Vighnaraja,Ganapati d. I. 24.8 (worshipped); 42.2 (makes the 



Virh^ah 


k. m. 


I. 


Vikatah. 


d. 


I. 


Vikuksi 


k, m. 


I. 


Vikrti 


k. m. 


S; 
I 


Viksipa 


d. 


I. 



Viglme^a 



Vicitra 



Vijaya 



Vijayasaptami 
Vijaya 



benefits of SarhvatsarapujS null and void if 
PavitrErohana rite is not done); 43.10 (is 
situated in the threads); 86.20 (is saluted); 
129.21 (attribute of Ganapati); 185.4 
(worshipped after fasting on AstamI and 
Caturdasl). 

m. I. 87.51 (son of Raucya Manu). 

k. m. H0.35 (1. r.) (son of Jsantanu and Satya- 
vati); 140.36 (married AmbikS and 
Ambslika); 145.6 (married daughter of 
Ks&raja); (after his death, sons were born 
to them thro* Vyasa). 

k. m. II. 6.20 (of Gitranagara). 

I. 47.27 (a Tripistapa type of temple). 

m. 87.31 (son of SSvarni Manu). 

k. m. 138.27 (s. r.) (son of Cancu). 

k. m. 138.56 (s. r,) (son of Jaya). 

k. m. 139.15 (1. r.) (son of Sanjaya). 

k. m. 139.73 (1. r.) (son of Jayadratha). 

v r. I. 130.7 (one desirous of victory advised to 
observe). 

d - w. I 17.9 (worshipped); 38.2 (worshipped in 
order from Marga trtlya); 197.14; 198.10 
(worshipped); 206.37 (waters offered to); 
132.9 (daughter of Vlra, a Brahmin of 
Pstaliputra); 132.11 (went for fetching 
water); 132.18 (marries Yama and goes to 
his world); 132.19 (observes the 



w. 



APPENDIX 7 INDEX OF THE NAMES IN GP. 



343 



Vijay! 
Vitatha 



Vitala 

VitrijS 

Vidarbha 

Vidarbh.5 
Vidura 



Viddratha 



Vidya 



Vidyadhara 



Vidyujjihva 

Vidyuta 

Vidyudamba 
Vidruma 



Budhaa^amlvrata, to liberate her mother 

from the pangs of hell). 

w. I. 140.39 (wife of one of the Pandavas). 
d. I. 4-6.5 (one of 32 Devas stationed outside 

in Vastupuja). 
k. m. 140.6 (1. r.) (son of Bharata). 

II. 57.2 (one of the 7 Lokas). 
r. I. 56.7 (in the 6almaladvipa). 

k. m. I. 139.29 (1. r.) (son of Jyamagha) (3 sons 

born to his wife Saivya). 

r. I. 55.9 (flowing in the central region). 

k. m. I. 140.36 (1. r.) (born to a slave girl thro* 

Vyasa). 
k. m. 145.7 (son of BhujisyS) 

m. I. 187.46 'son of Daksaputra Mnau). 

k. m. 139.48 (1. r. 1 ) (son of BhajamSna). 

k. m. 139.49 (1. r.) (son ura). 

k. m. 140 16 (1. r.) (son of Purafijaya). 

k. m. 140.31 (1 r.) (son of Suratha). 

d. I. 86.23i(at Gaya; merits of worshipping); 

branches of learning); 215.21 (18 in 

number). 

d. I. 86 29 (merits of touching); 195.6 (which 
form was attained by Gitraketu thro' 
worship of Visou). 

m. I. 143.43 (killed by Rama). 

d. 223.6 (an attribute of Visau). 

m. I. 87.5 (one of the sons of SvSrocisa Manu). 

r. I. 56.10 (in Kusadvlpa). 

int. I. 56.9 (in Kubadvlpa, ruled byjyotisman); 

gem. I. 68.10; 80.1 (obtained from Kerala); 
80.2-3 (the best varieties of) (other varieties 
are not so valuable and prices are 
dependent on their cutting; the best 
variety which brings wealth to its wearer 
and removes fear and poison etc. is to be 
included among gems and should be 
tested). 



18 



344 

Vidim.l 



m. 



Vidhfiratja 
Vidhrti 
Vina t a 

Vinatfl 



Vinaya 
Yinlivak 



Vinlta 
Vindhya (ka) 



Viprthu 

Vipracitti 

Vibudha 



d. 
r. 
m. 



Vibht 



VibhQti 
Vibhraja 



GARUpA PURXlJIA A STUDY 

I. 5.7 (one of the sons of KhySti and 
Bhrgu); 5.9 (married Niyati daughter of 
Manu); 28.1 (assigned at the door in 
Gopalapuja); 30.6 (saluted in rldharar- 
cana); 31.14 (saluted in Visnvarcana); 
32.17 (saluted in PancatattvSrcana); 32.20 
(worshipped); 34.16 (,,). 
I. 6.62 (one of the 49 Martit devas). 
I. 56.7 (in ^Slmaladvlpa). 
I. 87.5 (one of the sons of Svarocisa Manu). 
k. m. 138.3 (s. r.) (son of Sudyumna). 

vv. I. 6.25 (one of 10 wives of Kasyapa); 6.53 
(2 sons of); 2.48 (mother of Garuda, 
becomes slave of NSgas); 2.50 (); 2.53 
(Garuda addressed as son of). 
I. 5.29 (born to Laya), 

I. 5.33 (born to &va and Gaurl); 51.18 
(one who wants success in his efforts to 
propitiate); 129.21 (a form of Ganapati); 
8L8 (Vainavaka). 

I. 87.9 (one of the sons of Auttama Manu). 
I. 55.6; 55.12 (regions which are bounded 
by); 79.1 (mythological reference to the 
Medas of the demon taken to); 81.17 (as a 
Tlrtha); 81.28 (merits of bathing at). 
k. ra. I. 139.43 (1. r.) (son of Gitraka). 
m. I. 6.44 (son of Danu and Sirhhiks); 6.48. 
k, m. I. 138.48 (s. r.) (son of Devamidha). 
m. I. 143.39 (brother of Havana sought refuge 
from Rama); 142.14 (installed at the 
throne of Lankapurl). 
m. I. 54.14 (son of Prastara). 
k. m. I. 87-20 (Indra at the time of Raivata 

Manu). 

m. I. 139.12 (1. r.) (son of Satyaketu) 
194.5 (I. r> ), (attribute of Visnu), 
I, 138.7 (s. r.) ( S0n of Khanlnetra). 
I. HO.I3 (l. r .) (son of Sukrti). 



tirtha 
m. 
mt. 



* 



Vimala 

Vimana 

Vimukta 

Vimocani 

Viraja 



Viraja 



(a place) 



Virat 
Virata 

Virupa 
Virocana 



Viloma 
VivasvSn 



Vivirhs'aka 

Viviksipa 

Vilskha 



Vilakha 



d. w. 



d. 
r. 
m. 

s. 



d. 



k. m 
m. 



k. m 
d. 



m. 

k. m 



star 



INDEX OF THE NAMES IN GP. 345 

1.30.6 (saluted in ridhararcana); 31.14 

(saluted in Visnvarcana), 

I. 47.22 (a Vairaja class of temple). 

47.24 (a Pujpaka class of temple). 

I. 6.63 (one of the 49 Marut devatas). 

I. 56.7 (in almaladv!pa). 

I. 5.10 (one of the sons of Paurnamasa); 

87.22. 

54.16 (one of the children of Bhauvana); 

81.16; 81.19 ; 84.4 (Mutjdana and Upavasa 

not necessary at and certain other 

Tlrtbas). 

I. 6.64 (one of the 49 Marut devatas). 

I. 145.21 (country reached by Psndavas 

and their life in incognito there) . 

I. 138.16 (s. r.) (son of Ambarisa). 
1.6.41 (son of Prahlada); 87.34 (father of 
Bali, the Indra at the time of Savarni 
Manu). 

I. 139.44 (1. r.) (son of Kapotaromaka). 
1.6.38 (one of the Suns); 17.8 ("); 46.10 
(etc. considered as situated around Brahma 
in the VSstu); 58.12 (dwells in Bhadra- 
pada). 

138.2 (birth of) (birth of Manu). 
. I. 138.6 (s. r.) (son of Virhs*a). 

I. 87.13 (one of the sons of Tamasa Manu). 
I. 6.33 (one of those who surrounded 
Kum5ra when he was born); 134.2 (rice 
paste image of enemy to be cut & 
offered to). 

59.5 (Indragni as lord of); 59.16 (Adho- 
vaktrah); 59.34 (Mrtyuyoga caused by 
Sun in); 59.45 (causes death in journey). 
I. 62.2 (one of the daughters of Dak?a, 
married by Bahuputra). 

84.34 (benefited by Pip dad a na at GayS); 

84.35 (was told by Brahmins how he will 



346 



Visva 

Vi^vakarma 

Vis"vaksena 

Vilvajit 

Vi^vapata 

Viivabhuk 

Visvarata 

VisvarQpa 

VisVasaha 

Visva 

Vilvacl 

Vivamitra 



Visvavasu 



m. 

d. 

m, 

d. 



Visgu 



GARUlpA PURSljIA A STUDV 

get sons); (offered Pinda at Gaya); 84.36 
(Pretas addressed); 84.39 (ruled the 
kingdom and reached heaven), 
k.m. 138.11 (I. r.) (son of Trnabindu and 

Alambusa). 
country 139.13 (its rulers known as Vais"alakas). 

I. 87.43 (one of the sons of Rudraputra 

Manu) . 

89.43 (one of the 9 clans of Pitrs). 

I. 6.34 (son of Prabhasa). 

I. 126.9 (worshipped), 
k.m. I. 140.11 (i. r.) (son of Jayadratha). 
k.m. 141.11 (son of Satyaj it), 
d. I. 89.45 (one of the clans of Pitrs). 
d. I. 89,43 (one of the nine clans of Pitrs). 
k. m. I. 138.19 (s, r.) (son of Prthu). 
m. I. 6.35 (son of Tvastr). 
k. m. I. 138.35 (s. r.) (son of Ailavila). 
k, m. 138.42 (s. r.) (son of Ujitaiva). 
w. 1.6.24 (one of the wives of K.rs'as'va) ; 6.26 

(Vis'vedevS.s were born to). 

I. 58.14 (one of those who rule in 

Karttika). 

139.5 (son of Gadhi); 58.19 (resides in 

Phalguna); 87 27 (at the time of Vaivasvata 

Manu); 139.7 (many sons of; not listed); 

143.5 (taught the use of archery to Rama); 

143.6 (Rama guarding the sacrifice of ; 
from Subahu and others); 145.42 (as 
father of Susruta). 

I. 41.1 (a Gandharva s saluted); 58.11 

(dwells in Sun); 58.14 (rules in Karttika). 

139.2 (one of the 6 sons of Pururavas and 

Urvaii). 

I. 87.25 (one of the sons of Vaivasvata 

Manu), 

1.13; 1.4; 1.11; 2.1; 2.8 (as narrator of 

Purana); 2.12; 2.13; 2.14; 2.29; 2.30; 2,31; 



d. 



d. 



m. 



m. 



d. 



APPENDIX 7 INDEX OF THE NAMES IN GP. 347 

3.1; 3. 4; 4.2; 4.5 (both manifest and un- 
manifest) ; 4. 1 (as creator) ; 4. 1 1 (creation 
of beings by becoming Brahma); 6.7 
(birth of Prthu, a form of); 6.40; 7.6 
(saluted); 8.1 (worshipped); 8.13; 8.14 
(to contemplate on); 9.2; 9.10; 11.35; 12.4 
(salute); 13.1 (saluted); 13.2; 13.3 ("); 
13.6 ("); 13.11 (saluted); 14.2 (attributes 
of); 15,2 (the thousand names of )', 
15.4; 15.159; 15.160 (merits of 
reading the 1000 names); 16.1 

(contemplation on); 21.1 (offering to); 
28,5 (order of worshipping Him); 29.4 
(saluted); 30.7 (saluted); 30.17 (worship 
of); 30.18 (); 31.2 (Arcana of); 31.5 
(Mantra for) ; 31.10 (one m ust contemplate 
that self is ); 31.14 (saluted); 31.15 (wor- 
ship of); 31.23 (saluted); 31.28 (Mala 
Mantra for Puja); 31,29 (Arcana of); 31.30 
merits of reading the ch. on His worship); 
32-4 (nature and characteristics of); 32.34 
(saluted); 32.37; 32.39 (to contemplate 
on); 33.14; 34,2 (Storra which pleases); 

34.14 (worshipped); 34.30 (contemplation 
on); 34.31; 34.52 (saluted); 35.2; 42.6 
(presiding deity of one of the threads in the 
sacred thread); 43.1 (gives Graiveyaka to 
Devas at the time of their war with Asuras); 

43.2; 43.5 (DvSdabl sacred for); 43.6 (Pavitra 
must be offered at particular times to) ; 
43.10 (the 3 duties as lords of the thread); 
44.8; 45.30 (Stotraof); 46.18 (directions 
for the construction of His abode); 48.61 
(to be worshipped); 50.45; 50.62; 52.26 
(as narrator); 58.19 (in PhSlguna dwells in 
Suryamandala) ; 58.20 (); 59.7 (Lord of 
Havana); 60.10 (sleeps in Karlcafca when 
PurvSadha occurs twice in PaurpamasyS) ; 

81.15 (at Mohadanda, aTlrtha); 81.21 (the 



348 GARUPA PURXtfA A STUDV 



rivers orginating from the feet of } ; 82.5 

(as killer of Bali); 82.6 (sationed at Gays 

as one who yields Mukti); 82.7 (His state- 

ment that Gaya shall become a holy place); 

87.4 (Baskali killed by); 87.12 (killing 

Pralamba, asuming the form of a fish); 

87.20 (as killer of Asura ^antasatru,); 87,34 

(Bali offering 3 feet measures to); 87.59 

(writing of Puranas etc< j n t fr e f orm o f 

VySsa); 131.17 (destroys all bad conducts); 

137.14 (worshipped on SaptamT); 138.1 

(Brahma as born of the navel lotus of); 

131.14 (rulers of Kas'r devoted to); 141,15 

(characteristics of); 143.1 (Brahma as born 

of the navel lotus of); 145.2 (); 145.38 

(worshipped by Yudhis. thira by performance 

of Asvamedha); 145.39 (the region of ); 

193.17 (if remembered when taking 

ausadha, destroys diseases); 194.2 (wor- 

shipped); 194.4 (requested to protect); 

194.13 (requested to remove sin); 194.22-23 

(requested to grant all siddhis); 19429 

(requested to destroy Jvaras); 196.11 

(requested to protect^ 197,3 (merits of 

devotion to); 201.36; 205.66 (Ahavanlya 

fire is); 205.73 (is always worshipped); 

205,74 (the tinities are not to be thought of 

as separate (distinct); 205.122 (gets pleased 

with amalaka in Ekada&); 205. 135 (chanting 

Purusasokta water or flower is offered to); 

206.24 (water is His abode) (hence called 

Caster O f water ). 2 15.11 (finding 

people of poor intellect in 'DvSpara, takes 

the form of Vyasa and divides the Veda 

into four and teaches his disciples); 216.2 

(V 1? nu in the form of Rudra, burns all 

the worlds); 2 1 6 .4 (after everything is 

ournt u 



an d it ralns for IOQ years) . 



APPENDIX 7 INDEX OF THE NAMES IN GP. 349 

(in the form of Brahma sleeps for 100 
years); 219.1 (description of mode of 
Bhakti towards); 219.17 (narration of 
merits of bhakti); 220.2 (always worshi- 
pped); 220.3 (,,); 220.10 (repository of all 

good qualities); 220.17 (Krsna as a name 
of); 221.2 (one who does not worship 
Him is known to be Brahmaghataka); 
221.3 (cause of mundane existence); 221.7 
(there is nothing besides Aradhana, that 
pleases); 222.8 (one is advised to remember 

Him always); 222.11 (there is nothing 
superior to be contemplated upon than) ; 
222.13 (mere remembrance said to be 
enough to correct sacrificial errors); 222.16 
(seated in the heart of a Yogin removes all 
faults just as rising flames); 222.37 (devo- 
tion to); 222.45 (DhySnaon); 222.50 (burns 

sins just as fire burns even wet fire-wood); 
224.6 (Sarhsara can be crossed only on the 
grace of); 224.10 (to be worshipped 
always); 224.11 (merits of worshipping); 
224.12 (His qualities); 214.13 (is Nirvi- 
kalpa); 224.14 ("); 224.15 ("); 224.16 
(benefits of worshipping Him); 224. 17 (to 
be worshipped by those desirous of getting 
freed from bondage); 224.18 (to be wor- 
hipped always) ;224.22 (Narada worshipped 
Him and attained Siddhi); 224.24 (staoa on, 
uttered by Mahadeva); 227.3 (necessity of 
propitiating); II. 1.2 (considered as Katpa- 
druma); 19.12 (resides in the Mapdala 
drawn for Aurdhvadehakarma); 31.2 
(commends Bhuraida). 

d. 6.37 (one of the 12 Suns); 17.8 (). 

a 6alagr5ma 45.4 (saluted). 

s. 87.44 (at the time of Rudraputra Manu). 



350 

Visnuuloka 



Vivakjyoti 
Visvaksena 



Vistara 
Vihangama 

Viharta 
Vltahavya 

Vltihotra 
Vlra 

Virata 



GARUpA PURSyA A STUDY 

(abode I. 14.12 (obtained as a result of reading 
of this ch.); 31.30 (one who hears, reads etc. 

Visnu) the Visnvarcana described here shall 
reach); 32.41 (); 33.7 (Arcana which 
conveys one to); 33.15 (Gakrastotra by/ 
reading which one reaches); 33.16 (); 
39.20 (one who performs SuryapOjS shall 
attain); 43.38 (the Pavitrarohana which 
conveys one to); 83.55 (one who visits 
Kotitlrtha shall make Pitrs reach); 121.8; 
213.22 (by doing certain deeds one goes 
to); 

II. 1.10 (the question as to how one 
reaches); 4.52 (one who hears details about 
Aurdhvadehika shall attain); 6.26 (Godana 
takes the preta to); 19.26 (if one is 
surrounded by Darbhas, even if faulty 
mantras are uttered, he goes to) ; 20.43 
(by doing Dharma, one shall attain); 
28.4 (Visnupura, way for gaining admission 
to). 

I. 54.16 (son of atajit). 

I. 7.6 (saluted); 28.13 (worshipped); 29.7 
(contemplated upon); 30.8 (saluted); 31.21 
(saluted); 32.17 (saluted); 34.46 (wor- 
shipped); 43.33 (worshipped). 

k. m. 140.13 (I. r.) (son of Brahmadatta). 

s I. 87.43 (during the time of Rudraputra 
Manu). 

I. 87.44 (beings of heaven, their abilities 
at the time of Rudraputra Manu). 
I. 6.61 (one of the 49 Marut devas). 
m. I. 138.57 (s. r.) (son of Sunaya). 
I. 139.13 (sonofDhrstaketu). 
I. 132.8 (a Brahmin of Pataliputra); 132.16 
(was approached by Kauslka). 
I. 6.15 (whose daughter was married by 
Dakja Prajapati and birth of 1000 sons). 



m. 
d. 



(birds) 



d. 



m. 



APPENDIX 7 INDEX OF THE NAMES IN GP. 



351 



VlranavamT 
Vlryav2n 



Vuktha 
Vrkadeva 
Vrksa 
Vra 

Vrsaija 

Vfsadarbha 
Vrsadhana 
Vr ?a (bha) 



Vrsaparva 
Vrjabha 
Vrsasena 
Vpjakapi 



19 



vt. I. 135.1 (to be observed on Navaml in 
Asvinas'ukla) ; 135.6 (narrated before). 

m. I. 87.38 (one of the sons of Dharmaputra 
Manu). 

m. 87.47 (son of Daksaputra Manu). 

k. m. I. 138.41 (s. r.) (son of Chala). 

k. m. I 139.46 (1. r.) (son of Devaka). 

47.25 (a KailSsa type of temple), 
d. I. 87.45 (Indra at the time of Rudraputra 

Manu). 

k. m. I. 139.23 (l.r.) (oneof the5 sonsof Arjuna). 
k. m. I. 139.68 (1. r.) (son of Sivi (&bi?J). 
k. m. I. 139.16 (1. r.) (son of Kratu). 
d. I. 6.41 (as an interlocutor); 7.7 ("); 9.6 

("); 13.12 ("); 15.3 ("} ; 15.159 ("); 16.16 
(");31.2 ("); 31.12 ("); 31.20 ("); 32.6 
("); 32.20 {"); 33.2 ("); 34.5 ("); 34.6 
( J> ); 34.16 (") ; 34.22 (") ; 34.32 ("); 34.4* 
(") ; 34.47-( 35 ); 34.48 ("); 39.19 ("); 40.2 
( J ');40.7 ("); 40.8 ("); 40.10 ("}; 42.13 
(");43.3("); 45.31 ("); 54.6 ("); 55.1 
("); 55.11 ("); 57.1 (");58.2 ("): 58.4 ("); 
59.5 ("); 59.18 ("); 59.42 ("); 62.11 ("); 
176.7 ("); 177.18 ("); 177.38 (i')i 177.54 
( 5) ); 177.57 (") ; 177.65 ("); 181.4 (") 5 
182.25 ("); 182.28 ("); 185.22 ("); 186.10 
("); 186.13 ("); 187.2 ("); 187.9 ("); 190 16 
<"); 19021 ("); 
m. I. 6.44 (one of the sons of Danu). 

I. 47.26 (a Malaka type of temple). 
m I. 87.39 (son of Dharmaputra Manu). 

d. I. 6.36 (one of 11 Rudras). 

m. 1.141.2 (sonof&icidratha) (in the line of 

kings). 

I. 15.21 (Viscu addressed as Lord of); 

139.24 (origin of the Vaths'a of); 139-31 

(son of Kunti, son of Gaidya). 
k. m. 139.36(1. r.) (one of the 8 sons of Sattvata) 



352 



VegavatI 
VegavSn 
Vena 

Venl 
Venlratna 

Venuks 
VenumSn 

VenvSta};a 

Vedabahu 
Vedasmrti 

Vaikuntha 



Vaitarani 



Vaitundya 

Vaidi^a 
Vaidurya 



PURX&A A STUDY 

k. m. 139.37 (1. r.) (one of the 8 sons of 

Bhajamana). 

k. m. 139.41 (I. r.) (in the line of Anamitra). 
d. w. I. 198.1 (TripurS addressed as). 
k. m. I. 138.10 (s. r.) (son of DhundhumSn). 
k. m, I. 6.5 (who was unrighteous and was 

killed by sages). 
r. I. 8J.21. 

I. 143.33 (given by Sita to Hanuman); 

143.38 (delivered by HanumSn to Rama), 
a trea I. 56.15 (in the Sakadvlpa). 
m. I. 56.8 (one of 7 sons of Jyotisman at 

Ku^advlpa). 

I. 68.17 (Vajras at); 68.18 (quality of 

Vajras at). 

s. I. 87.18 (at the time of Raivata Manu). 
r. I. 55.7 (flowing in the central region). 

I. 45.24 (description of one of the s"sla- 
gr5mas). 

d. 87.19 (one of the devatSganas at the time 
of Raivata Manu); 131.10 (Vispu addres- 
sed and worshipped as remaining in); 

II. 1.3; 19.6. 

w. I. 5.17 (born to Pitara and Svadhs) 
(Brahma v&dini). 

r. 83.23 (merits of performing 3r5ddha at 
Gaya at). 83.56 (cause of its location); 
II. 35.2 (extent of). 

m- 1,6.30 (son ofApa, in the line of UttSna- 

pada). 
a place II. 17.22. 

gem I. 68.9; 68.44 (experts make imitation 
diamonds out of); 72.19 (its VijSti, resem. 
bling Indranlla); 73.1 (test of); 73.2 (of 
varied colours formed of the rocks, 
lashed by water of the ocean); 73.5 
(the formation of); 73.6 (the varied 
colours which mark a quality PadmarSga 
holds good also in the case of); 73.8 (good 



APPENDIX 7 INDEX OF THE NAMES IN GP. 



353 



Vainateya d. 

Vaibhraja m . 

VairSja 

Vairapl w . 

Vaivasvata d. 

Vaivasvata pura 
Vaivasvata (Manu) m 

Vai^ampayana s. 
Vaisvadeva 

Vaiwanara d. 



Vaisnavl 



d. w. 



one brings the wearer good luck and vice- 
versa); 739 (Vijatis of ); 73.11 (price of a 
Suvarna weight of Indranlla is taken as 
equal to the price of 2 Palas of). 

I. 7.6 (saluted); 11.21 (assigned to ear in 
NavavyuhSrcana); 12.4 (saluted); 13.9; 
15.48 (Visnu addressed as); 172.19 
(salutation to), 

1.56.3 (one of the 7 sons of PlaksadvTpe- 
^vara). 

1.47.19 (one of the 5 classes of temples) ; 
47,20 (Caturasra square); 47.23 (the 9 
types belonging to the class of ). 

I. 6. 15 (married by Prajapati and birth of 
1000 sons to). 

I- 52.16 (worshipped on Krspacaturda^I to 
get rid off one's sins). 

II. 9.3-4 (Danas pleasing the people of ). 

I. 1.23 (protected by Hari in the form of 

a fish at the time of deluge); 87.25 (sons of 

devoted to Visnu). 

I. 215.13 (disciple of Vyasa to whom latter 

taught Yajurveda), 

1.208.1 (Homa); 214.40 (no pollution for 

those who always perform). 

I, 6.46 (whose 2 daughters were married 
byMarfca); 86.21 (by worshipping whom 
one can be lustrous); 116.3 (grants opulance 
if worshipped in Krsnapaksa Pratipat 
(Prathama); 59.7 (the star Havana is 
remembered as). 

I. 24.6 (worshipped in TripurSpQjS); 59,13 
(in south-east quarter in Ek5da& or TrtlyS 
is not good for travel) ; 129.9 (etc. worshi- 
pped from Margatrttya); 134.3 (worshipped 
in Mahanavami); 198.3 (worshipped on 
the north in TripurSpuja); 198.9 (worshi- 
pped outside in TripurSpujs). 



354 

Vyarhsa 

VyavasSya 
Vyadi 

Vyasa 



m. 

s. 



Vytihak?etra k. m, 
Vyoma k. m. 

m. 
m. 

m. 



Sakuntala w. 

Sakra d. 

isarhkara (iva) d. 



A STtJDV 

I. 6.48 (one of the sons of Vipracitti and 
Simhika), 

I. 5.30 (born to Atmaja). 
I. 69.37 purifying Mauktika as told by). 
I. 1.11 (the Garuda-purana as told by); 
1.35 ("); 2.1 (");2.2;2.8;3.1; 19.32; 29.5 
(as an interlocutor),' 4.91 ("); 73.1; 81.29; 
82.1 (as an interlocutor); 82.15 ("}; 83.63 
("); 84.21 (");87.32 {at the time of Savanji 
Manu); 87.59 (referred to as an incarna- 
tion of Vispu and composer of PurSpa etc.); 
145.6 (had niyoga with the wives of 
Vicitravlrya'; 146.13; 196.10 (requested 
to protect from ignorance); 205.1; 215.1 
(as an interlocutor); 215.11 (as a form of 
Visnu); (divided Vedas into 4); 93.5 (one of 
the 14 Law-givers). 
I. 140.8 (1. r.) (sonofManyu). 
I. 139.32 (I. r.) (son of Da^arha). 
I. 144.3 (killed by Krna). 
I. 6.42 (one of the sons of Hiraoyaksa). 
139.33 (son of Madhuratha); 145.20 (as 
per whose opinion Paa^avas had to live 
in forest for 1 2 years). 
I. 140.5 (wife of Dusyanta). 
1.6.37 (one of the 12 Suns); 59.6 (lord 
of Jyestha); 139.14 (takes away 500 sons 
of Raji). 

1.2.11 (addressed as an interlocutor); 
4.13 ("); 6.191"); 13.12 ("}; 14.12 ("); 
30.4 ("); 31.13 ("); 31-28 ("); 32.2 {"); 
32.8 ("); 32.21 ("); 32.25 C'); 32.26 ("); 
32.27 (}; 32.28 (); 32.40 (); 34.3 () 
34.14 (); 34.27 () ; 34.33 (J; 34,34 
(); 34.55 (); 39.5 (); 39.14 (); 39.15 
(); 40.12 (); 50.58 (worshipped in 
daily practices) ; 54.9 (as an interlocutor); 
63.1 (); 66.7 (); 87.50 (); 133.4 



laariku 

^afikusirah 

ankha 



APPENDIX 7 INDEX OF THE NAMfeS IN GP. 355 

(MahSnavami observed by); 144.9 (fight 
between Visnu and); 175.2 (as an inter- 
locutor); 175.8 (); 177.10 (); 177.26 
(); 177.57 (); 177.62 (); 177.69 (); 
180.4 (); 182.4 (); 184.16 (); 184.22 
(); 185.14 (); 185,24 (); 185.28 (,,)j 
186.2 (); 188.2 (); 188.8 (); 191.15 
(); 223.4 (asked the Matrganas not to 
devour the three worlds, but to protect). 
6.43 (one of the sons of Danu). 
15,85 (as an attribute of Visnu). 
I. 87.10 (at the time of Auttama Manu). 
I. 6.43 (one of the sons of Danu). 
47.25 (a Kailasa type of temple). 
69.1 (Muktaphalas obtained from); 69.3 
(though Muktakas obtained from gaukha 
are auspicious, have only less lustre); 69.6 ; 
76.2; 77.3; 79.2 (Spha^ika resembling the 
colour of). 

I. 58.12 (dwells in Bhadrapada when Sun 
is there); 197.12 (assigned to PSrthi- 
vamandala in the way of worship called 
Garudividya) . 
I. 93.6 (one of the law-givers). 

I. 206.36 (worshipped). 



m. 
d. 
s. 



gem 



fsafikhapala a ser 

pant 



Jsankhalikhita m. 

6aci (consort of w. 

Indra) 
Jsaclpati (Indra) d. 



I 222 32 (even his kingdom shall not be 
destroyed by the curse of Durv^sas when 

Madhusiidana resides in one' heart). 

L 139.57 (one of the son* ofRevatl aud 

Balabhadra). 

I 54 16 (son of Rajas); 



k. m. 



^atadru 
^atadyurana 



I. 87.21 (one 
Manu). 



356 
Satabhisak 

SatarupS 

Satsnanda 
Satanika 

isatSyu 

6atr5jit 
Satrughna 



k. m 

m. 

k, m 

m. 

m. 



GARUJ?A PURSljtA A STUDY 

k. ra. 138.50 (1. r.) (son of Bhanuman). 

I. 59.8 (of Varuna); 59.43 (Visayoga caused 
by Jupiter in); 59.44 (auspicious for Jata- 
karma etc.). 
w. I. 5.19 (married by SvSyambhuva Manu); 

5.20 (sons and daughers of}- 
ra. I. 140.20 (son of Divodasa, the 2nd), 
m. I. 87.39 (one of the sons of Dharmaputra 

Manu, the 10th). 

140 38 1 r.) (son of Nakula and 

Draupadl). 

141.3 (son of Brhadratha). 

1.139.2 (1. r.) (one of the 6 sonsofPuru- 

ravas), 

I. 139.39 (son ofNighna). 

I. 138.36 (s. r.) (son of Da^artha and 

Sumitra); 142.11 ( )} \; 143-4; 143.7 (married 

Kirtimatl); 138.38 (sons of); 143.50 (killed 

Lavana). 

1,7.3 (saluted); 16.16 (saluted); 17.6 
(worshipped); 19.7 (J&arikha the serpent is); 
23.11 (worshipped); 39,12 (of black colour 
is worshipped in Nairrti); 39.14 (saluted in); 
58.27 (his Ratha and horses); 59.25 (good 
on Gaturthl); 59.28 (ani, good on Catur- 
dab'l); 59.35 (Uttaraphalgunltraya avoided 
on his day); 59.37 (in Svati causes Amrta- 
Yoga); 59.40 (inRohini causes Siddhayoga'; 
59.43 (in Revati causes bad Yoga); 60.2 
(Dasa period of); 60.5 (Da^a destroys 
kingdom); 60.9 (Makara and Kumbha as 
places of); 62.13 (ani is known as cruel); 
62.17 (good for controlling elephants etc.). 

Santanu k. m. I. 140.34 (1. r.) (one of the sons of Pratlpa); 

140.35 (births of sons to thro' GaiigS and 
Satyavatl); 145.3 (born in the line of Ayu); 
145.4 (Bhlsma as son of Gang and); 145.5 
(his 2 other sons thro' Satyavatl). 



anai^cara (saturn) 



APPENDIX 7 INDEX OF THE NAMES IN GP. 



357 



Cabala m. I. 54.1 (one of the sons of Priyavrata); 

56.16 (ruler of Puskara, 2 sons of (moun- 
tains)). 

EaabalasVa m. I. 6.17 (names of 1000 sons born to Daksa 

and Asiknl). 

>ambara m. I. 6.43 (one of the sons of Danu); 15.93 

(Visnu addressed as enemy of); 1448 
(killed by Pradyumna, son of Krsna). 

Esambalagrama (a place) 1.81.6. 

6amb.hu (Siva) d. I. 2.44 (as an interlocutor); 5.33 (Gaurl, 

daughter of Mena, became consort of); 
6.36 (one of the 11 Rudras); 22.9 
(worshipped); 42.20; 59.43 (as an inter- 
locutor); 137.14 (merits of worshipping 
on particular Tithis); 194.1 (is said to have 
been protected by Vaisaavakavaca). 

6araua m. I. 5.15 (one of the 7 sons of UrjS and 



armis^ha w. 

Eaaryati m. 

m. 



Jaalya 



m. 

k. m 



Jsa^aiika (moon) d. 
Sa^SAkakrta^ekara d. 



87.10 (at the time of Auttama Manu). 

I. 6.45 (one of the daughters of SvarbhSnu, 

daughter of Danu); 139.18 (another wife 

of Yayati, and birth of 3 sons to them). 

I. 138.2 (son of Iksvaku, son of Vaivasvata 

Manu); 138.14 ^whose daughter Sukanya 

was married by Cyavana). 

I 636 (one of the 11 Rudras). 

I. 6.48 (one of the sons of Vipracltli and 

Simhika). 

145.32 (his fight with Dharmaputra). 

I 139.26 (1. r.) (son of Citraratha) (his 
' 1^00,000 wives, and 10 lacs of sons/ (among 

whom Prthukmi and others were the 

beSt) ' A A\. 

I 61.8 (in 12th Avastha, cau* **). 
61. 13 (good in 4 to house). 
I. 183.1 (as an interlocutor}; 191-20 ()- 
192-19 (). 



358 

Sas'l (moon) 



d. 



bakya 
Sakha 
Satatapa 
Say a 

Santabhava 

Santasatru 
Jsanti 



Ssntidevl 
Santirindra 



Sala 
SalagrSma 



m. 
m, 
m. 



m. 
w. 



w. 



jvrat* 



GARUI?A PURXlvlA A STUDY 

I. 51.19 (one who wishes strength should 
adorn); 59.29 (ekndasl is good in the asso- 
ciation of); 59.34 (the PurvSjadha three 
good in); 61.1 (is looked upon by people 
as Guru, on DvitlyS, Paficaml and 
Navaml of the better fortnight); 61.12 
(good in 3); 

I. 141.7 (son of Sanjaya). 
I. 6.33 (son of Kumara). 
I. 93.5 (one of the law-givers). 
I. 73.18 (as a measure of weight) (4 Masas). 
J. 56.1 (son of Medhatithi, ruler of 
Plaksadvjpa). 

I. 87,20 (a daitya) killed by Visnu). 

I. 5.24 (one of the 13 married by Dharma 

Dsksayana) ; 5.30 (Ksema born to ); 40.8 

(saluted); 206.37 (Tarpana offered to and 

other Rsipatnls); HO. 17 (son of Nlla). 

I. 139.47 (daughter of Devaka) 

I. 87.39 (as one of the sons of Dharmaputra 

Manu). 

I. 81.19 (at 6ukratlrtha). 

I. 140.35 (1. r.) (father of antanu). 

J. 45.1 (Laksana of); 45.14 (description of 

diffetent kinds of). 

54.12 (where Bharata, son of Ijlsabha 

ruled); 66.5 (the place where stones are 

found, is said to be sacred) ; 66.6 (a place 

which yield mukti); 81.14 (. yields all 

things). 

I. 47.24 (a Puspaka class of temple). 

I. 54,4 (one of the Dvlpas); 56,5 (Vapu?- 

mSn as ruler of). 

I. 145.26 (was on the side of Papdavas, 

against Bhlsma); 145.27 (by whose and 

Arujuna's arrows Bhr 9 raa was laid down 

on the bed of 100 arrows), 

I. 129.1 (merits of observing). 



k. m. 
(stone) 

a place 



APPENDIX 7 INDEX OF THE NAMES IN GP. 359 

&tagu k. m. I. 139.28 (1. r.) (son of U^ana), 

&ni (nl) k. m. I. 139.38 (1. r.) (son of S vadhajit) ; 140.7 

(1. r.) (son of Amanyu). 

m. 1.6.41 (one of the sons of SarhhlSda); 
87.16 (at the time of Tamasa Manu 
whose enemy Bhlmarathah were killed by 
Hari). 

k, m. 139.39 (1. r.) (son of Anamitra). 
k. m. 139.68 (son of Ushnara). 

I. 47.24 (a Pu?paka class of temple), 
d. I. 2.39 (as an interlocutor); 2.43 (); 

2.44 (); 8.6 (); 14.10 () ; 15.48 (as one 
of 1000 names of Visnu); 17.3 (as an inter- 
locutor); 18.18 (worshipped); 19.1 (PrSne- 
s"vararite as told by); 20.1 (collection of 
antras Muttered by); 22.1 (Arcana for); 
22.2; 23.1(Arcana of );23.13(worshipped); 
() 23.17 23.24 (pada); 23.25; 23.26 
(as an interlocutor); 23.27 (pujS) ; 23.31; 
23.32; 23.33 (by doing BhQta^uddhi one 
shall become ) ; 23.49 (one has to contem- 
plate an ); 25.10 (saluted); 32.17 (saluted); 
33.12 (saluted); 42,1 (investiture of sacred 
thread for) ; 42.4 (as an interlocutor); 42.6 
(one of those who govern the threads of 
sacred thread); 42.19 (tattva saluted); 
42.20 (saluted); 43.6 (as an interlocutor); 
43.9 (as residing in Tantus); 
59.8 (as an interlocutor); 59.35 (); 
66.20 (saluted); 81.12 (and others have 
place in JambQsara, aTirtha); 82.3; 82.4; 
86.30 (worshipping Somanatha, one shall 
attain &valoka); 86.32 ("Kedara").' 129.5 
(to be worshipped in Kwatrttya, along 
with UmS): 131.1 (to be propitiated in 
Bhadrapada Art ami); 148.16 (the Dosa 
compared to weapon of); 177.23 (as an 
interlocutor); 177.28 (as an interlocutor); 
177.30 (as an interlocutor); 177.41 ("); 
20 



360 



SivadutI 
6ivadharma 



6i 



varatri 



SiisupSl 



GARUDA PURA^A A STUDY 

177.46 ("); 177.77 ("J; 177.81 ("); 182.23 
("); 184.6 ("); 184.25 ("}; 184.32 ("); 
185.21 ("); 185.27 ("); 185.37 ("); 186.11 
("); 187.1 ("); 188.7 ("); 188.10 ("}; 
188.11 ("); 190.11 ("); 191.16 (")j 192.32 
("); 197.6; 197.15; 'l97.28j 197.41 ; 201.26 
(Arcana which protects elephants); 205.74 
(and Brahma^ Visnu are never considered 
as different); 223.5 (meditated on the form 
of Nrsiriiha); 

m. 26.2 (one of the sons of Medhatithi, 
ruler of Plaksadvlpa) (all were rulers of 
Plaksadvlpa); 197.51 (as an attribute of 

Garuda). 

d. w. I. 38.5 (Durga addressed as). 

I. 215.18 (4th Upapurana; narrated by 
NandlsVara). 

vr. I 124.1 (on the story of ). 

w. 6.32 (wife of Anil a). 

d. I. 38.2 (worshipped in order from third 
day in MargaSlrsa) ; 40.5 (worshipped in 
Mahesvarlpuja) ; 129,9 (worshipped in 
order commencing from MSrga TrtTyS); 
133.7 (assigned to various limbs and 
worshipped); 134.4 (worshipped). 

r. I. 55.7 (flowing in the central region) ; 

56.10 (one of those which destroys all sins). 

I 6.31 (son of Manohara). 
56.1 (one of the sons of Medhatithi, ruler 
of Plaksadvlpa) . 

1.73.9 (a Vijati of VaidOrya); 73.10 (aisu- 
palaka). 

k. m. 139.55 (son of Damaghosa and !arutarava) ; 
144.10 (slayed by Krsna) ; 219.36 (and 
other sinners like hitrij teasing the Devas, 
got cleared of their sins by mere thought 
on the Lord); 22254; 227.45 (attained 
Siddhi). 



m. 
m. 



APPENDIX 7 INDEX Ot" THE NAMES IN GP. 36 1 

lghra k. m, I 138.44 (s.r.) (son of Padmavarna). 

^Ighraga II. 12.40 (one of the Pretas narrating its 

past life, was so called, as he went hurrie- 
dly past, when he was bogged by a 
Brahmin); 12.44 (had a cow's face). 
-uka I. 87.1 (etc. as son of Manu). 

Sukah I. 6.51 (born of Sukl). 

Sukanghri I. 47.3 (in a temple made as long as the 

Garbha); 47.4 (length of the height of); 

47.12 (should cover entire space covered by 
Pitha and Garbha); 47.16. 

I. 6.50 (born of Tamra); 6.51 (ukas born 
to). 

I. 202.72 (a measure of weight defined). 
Suktiman rnt. I. 55.6. 

s. I. 5.15 (one of the 7 sons of Orja and 

Vabistha). 

a planet 7.3 (saluted); 15.28 (Visnu addressed as 
Lord). 

16. IS (saluted in Visijudhyana); 53.10 
(dwells in Aadha); 58.24 (description of 
the chariot of); 59.26 (Sasthl good on the 
day of); 59.2B (Trayodas"! good on the day 
of); 56.35 (PusyS and other stars causes 
Mrtyuyoga);59.37(in PurvaphSlgun! causes 
Amrtayoga);59.41 (in RevatI causes Siddha 
yoga); 59.43 (in Rohini causes Vifayoga^; 

60.6 (his Daa gives elephant, Rajya etc.); 

60.7 (Taurus is the place of); 61.12 (is 
good in 1st, 2nd & 3rd houses); 61.14 
(is good in 5 and 8); 61.15 (is good in 11); 

62.13 (is known as soft) ; 62. 1 7 (good for 
certain things). 

66.17 (its place in Svarodaya); 67.3 (when 

in the left Nadl one has to do one's 

actions). 

87.3 (one of the Somapayins). 

87.12 (at the time of Auttama Manu). 



362 

Jsufcratlrtha 

SukrS. 

Suci 



r. 
d. 
m. 

m. 
m. 
s 
d. 



Sucigrdhrika 

Hucidratha 

Sucipada 

Suddhodana 

Subhanana 

Sukara (boar) (a 
form of Visnu) 



Sera 



arasena 



w. 
m. 
d. 
m. 
d. 



(demoness sister 
of Rsvana) 



igarna 



GARttl?A PURS^IA A 5TUDV 

87.57 (at the time of Bhautya Manu). 

I. 81.18 (one of the Tlrthas). 

L 56,7. 

I. 2.15 (an attribute of Vispu). 

5.16 (one of the 3 sons of SvShS and 

Vahni). 

87.9 (one of the sons of Auttamaputra). 

87.17 (one of the sons of Raivata Manu). 

87.57 (at the time of Bhautya Manu). 

87.59 (Indra at the time of Bhautya Manu). 
k.m. 138.50 (s.r.) (son of Antaka). 
m. 141.10 (son of Bhuri). 

I. 6. 50 (one of the daughters of Tamra). 

I. 141.2 (son of Citraratha). 

I. 2.15 (attribute of Visnu), 

I. 141.8 (son of akya). 

I. 89.43 (one of the 9 clans of Pitrs). 

I. 13.6 (requested to protect in the dgneya 
direction) ; 
a place 66.6 (as one of the Tlrthas). 

k. m. I. 139.23 (1. r.) (one of the sons of Arjuna). 
k. m. 139.48 1. r.) (son of Viduratha); 139.50 

(3 sons of); 139.51 (his another wife called 

Msrisa and 10 sons thro' her) ; 139.51-52 

(daughter of). 

k- m. I. 138.38 (s. r.) (son of 3atrughna). 
k. m. 139.23 (1. r .) (one of the sons of Arjuna). 

I. 143.15 (at DandakSranya, came to 

devour Rama and others); 142.13 (whose 
nose was cut by Rama). 

(a place) I. 142.12 (Rama S oing to); 143.10 (Rama 
going so). 

I- 54.8 (in the north). 

I. 6.54 (one of the chief serpents among 
the 1000 born to KadrQ); 17.9 (the ser- 
pent worshipped). 

H. 6.16 (at the end of the 3rd month 
after death Preta entering). 



mt. 



APPENDIX ? INDEX OF THE NAVIES IN GP. 



36$ 



ailfisa (an actor) 
Jsaivya 



w. 



Saunaka 



Sma^ruma 
JsySmala 



I. 143.50 (Bharata ref. to as). 

I. 139.29 (wife of Vidarbha, gave birth 

to 3 sons). 

I. 8 1 . 1 1 (one of the Tirthas). 

I. 1.5 (and other sages of the Naimisa 

forest asking the Suta about the Lord); 3.1 

(as an interlocutor); 3.8 ("); 47.1 ("); 

47.11 (); 47.12 (); 80.3 (,.); 202.86 (); 

205.1 (,,); 215.21 (); 215.25 (); 218.33 

(); 223.1 (,,) (Narasimhastuti narrated to). 

I. 139.9 (son of Ghrtsamada). 
I. 131.10 (worshipped in Aj^amlpuja). 
I. 6 2 (son of Dhruva, valiant and 
powerful). 

I. 141.10 (son of Dharma). 
I. 48.13 (one of those assigned and wor- 
shipped in one of the directions). 
I. 6-51 (born of 6yenl). 
I. 6.50 (one of the 6 daughters of TamrS); 
6.51 (SsyenB born to). 
I. 5.23 (one of the 24 girls created by 
Daksa) ; 5.28 (Kama born to"). 
I. 6.30 (one of the sons of Apa). 
I. 59.7 (star of Vi;nu); 59,22 (one of the 
urdhvamukha star); 59.36 (amrtayoga 
caused by Candra is); 136.1 (^ravapad- 
vada^i to be observed when Jsravana occurs 
on Eksdafc etc.); 59.44 (good for Jfitakarm* 
etc.). 

Srava^ah d. II. 6.46 (sons of Brahma); 6,49 (their 

nature); 7.1 (GarudVs question as to wb* 
sons they are etc.); 7.4 (detail! **&); 
713 (their creatien! 12 in ao.} 7.15 (why 
they are called as ); 8.1 (hearing whom 
Yama acts). 

I. 136.1 (narration of when to 
etc. of). 



raddha 

Sarama 
Sravana 



k. m. 

d. 

m. 

m. 
d. 



d. 



m. 



364 



GARUi?A PURAJvTA A STUDY 



Sravana a (month) 



Sravasta 
Sri 



m. 
d. vv. 



Srljaya 

Srldevl \v. 

SrTdhara (name d. 
ff Visnu) 



Srlnivasa 
Srlpati 



I. 6 30 (one of the sons of Apa). 
I. 129.4 (6ridhara to be worshipped on the 
3rd day of Krsnapaksa in). 
I. 138.19 (son of YuvanSsVa). 
I. 5.8 (born to Bhrgu and KhySti and 
married by NSrSyaga); 7.6 (saluted); 10. 1 
(worship of etc.); 1 1.22 (assigned to sotiths 
in NavavyuhSrcana) ; 11.38 (worshipped); 
28.8 (worshipped); 28.13 (worshipped); 
30.8 (saluted); 31.21 (saluted); 32.17 
(saluted); 48.79 (assigned); 86.23 (by 
worshipping whom one shall be free from 
obstacles); 131.9 (to whom Arghya is offer- 
ed, in Astaml); 137.16 (worshipped). 
I. 47.26 (a Malaka type of temple). 
I. 1 39.47 (daughter of Devaka) . 
I. 8.14; 8.16; 29.1 (Poja and Mantras know 
as); 29.3 (saluted); 30.1 (Arcana of); 30.3 
(contemplated upon); 30.7 (saluted); 30.12 
(contemplated upon); 30.14 (saluted); 31.5 
(saluted); 81.10 (at Kubjaka, a Tlrtha); 
129.4 (to be worshipped in KrsnatrtlyS in 
months of Havana); 131.4 (worshipped in 
a ? taml); 136.6; 196.13 (requested to protect 
in midnight); 45,6 (alagrama of the form 
of) (saluted). 

30.13 (saluted in a Stotra). 

(saluted in Astamfpflja) 



136.7 



Salman 

Srfrauga 


Srivatsa 



place 



I. 131.14 
(worshipped). 

1.70.21 (Padmaragas obtained from); 
70.23 (quality of Padmaragas from). 
28.19 (merit of dying at). 

I. 87.22 (at the time of Gaksusa Manu). 
(a place) I. 81. '26. ' " 

1-7.6 (saluted); 23.14 (worshipped); 
194.6 (requested to protect the lower 
limbs); 47.23 (a Vairaj a class of temple) . 
*** I- 131.14 (worshipped). 

I. 30.14 (Sridhara saluted as). 



Srlvrksa 



Jsrutaklrti 



rutaftjaya 
orutadevl 



Srutavan 
Srutasrava 



Srutasena 
Jsrutasoma 

^rutatmaka 

!rutSyu 

vapha!ka 

Sveta 



Svetadvlpa 
Sarjimukha 

Sariiyati 
Sarhvaraija 
Sarhvartta 
Samhlada 



APPENDIX 7 INDEX OF THE NAMES IN GP. 355 

I. 47.27 (a Tripistapa type of temple). 
d. 1.131.17 (Krsna addressed as). 

I. 81.8 (one of the Tirthas). 
m. I. 5.29 (born to Medha). 
m. 138.31 (son of Bhagaratha). 

k. m. I. 140.38 (1. r ) (son of the Sahadeva and 

Draupadi). 

w. I. 139.51 (one of the daughters of Sura); 
139.54 (birth of five sons Antardhana etc 
to and Kaikaya). 

m. 140.38 (son of Arjuna and Draupadi;. 
m. I. 141.10 (son of Bahukarmaka). 
w. I. 139.51 (daughter of Sura); 139.54 
(Yuddhadharmada, born to Dantavakra 
and Srutadevl). 

I. 140.29 (one of the sons of Somapi). 
I. 139.51 (one of the daughters of ^ttraj; 
139.55 (^upala born to Damaghosa and); 
141 .9 v son of Somapi) 

m. I. 140.30 (one of the sons of Somapi). 
na. I. 140.38 (son of Bhlma and Draupadi). 
m. I. 139.2 (a son ofUrvan and Pururavas). 
k m. I. 138.52 (s. r.) (son of Adhinornika). 
m. I. 139.41 (in the line of Anamitra married 
Gandini). 

I. 6.55 (one of the serpents). 
I. 47.27 (a Tripistapa type of temple). 
I. 54,8 (in the north). 

I. 56.5 (one of the sons ofVapu?m3n, ruler 
of S"almala, their names being that of 
mountains). 

81.7 (one of the Tirthas). 
I. 45.33 (installation & worship of; at 



m. 

w, 



mt. 
m. 



temples). 
m. I. 139.17 (one of the 5 sons of Nahusa). 

k. m. I. 140.25 (1. r.) (son of Rksa). 

m. I. 93.5 (one of the 14 law-givers). 

m. I. 6.40 (one of the 4 sons of Hiray- 



366 



Sagara 



GARU1?A PURA"tfAA STUDY 



k. m. 



(a form of 
6alagrSma) 



Sa/ikalpa 
Sas'ikalpS 

Saukrti 

Sar'.krandana 

SaAgati 

SarVjaya 



Sat I 



Satya 



m. 
w. 

k. m 
m. 

m. 

m. 

k. m 

rn. 

m. 

m. 
w, 



kab'ipu). 

1.138.28 (s. r.) (son of BShu); 138.29 
(birth of 60000 sons to thro' Sumati); 
(AsamaSjas as son of Ke&nl and). 
I. 7.6 (saluted); 8.13; 8.15; 11.21; 12.4 
(saluted); J2.10 (worshipped); 12.35; 325 
(Vissu is spoken of as existing in 5 forms 
like etc.); 32 6 (Saluted); 32.16 (is contem- 
plated) ;32.23 (worshipped); 32.29 (saluted); 
43.18; 45,8 (saluted); 66 2 (remembered); 
139.59 (the son of Vasudeva); 194.5 
(requested to protect); 194.29 (saluted); 
195.2 (saluted). 
I. 45.15 saluted); 4528 (description of ). 



I. 6 28 (born to SankalpS). 

I. 6.24 (one of the 10 daughters of Daksa 

married by Kr^Ssva). 

I. 139.17 (1. r.) (son of Jayatsena). 

140-6 (son of Nava). 

I. 87.56 (one of the sons of Bhautya Manu). 

I. 87.31 (one of the sons of Ssvarpi Manu). 
I, 139.15 (son of Pratiksaya). 
139.40 (son ofSatyaki). 
141.7 (son of Dhananjaya). 

I. 140.2 (son of Bahugati). 

I. 5.25 (one of the girls created by Daksa; 

married by Bhava). 

I. 5.6; 5.32 (all the daughters of Daksa 

attending the Yajfia with their husbands 

except). 

I. 205.66 (Kumara is spoken to be ). 

140.27 (1. r.) (a son of Vasu). 
m. I. 139.40 (1. r.) (son of &bi>. 

I. 2.18 (attribute of Visnu). 
m. I. 139.12 (1. r.) (son of SunTta). 

I- 6,60 (one of the 49 marut devas) ; 58.19 

(dwells in solar region in Phalguna) ; 141.1 1 

(sonofNrta). 



APPENDIX 7 INDEX OF THE NAMES IN GP. 



367 



Satyadharma 
Satyadhrti 



SatyanSmS 
Satyabahu 

SatyabhSma 

Satyarata 

Satyaratha 

Satyaloka 

Satyavatl 



Satyavak 
Satyahita 

SatyS (Satya- 
bhama) 



k. m. I. 139.74 (1. r.) (son of Dhrtavrata). 
k. m. I. 140.14 (1. r.) (son of DhrtimSn). 
m. 140,20 (son of ^atananda); 140 21 (was at- 
tracted by Urvaih}. 

s. I. 87.18 (at the time of Raivata Manu). 

m. I. 87.21 (one of the sons of Gaksuja Manu.1. 

w. I. 139.60 (one among the 8 principal wives 
of Krsoa); 144.6 v one of the 8 principal 
wives of Krs.ija); 28.10 (worshipped). 
k. m. I. 138.26 (1. r.) (son of TrayySruna) (later 

known as Tris'ariku), 
m. I. 138.54 (son of Ramaratha). 

II. 1.4 (referred to by Garuda as seen). 
w. I. 1.29 (Vis.au in his 17th incarnation 

born to Parasara and). 
w. 139.6 (daughter of Gsdhi, married by 

Rclka). 

w. 145.5 (wife of 5aantanu). 
m. I. 87 31 (one of the sons of SSvarni Manu). 
k. m. I. H0.28 (I. r ) (son of Puspavan). 

I. 15.144 (Visnu addressed as dear to n ). 



Satva^ruta m 

Sadaiva 

Sadrk (Sadrk^a) d 
Sanaka s. 



d. 87.11 (one of the 5 Devaganas at the time 

of Auttama Manu}. 
m. I. 139.35 (son of Atiibu). 

I. 20.8 (Mantra etc. for); 23.22 (merits of 

knowledge about); 42.9 (worshipped). 

I. 6.59 (one of the 49 Marut devas); 662 



SanatkumSra 

SanadvSja 
Sanatana 

Santateyu 
Santoja 
21 



3. I, 5-2 (creation of ); 205.131 (is requested 

to purify). 
s. 5.2 (creation of ); 215.17 (the UpapurSr-a 

narrated by). 
k. m. I 138.51(s r) (son of OrjanSraa) (son of). 

s. I. 5.2 (creation of). 

I. 140,3 (one of the 6 sons of RaudrS^'va), 
I. 5.28 (Tusti born to"). 



m. 
m. 



368 
Sannati 



GARUDA PURA^A A STUDY 



w. 
k. m. 
k. m. 
Sapindikaraija (rite 

performed after death) 



SaptamT 
Saprabha 

Sabala 

Sumara 
Samita 
Samitra 
SamS 



m. 
d. 
m. 
k, i 



Samirana (wind d. 

god) 
Samuel ra m. 



Samodfirki 

SampSti (eagle) 

Saiiibhu 
Sambhuti 



m. 
m. 



k. m. 
w. 



Sammati r- 

Sarayu r , 

Sarasvati d. w. 



I. 5.25 (married by Kratu), 
139.11 (1. r.) (son of Alarka). 
140.15 (1. r.) (son of Suparsva). 

I. 212.1 (performed after one year); 

II. 4.34 (after which 16 raddhas are 
done); 16.1-5 (when to be done); 16.6 
(narration of); 16.20 (when performed by 
the son with 16 Sraddhas, Pitrs feel happy); 
16,21-22(by whom to be performed in 
different cases); 25.4 (narrated by Krsna to 
Garuda). 

I. 56.7. 

I. 56.5 (one of the 7 sons, (all mountains) 
of VapusmRn, ruler of Salmala). 
I. 87.36 (at the time of Daksa SSvanji 
Manu). 

I. 140.12 (son of Nrpa, son of Dvipa). 
I. 6.60 (one of the 49 Marat devas). 
I. 141.8 (son of Ksudraka). 
I. 139.49 (1. r.) (son of ura, son of 
VidOratha). 

I. 51.19 (one who desires progeny to 
worship). 

I. 6.10 (Lavasa , Pracinabarhi married 

the daughter of ). 

65.1 (physiognomy as told by). 

I. 56.14 (one of the 7 sons of Bhava, 

ruler of akadvTpa). 

I. 143.29 (from whom HanumSn knows 

the place to which Slta was carried away). 

I. 140.1 (!. r.) (son of Abhayada). 

I. 5.25 () one of the daughters of Daksa); 

5.10 (wife of Marici). 

I. 56.10 (in Kusadvlpa). 

I. 55.7 (flowing in the central region). 

I. 1,2 (saluted): 7.7 (worshipped); 7.8 

tsaluted): 7.9 (different energies of); 7.11; 

10.4 (saluted); 18-18 (worshipped to 



APPENDIX 7 INDEX OF THE NAMES IN GP. 



369 



Saryati 
Sarva 

Sarvakama 
Sarvaga 



r. 

m. 

d. 

m. 

d, 

m. 

m. 



Sarvatobhadra 
Sarvatraga m. 

Sarvada d. 

Sarvaduhkhani- d. 



d. 
d. 



Sarvadeva 
Sarvapa 

Sarvapraijihv- 
disthita 
Sarvabhuta- 
bhavodbhava 

SarvabhUta- 

hydisthita 

Sarvarupa 



Mrtyunjayarcana); 23.27 (worshipped); 

28.3 (worshipped); 36.11 (mentioded as 

black in colour); 37.4 (saluted along with 

Gayatri); 38,2 (worshipped respectively 

from Margatrtlya); 40.4 (saluted); 45,32 

(worshipped); 83.10 (effect of worshipping 

in the evening) ; 85.23 (remains established 

at Gaya); 86.23 (merits of worshiping); 

126.6 (worshipped); 129.9 (worshipped in 

order from Marga trtiya). 

52.6; 55.8 (flowing in central region); 66.7 

(one of the Tirthas). 

I. 87.25 (one of the sons of Vaivasvata 

Mann) . 

I. 2.42 (attribute of Visnu); 15.12 fas ono 

of the 1000 names of Visou); 15.13 (,,); 

194.3 () 

I. 138.32 (son of Rtuparna). 

I. 2.12 (an attribute of Visnu). 
5.10 (one of the sons of PauniamSsa). 
140.40 (son of Subhadrika). 
I. 47.22 (a Vairaja class of temple). 
1.87.42 (one of the sons of Rudraputra 
Manu). 

I. 2.12 (an attribute of Vispu); 15.12 (a 
name of Visnu). 
I. 194.3 (an attribute of Visnu). 

I, 2.43 (attribute of Visnu); 194.22. 
I. 15.14 (an attribute of Visnu). 
I. 2.12 (an attribute of Visiju). 



d. I. 223.6 (an attribute of Viji 
d. I. 15.13 (a nameof Visijtt}. 



d. 



I. 194.29 (offering made to an attribtw 
Vi?nu) . 



370 GARU9A PURA"1*IA A STUDY 

Sarvalokadhi- d. I. 12,4 (an attribute of Visnu). 

pati 

Sarvalokes'vare- d. I. 2.37 (an attribute of Visnu). 

ivara. 

SarvavySpi d 

SarvStmaka d. 

Sarvesa 



Sarve^vara 
Savita 



Saha 
Sahadeva 



Sahadeva 
Sahasrajit 



Sahasraksa 
Sahasranghri 
Sahasroru 
SahUiju 



d. 
d. 



d. 

k. m. 
k. m, 
k. m. 

k. m. 
k. in. 

w. 

k. m. 
k. m. 

d. 

d. 
d. 

UK 



S. 

Sahya, Sahyadri nit. 



SAttvata 



m. 



I, 194,2 (an attribute of Vinu). 

I. 2,42 (an attribute of Visnu). 

I. 11.8 (worshipped; an attribute of Visnu); 

16.3 (Visnu saluted as); 31.26 () 

I. 14.2 (Visnu saluted as); 194-2 (Visj?u 

saluted as). 

I. 6.38 (one of the 12 suns); 17.8 (); 35.1 

(as devata of Gayatrl); 58.20 (Sun 

worshipded in the Mandalaof ); 205.131 

(requested to purify). 

I. 6.63 (one of the 49 marut devas), 

I. 138.12 (s. r.) (son of Srftjaya). 

139.16 (1. r.) (son of Vrsadhana). 

139.53 (ka, son of Madri, another wife 

of Pandu); 145.9. 

140.23 (1. r.) (son of Saudasa). 

140.29 (son of JarSsandha); 141.9. 

I. 139.46 (daughter of Devaka). 

I. 139.18 (1. r.) (one of the 3 sons of Yadu). 

139.37 (one of the 8 sons of Bhajamana) 

(Sahasrajit). 

I. 2.17 (an attribute of Visnu). 

I. 2.17 (an attribute of Visnu). 

I. 2.17 (an attribute of Visnu). 

1.5.13 (one of the 3 sons of Ks.aniS and 

Pulaha PrajSpati). 

I. 87.22 (at the time of Csksusa Maim). 

I. 55.6; 81.27, 

! 194.11 (Kapila referred to as expounder 
of); 227.1 (doctrine of ); 227.41; 227.50. 

I. 139.35 (1. r .) (son on Satva^ruta); 139.36 
(8 sous of ) 

1-139.40(1. r.) (son of Satyaka). 



APPENDIX 7 INDEX OF THE NAMES IN GP. 



371 



Sadhya w. 

Sadhyab 
Satitapana (an 

atnnement) 
Sandlpani m. 



SSmaveda 
Samba 

Ssrana 
Savitra 
SSvitri 



k. m. 



Sahanji 
Sirhha 

Simhala 



k. m 
d. 
archit. 



SirhhikS 



SiddhesSa (s"vara) 



I. 6.24 (one of the 10 daughters of Dak?a; 
wife of Krsfva) ; 6.26 (Sa"dhy5s born to). 

I. 6.26 (born to Sadhya). 

I. 214.10 (observance of ); 214.13:214.48. 

I, 144.11 (preceptor of Krsqa); (for whom 
Krspa rescued former's son). 

I. 215.12 (taught by Vyasa to Jaimini). 
I. 139.61 (l.r.) (one of the 3 sons of Kf?na); 
215.20 (the 14th UpapurSna). 
I. 139.57 (sonofRevati and Balabhadra). 

I. 46.8; 59.4 (lord of star Hasta). 
I. 36.1 1 (is of white colour); 37.4 (saluted); 
50.43 (is chanted); 50.45 (is remembered); 
50.49 (Harhsa becomes pure by); 83,10 
(worshipping 11 in midday is fruitful); 205, G7 
(worshipped while doing Homa); 205.68 
(no fear for one who worships); 20G.37 
(offening of water to). 

I. 139.21 (1. r.) (son of Kunti) 
I. 11.35 (as an attribute of Visnu); 
47.26 (a Malaka type of temple). 
I. 55.4 (one of the Dvlpas); 69.24 (muktca 
obtained from) ; 69.38 (the people of ; their 
method of tesing Muktaka); 69.38 (the 
method of wearing Mauktika, as followed 
by people of ); 70.3 (mythological reference 
to fall of Ratnablja in the ocean adjacent 
to); 70.21 (the PadmarSgas from); 70.22 
(nature of padmaraga from); 72.1 (mytholo- 
gical reference to the eys of the demon 
falling at). 

I 6 25 (one of the daughters of Dalt?^, 
married by Ka=yapa); 6.39 (a. a dught 
of Diti, and married by Vipracitti); 6-48 

, p, \ 

I8317'(atGay5; merits of worshippings; 
86.32 () 



372 

Sinlvall 
Sindhudvipa 

Sita 



Slradhvaja 

SukanyS. 
Sukalina 
Sukumara 



SukumSri 
Sukrti 



Suketu 
Sukfetra 

Sukha 

Sukhada 

Sugrtva 



GARUDA PURSISIA A 

w. I. 5.11 (one of the daughters of Smrti). 

k. m. I. 138.31 (s. r.) (son of Ambarlsa). 
w. I. 138.49 (daughter of Siradhvaja); 52.25 
(greatness of); 142.17 (did not think any- 
one but Rama while at RSvana's abode); 
142.18 (a Pativrata like AnasuySj; 142.19 
(Mahatmya of); 142.29 (her Pativrata 
dharma superior to that of Anasuya). 
143. 26. (monkeys sent in search of); 143.31 
(Hanurnat giving Anguriya to); 143.33 
(gave the venlratna to Hanumat); 143,37 
(HanQmat informing R5ma his meeting 
with); 142.13 (slaying of her abductor by 
Rama); 142.15; 143.47 (her purity being 
proved, Rama's return to AyodhyS with"). 

I. 138.49 (s. r.) (son of HrasvaramS) ; 
138.50 (had a brother called Ku^adhvaja). 

I. 138.14 (daughter of arySti; married to 

Cyavana). 

I. 5.4 (creation of manes known as); 89.23 

(saluted), 
m. I. 56.14 (one of the 7 sons of JaSkadvTpes'- 

vara a Bhavya). 

k. m, 139.12 (1. r.) (ka) (son of Suvibhu), 
r. 1.56.15 (in akadvlpa). 
s. I. 87,40 (at the time of Dharmaputra 

Manu). 
k. m. 140.12 (1. r.) (son of Prthu) ; 140.13 

(VibhrSja., as son of). 

m. I. 87.9 (one of the sons of Auttama Mauu); 
k. m. 138.45 (s. r.) (son of Nandivarddhana). 
m, I. 87.38 (one of the sons of Dharmaputra 

Manu). 

I. 5.30 (born to Rddhi). 

I. 89.47 (one of the 4 o^her clans of Pitrs). 

143.24 (RSghavad friendship with); 143.26 

(send monkeys in search of Sita); 143.38 

(Rama goes to LaiikSpurl with); 142.14 

(Rama returns to Ayodhya with). 



k, m. 



d. 



d. 



Sugrlvl 

Sutanu 
Sutapasa 

Sutapah 



Sutapta 

Sutala 
Sutlkna 

Sudar^ana 



Sudanaka 
Sudasa 



Sudeva 



Sudyumna 



Sudhanu 
SudhanvS. 



d. 



s. 
d. 

s, 
m. 

a place 



APPENDIX 1 INDEX OF THE NAMES IN GP. 3/3 

w. I. 6.50 (one of the 6 daughters of Tamra); 

6.52 (Paksiganas born to). 
s- I. 87.22 (at the time of Caksusa Manu). 

I. 87,49 (division of gods at the time of 
Daksaputra Manu). 

I. 5.15 (one of the sons of Vasistfia and 
Orja). 

87.10 (at the time ofAuttama Manu). 
87.33 (people of heaven at the time of 
SSvarni Manu). 

87.48 (at the time of Daksaputra Manu). 
139.69 (son of Hema; Bali born to). 

II. 6.36 (Preta reached the place called 11 
in the 10th month after death). 

I. 57,2 (one of the 7 Lokas). 
I. 143.15 (at Dandakaranya, saluted by 
Rama). 

I. 7.6 (saluted); 12.14; 33.1 (Puja of); 

33.2 (cakra; Puja); 33.4 (is contemplated 

upon); 33,8 (saluted); 

138.43 (s. r.) (son of Dhruvasandhi); 45.27 

(lagrSma called); 66.1. 

I, 141.3 (son of Satanlka). 

I. 138.32 (s. r.) (son of SarvakSma); 138.33 
(birth of a son to his wife Damayantl 
thro 5 Kalmasapada). 
140.22 (son of Cyavana). 
II. 17.24 (a vaiJyain the city of Vaidiia). 
(devoid of progeny); (his narration to 
Babhruvahana, the reason for his protec- 
tion). 

I. 87.22 (at the time of Csksufa Manu), 
87.26 (one of the sons of Vaivasvata 
Manu); 138.3 (3 sons of ). 
I. 140.25 (1. r.) (one of the som of Kuru), 
I. 140.28 (I. r.) (son of Satyahita). 
I. 140,16 (1. r,) (son of Ksemya). 



k. m. 

m. 
k. m. 

m. 
m. 



s. 
m. 

k. m, 
k. m, 

k. m. 



374 
Sudhrti 

Sunaksatra 
Sunada 

Sunaya 



SunamS 
Suniti 



SunTthaka 
Sunllaka 

Sunetra 
Sundarasena 



Suparna 
Suparb'va 



Supraja 
Supratha 

Subala 

Subahu 



Subrahmanya 

Subhadra 

Subhadia 



GARUpA PURXlsIA A STUDY 



k. m 
k. m 
m. 
w. 

k. m. 
ra, 

k. m. 
w. 

k, m. 



m. 

k. m 



m. 
k. m 
k. m 
k. m 
w. 

w. 

w. 
m. 
m. 
k. m. 
m. 



d. 

w. 



w. 



UttSnapad. 



I. 138.9 (s. r.) (son of Rftjavardhana). 

138.46 (s. r.) (son of Alahrivlrya). 

I. 141.6 (son of Manudevu). 

I. 28.10 (worshipped). 

I. 138.5G (s. r ) (son ofRtah). 

141.3 (son of Puriphiva). 
I. 139.48 (1. r.) (son of Ugrus 
I. 6.1 (birth of Dhruva to 
and ). 

139.11 (1. r.) (son ofSarmati). 

I. 141.2 (son ofSu.soj-ia), 

I. 80.2 (said to be one of the best qualities 

of Vidruma). 

I. 87.52 (one of the SOUK of Raueya Mann) 

I. 124.4 (ruled Ambuda) (was wicked) 
(the story of his observance 1 of SivariUri 
Vrata unknowingly while hunting and Ihf. 1 
benefits he had). 
I. 141.7 (son of Antarlk?ii). 
. I. 138.52 (s. r. J (son of grutflyub). 
138.55 (s. r.) (son of Suvarras). 
140.15 (I. r.) {son of Dnjuam-.m} 
I. 6.23 (one of the daughter* (if Dal^n 
married by Krsasva). 

1.6.22 (one of the daughters ofRikja 
married by Bahuputra). 
6.45 (one o^ the daughters of Svurhhflmi!, 
I. 87.9 (one of the sons of Auttama M.inu), 
141.11 (sonof Sumati). 
I- 138.8 (s. r.) (son of atrughua) ; 
143.S (demon killed by Rama, while guard- 
ing VibVamitra's sacrifice). 
I- 12.5 (saluted). 
I- 28.2 (one of the Dak?as) 
(sister O f Kr 5 ,a) I. 86.18 (benefits of wor- 
hipping); 140.39 (wife of Arjuna); 
{aamed by Arjuna at Dvoraks); 
(}) 

139.62 (wife of Aniruddha). 



APPENDIX? INDEX OF IHE NAMES IN GP. 



375 



Sumati 



Sumati 



SumanSb. 


mt. 


I. I 


Sumantu 


k. m. 


I. 




m. 


I. ! 

lat 


Sumantri 


k. m. 


iai 
I. 


Sumita 


d. 


I. < 


Sumitra 


m. 


I. 




k. m. 


I. 




m. 


I. 




m. 


I. 


Sumitra 


w. 


I, 



Suyodhana 

Suraksita 
Suraguru 
Surata 
Surabhi 

Surasa 

Suradhipati 

(Indra) 

Surari 

Suruci 



Sure^vara 

SureSvari 
22 



m. 
d. 



w. 
r. 
d. 



I. 5.14 (wife of Kratu) (gave birth to 
Balakhilyas); 54.13 (son oFBharata). 
141.11 (one of the sons of Drdhasenaka, 
who were called Barhadrathas). 
I. 138.29 (birth of 60000 sons to Sagara 
and ). 

I. 56.3 (in Plaksadvipa). 
I. 139.4 (1. r.) (son of Jahnu). 
I. 215.12 (disciple of Vyasa to whom the 
latter taught Atharvana). 
I. 138. 13 (s. r.) (son of Janamejaya). 
I. 6.60 (one of the Marut gods). 
I. 87.9 (one of the sons of Auttama Manu). 
139.38 (1. r.) (Sumitraka) (son of Vr?&i). 
141.8 (son of Kutfava). 
197.1 (as an inter louctor). 
143.4 (wife of Da^aratha) (mother of 

Laksmaija and Satrughna). 

I. 219.36 (a name of Duryodhana; benefits 

of remembering the Lord even by wicked 

people like). 

I. 139.46 (daughter of Devaka). 

I. 138.1 (i. e. Brhaspati). 

I. 6.63 (one of the 49 Marnt devas). 

I. 6,25 (one of the daughters of Daksa 

married by Kafyapa). 

I. 9.53 (1000 serpents born to). 

55.7 (flowing in the central region). 
I. 12.4 (saluted). 



d. I. 87.49 (Ganas at the time of Dak?apuira 

Manu). 
w. I. 6.1 (wifeofUttanapada and mother of 

Uttama);58.13 (dwells in A^vayuji when 

Sun is there). 

I. 45.20 (a type of Salagrama). 

d. w. I. 1.2 7 (at Sahyadri). 



376 

SuvarcS 

Suvarna 



GARUI?A PURSJSIA A STUDY 



k. m. 



Suvibhu 


k. m. 


I. 


SuvistSrS 


d. w. 


I. 


Surata 


m. 


I. 


Sus'arma' 


m. 


I. 

TV 


Sulanti 


k. m. 


IV. 

I, 


Su&Ia 


d. w. 


I. 


Sus"ruta 


k. m. 


I. 




s. 


1' 



Sucaka 
Sficlmukha 



I. 87.39 (one of the sons of Dharmaputra 

Manu). 

138.55 (s. r.) (son of Svanara). 

73, 17 -(as a measure of weight equal to 

16 MSsas). 

I. 139.12 (1. r.) (son of Vibhu). 

I. 197.8 (contemplated upon). 

I. 141.10 (sonofKsemya). 

I. 87.42 (one of the sons of Rudraputra 

Manu). 

I, 140.17 (1. r.) (son of anti). 

I. 28.11 (wife of Krsna) (worshipped). 

I. 138.55 (s. r.) (son of Supar^vata). 

142.5 (authority on Ayurveda) (Ayurveda 

taught by Dhanvantari to); 146.1 (as an 

interlocutor); 151.1 (); 153 (); I 54 - 1 

(); 156 U; 158.1 (); 160.1 (); 162.1 



167.56 (); 171.1 
(); 175.1 (); 



(); 165,1 (); 167.1 (] 
(); 172.1 (); 174.1 
202.1 (). 

m. I. 145.42 (son of VisVamitra). 
Susena d. I. 6.60 (one of the 49 Marut devas); 58.13 

(dwells in A^vayuji when sun is there), 
k. m. I. 139.58 (1. r.) (one of the 6 sons of 

Vasudeva and Devaki). 
m, I. 141.2 (son of VrsnimSn). 
Suhotra k. m. I. 139.3 (1. r.) (son of Kancana). 

k. m. I. 139.8 (1. r.) (son of Ksatravrddha) (3 

sons of ), 
k. m. I. 140.8 (1. r.) (son of Vyuhaksetra) (3 sons 

of). 

k. m. I. 140.26 (1. r.) (son of Sudhanu). 
k. m. I. 140.40 (1. r.) (son of Vijayl). 
m. II. 12.44 (one of the Pretas, getting name 
and form as befitting their past action). 
II- 12.39 (a Preta narrating its story of 
past life has robbed food etc. from many 
Brahmins by way-laying etc.) (and hance 
known as); 12.44 (etc, one of the forms of 



7 INDEX ofr THE toAMEfc IN Gi. 37^ 



the Pretas, which they got as a result of 
their past actions). 

d, 1.2.46 fas a form ofVisnu); 6.37 (12 in 
number; born to Aditi and Kas'yapa) ; 
6.65; 7.3 (saluted) (Asanas, Murti etc.); 
7.5 (Mantras for namasakZra etc.^; 7.11 
(Pavitrarohanarite for; with His Mantras); 
9.9 (contemplated upon); 11,17 (); 11.41 
(); 13.7; 15.28 (Vispu as master of); 
16.9 (Arcana of); 16.11 (Mantra of; which 
destroys sin); 16.16 (^anai^cara saluted 
as son of); 16-19 (Mantra for); 17.1 
(worship of); 17.7 (12 in number, 
worshipped in the 2nd section in Suryar- 
cana); 1 8.18 (saluted); 23.6 (Puja. Mantras 
for); 23.8 (Arcana made to); 23.10 (worshi- 
pped); 23.12 (Arcana made to); 28.8 
(mandala, worshipped); 30.11 (Visnu 
spoken as having lustre of crores of suns); 
34,54 (Hayagrlva spoken as having lustre 
of many); 36.4; 36.16 (punishes those 
who do not perform SandyopSsana); 39.1 
(Arcana of); (Visnurupa); 39.2 (); 39.5 
( u Murti saluted); 39.7 (saluted); 39.15 
39.19; 39.20 (worship of); 43.6; 46.4 (one 
of the 32 Devas asigned outside in vastu) ; 
50.58 (worshipped with Mantra); 51.28 
(immense benefits of Dana given at the 
time of eclipse or solstices of); 58.1; 
58.20 (praised by sages); 58.21 (description 
of its movement followed by apsaras etc); 
60. 8 (siinha, his Ketra) ; 81.12 (at Jambu- 
sara); 83.48 (greatness of offering Pinda 
at Gaya at the eclipse of); 84.10 (merits of 
offering food to manes at GayS at rSddha 
at the time of eclipse of ); 84.21 (); 86.19 
(merits of offering Pinda to Pitrs in the 
presence of); 89.53 (Pitrs as those who 
lead); 137.3 (the DhSmavrata, observed 
in KSrtika, conveys one to the place of); 



378 



Srfijaya 



Setu 

Sutubandha 

Senajit 



Saimhalika 
Soma (moon) 



GARUpA PURA-tfA A 

142.23; 142.24; (eager to devour the rising); 
205.61 (reference to demons named 
Mandeha; 205.62 (destroys those who do 
not perform SandhyopSsana) ; 206.32; 
(mode of doing Japa of Mantras on); 
47.2 (as denoting the number twelve); 
67.33 (one of the Nadls). 
fc. m. I. 138.12 (1. r.) (son of Dhiimras"va). 
k. m. 138,53 (s. r.) (son of SupanJva). 
k. m. 139.66 (1. r.) (son of Kalanjaya^. 
k, m. 140,19 (1. r.) (one of the 5 sons of 

Mukula). 

k. m. I. 139.64 (1. r.) (son of Druhya). 
a place I. 52.7 (merits of bathiag at), 
d. I. 6.60 (one of the 49 Marut devas); 58.14 

(is the master in Karttika). 
k. m. 140.11 (1. r.) (son ofVisvajit). 
m. 141,8 (son of Bahula). 
m. 141.10 (son rutanjaya). 

I. 69.23 (one of the 8 types of muktas). 
d. I. 5.12 (one of the sons of Atri and 
Anasuya); 6.29 (one of the Vasus); 6.30 
(Varcc&wassonof); 6.37 (27 wives of ); 7.3 
(saluted); 11.17; 17.5; 23.10 (worshipped); 
30.8 (saluted); 31.21 (saluted;; 32.17 
(saluted); 34.44 (worshipped); 39.10 
(worshipped); 39.14 (saluted); 40.11 
(saluted); 43.9 (one of the Devatas who 
reside in the threads of the Pavitra); 
46.7 (one of the Devas assigned outside 
in Vastu); 58.22 (his horses and chariot); 
59.2 (Ilvala as star of); 59.40 (in Citra 
causes Visayoga); 60.1 (Da^a periods 
of); 60.3 ^Dafe confers Sukha); 60. 7 (Kar- 
ka* as is Kserta); 62.14 (merits of the 
^y of); 62.15; 67.9 (the Vamanadl is said 
to be controlled by); 84.11 (requested 
to protect); 89.31 (the manes said to float 



AFJPfcNDIX 7 INDEX Of? THE NAMES IN GP. 



379 



Somaka 



Somakunda 



r. 

m. 



in the beams of); 87.55 (saluted by Ruci); 
89.57 (addressed as the support of manes) 
(said to be father of the world); 139.1 
(vama) (son of Atri) ; (TSr, dear to 
Suraguru, as his wife); 139.2 (Budha as 
son of ). 

I. 56.3 (at Plaksadvipa). 
140.23 (son of Sahadeva) (2 son of). 
I. 83.68 (at Gaya; benefits of bathing at). 



Somatlrtha (at Gaya) I. 83.24 (merits of performing raddha at). 



m. 
d. 



Somadatta 
Somanatha 

Somapada 

SomapSh. 

Somanaka 

Somapi 



Saugandhika (a 



Saudasa 
Saubhari 



place) 
k. rr> 



Saumya (Budha) d. 



Saurabha 



Sauras1;ra 



Sauras1,rika 
Sauri 

Saxiripura 
Skanda 



d. 



d. 



I. 138.13 (son of Kr&a^va); 
140.34 (son of Vahlika). 

(a form of iva) I. 81.4 (at Prabhasa, a. 
TSrtha); 86.30 (merits of worshipping). 

I. 83.51 (merits of bathing at). 

I. 89.40 (one of the clans of manes). 

I. 74.3 (description of; a type of Pus- 

paraga}. 

I. 140.29 (son of Sahadeva); 141.9; 140.30 

(sons of ). 

I. 70.6; 70.12 (PadmarSgas from snature 

of). 

I. 140.22 (1. r.) (son of Sudasa) 

I. 138.23 (mairied the 50 daughters of 

Eindumahya). 

I, 59.40 (in Rohiol causes Siddhayoga); 

62.13; 67.3 (in VamanKjl; good for action }; 

197.9'(r esernbles Indranlla in colour). 

I. 87.40 (at the time of Dhanrmputra 

Manu). . 

I. 64.17 (Vajras at); 68.18 (quality of Vjra* 

r.2S (one of the 8 types of Mukt*pb!). 

II. 6.21 (brother of Yama; nil* of CiW 



(Preta 



after eating 



the 



I. 



,. 
; 134.3 (the rice-p^e 



380 



Stambhini 
Sthaijdileyu k. m. 

Sthavi^ha d. 

SnSna (bathing) 



Spha(a)tika gem 



Sphfirja 



Syonaka (a kind of 

pulse) 
Svakanuiinah d. 

Svaksetra m 



GARU1?A PURXiilA - A STtJDV 

the enemy to be cut and offered to); 198.2 
(saluted). 

wk. 215.18 (said to be the 3rd UpapurHna 
uttered by Kumara). 

d. w. L 198.10 (worshipped in TripurSpuja). 

I. 140.3 (1. r ) (one of the 6 sons of 
RaudraiSva). 

I. 2. 17 (attribute of Vi?nu). 
I. 205. 105-110 (description of 8 kinds- 
Nitya, Naimittika, Kamya, Kriyauga, 
Malakarsana, MSrjana, AcSmana and 
AvagSha). 

I. 68.10; 68.44 (experts make immitation 
diamonds out of); 70.6; 70.9 (Padmaragas 
of the class of); 70.12 (PadmarSgas having 
origin from; qualities of); 70.13; 70.14 
(Padmaragas obtained from RSvanagangS 
can be compared with the class of); 70.16; 
72.14 (resembling Indramla); 73 9 (a 
Vijati of Vaidurya); 73.10; 79,2 
(formation of) (and colour of ); 79.3 (gets 
good value if cut & polished by a artisan); 
80.3 (should be included among gems and 
should be tested). 

d. I. 58.16 (dwells in solar region in 
Pausamasa). 

w. I. 511 (wife of Aiigirasa; their children). 

I- 76.2 (Vaidurya resembles). 



I. 87.33 (one of the 33 clans of celestials, 
at the time of Raucya Manu). 
I. 141,9 (sonofNirmitra). 
I. 87.37 (were enemis of Devas at the time 
of Dak?asavarni Manu); 87.49 (gods at 
the time of Daksapurtra Manu divided 
into clans like ); 87.53 (one of the 33 
clans of celestials at the time of Raucya 
Manu). 



APPENDIX 7 INDEX OF THE NAMES IN GP. 



381 



w. 



Svadha 

Svadhajit 

Svadhsma 

Svadhamanab. 



Svanara 
Svabhanara 

Svayambhoja 
Svaromanalj 



Svarga heaven 



Svargadvarevara 
Svarparoma k. m 
Svarbhanu in. 



Svastika 
Svagata 
Svatl (a star) 



S vay ambhu v a 



d. 



Svsha 



Harhsa 



Hanumant 



I. 5.17 (wife of Pitara; daughter of); 5.25; 

40.6 (saluted); 134.4 (saluted). 
k. m. I. 139.38 (l.r.) (son of Sumitraka). 
s. I. 87.18 (at the time of Raivata Manu). 

d. I. 87.11 (one of the Devaganas at the time 

of Auttama Manu). 

s. I. 87.22 (at the time of Caksusa Manu). 

k. m. I. 138.55 (s. r.) (son of Svagata 1 !. 
k. m. I. 139.66 (1. r.) (son of Anu). 
k. m. I. 139.49 (1. r.) (son of Pratiksatra). 
d. I. 87.53 (one of the 33 clans of celestials at 
the time of Raucya Manu), 

1.51.24; 51.30; 82.8; 82.17; 83.14; 83.43; 
84.3; 84.27; 84.32; 84.39; t'6.16; 132.20; 
143.11; 143.51; 145.42; 197.50; 213.7; 
217. 36-37; II 2. 13; 20.4. 

I. 83.14 (at Gay5 s benefits of worshipping). 
I. 131.49 (s. r.) (son of MaharomS). 
m. I. 6.44 (one of the sons of Danu); 6.45 
(daughters of); 58.28 (Ratha and houses 
of). 

I. 47.27 (a Trip (v) istapa type of temple), 
k. m. I. 138.54 ( s .r.) (son of Upagupta). 

I. 59.5 (of Vnyudevata); 59.19 (is a PanJva- 
mukha star); 59 37 (Amrtayoga caused by 
Sanai^cara in ), 
m. I. 5.18 ("Manu created by Brahma at first); 

5.19 (marriage with Satarupa); 
Brahma 89.56 (saluted by Ruci). 

w. I. 5.16 (daughter of Daksa; given in 
marriage to Vahni); 5.25; 134-4 (saluted), 
d. 1. 2.15 (attribute of Vi?nu); 87.20 (tb* 
form assumed by Vifou to kill the *? * 
&anta*atru); 83.23 (at Gay*, one batfcmf 
at, shall be cleared of ail sias): 47-- t 
M&laka type of temple). 

(crosses the ocean after hf 
- 143,33 (mcetvM U* 



382 



Hay a 
Hayagrlva 



d. 



(a iJalagrama) 
Hayabira w. 

Kara (Siva) d. 



Hari (Vignu) 



d. 
d. 



GARUDA PURSJilA A STUDY 

Vepiratna from Sits); 143.34 (destorys the 
pleasure garden); (kills ^Aksa and other 
demons); (allows himself to be tied by the 
demons); 143.35 (informs Havana as 
Ramaduta); 143.38 (Rama reaches Lanka 
with); 142.14 (accompanies Rama on His 
return to Ayodhya). 
). I. 139.19 (son of Satajit). 

I 13C (saluted); 34.2 (Puja of); 34.3 
(Mulamantra of); 34. JO (contemplated 
upon ; 34.15 (invocation of the DevatSs 
of the Asana of); 34.26 (Avahana made 
for); 34,29 (is contemplated upon); 34,54 
(Stotra made to); 34.55 (puja); 
45.23 (description of). 

I, 6.45 (one of the daughters of SvarbhSnu). 
I. 2.40 (as an interlocutor); 5.16 (); 
5.18 (,,); 6.14 (on account of whom 
Daksa's creations did not grow) ; 8.6 
(as an interlocutor); 31.30 ( 51 ); 33.5 (); 
34.26 (); SP.gf,,); 39.12 (); 39.13 (); 
39.17 (); 40.3 (invoked with attendants); 
40.4 (as an interlocutor); 40.9 (,,); 42.1 
0,); 42.11 (); 43.5 (); 43.33 (); 47.61 
(worshipped); 50.58 (as an interlocutor); 
53.13 (as an interlocutor); 54.12 (); 56.11 
(); 59.42 (); 62.1 (); 66.20 (); 67.1 
(.,); 175.1; 177.21; 177.57 () ; 177.72 (); 
177.73 {); 182.2 (); 183.14 () 185.37 
(): 187.1 (); 187.12 (); 189.5 (); 189.10 
(): 192.11 (); 192.18 (); II. 4.43. See 
also Siva. 

6.35 (one of the Rudras). 
I- 1.2 (saluted); 1,14 (incarnations of); 
1.17 (does penance as NaranarSyaija); 
1.34 (his incarnation innumerable); 2.9 
(Purana as told by); 2.14 (attributes of); 
-32; 2,35; 2.36; S.5 (Garuda becomes the 
vehideof). 3,6; 3.7; 3.8; 4.10 (as destroyer 



APPENDIX 7 INDEX OF THE NAMES IN GP. 383 

etc.); 4.11 (as protector of the world); 5.8 
(creation of Bala and Unniada by); 6.65 
(Marut devas etc. said to be forms of ) ; 
7.7; 8.14; 9.7 (worshipped); 9.9 (); 11.5; 
11.19; 12.4 (saluted); 12.14; 14.1 (to be 
contemplated upon); 16.2 (); 17.2; 30.7; 
31.16; 31.29; 32.4 (remains in 5 forms 
Vssudeva, Sankarsana etc.); 33.2 (Puja to 
be done to); 43.1 (investiture of the sacred 
thread for); 43,2 (addresses the Nagas); 
44.1; 44.14 (is to be contemplated upon 
and worshipped); 49.1 (to be worshipped); 
49.32 (mode of worshipping); 50.2; 50.45; 
50.61 (is to be held firm in the mind); 
51.19 (is to be; worshipped by one who 
wants release from all bondage); 53.1 (the 
8 Nidhis of); 53.13 (as an interlocutor); 
58.30 (earth as the body of); 67.1 (as inter- 
locutor); 81.10 (at Kubjaka as&rldhara); 
81.12 (whenever he is, said to be a Tlrtha); 
81.26 (6rlranga as Tlrtha of); 81.29 (as 
interlocutor); 82,3 (requested by Devas 
to kill Gayasura and Hari's reply); 82.4 
(Devas accepting the proposal of); 86.9 
(takes incarnations); 87.12 (in the form 
of a Matsya killed the demon Pralamha); 
87.15; 87.16 (in the form of Karma, killed 
BMmaratha); 87.24 (in the form of A^va 
killed Mahskala); 87.41 (shall kill Bali 
withGada); 87.50 (as a eunuch shall kill 
Taraka)- P,7 59 (as killer of Mahadaitya); 
91.1 (contemplated on by SvSyambhuva 
Manu); 91.13; 92.2 (contemplation); 92.4 
(to be contemplated on); 92.16 (is to be 
contemplated upon); 116.1 (merits of pro- 
pitiating); 131.14 (worshipped), 31. 6 

(requested to rotect); "I- 17 <' */* 
Ui 

(to be 



23 



384 GARUpA PURA^A A STUDY 



nation, protects the races, destroying the 
Daityas, and propagates Vedadharma); 
142.5 (takes feminine form, makes Amrta 
available to Suras); 142.8 (takes the form 
of Para^urSma, kills Ksatriyas, kills 
Kartavlrya); 144.4 (part played in the 
KrsjjSvatara) ; 144.6 (8 wives of Satya- 
bhama etc.;; 144.9 (fight between J^arhkara 
and ); (1000 hands of B5i?a were cut off by) 
175.1 (as an interlocutor); 177 (); 178 
(); 178.2; 179 (as an interlocutor) , 180(")- 
181 ("); Ib2(); 183 ("); 184 (); 185 
("); 186 ('}; 187 O; 187.12 (is saluted 
daily); 188 (as an interlocutor); 189 ("); 
190("); 191 {') 192 (); 193 ("); 194 
("); 194.4 (requested to protect); 194.20; 
194.29 (requested to destroy all JvarasJ; 
195 ,as an interlocutor); 196 ("}; 1966 
(requested to protect); 205.1 (as an inter- 
locator); 215.3 (Dharma, Homa etc. are 
all ); 216.7 (100 years after destruction 
Han hands down the entire universe to 
Brahma); 219.29-31 (benefits of devotion 
to); 221.1 (propitiation on; spoken of as 
the quintessence); 221.9; 222'5 (reme- 
mbrance on Him as atonement); 22219- 

900 ni /J.L *.*.*!.* ;, 

^.21 (that is the auspicious time when 
We is remembered); 222.30 (efficacy of 
having our minds bent on) ; 222 .39 (those 
are the Ii rabs which serve R 
worthy of refuge for all u > 

' 



(a form of 1.45.13 
Hant Sala 



m. u , ies 1600 wives). 

'2 S ^ n fN n>a H jaya). 

' ^.0 (in 



APPENDIX 7 INDEX Ofr THE NAMES IN GP. 



385 



Haridvara 
Harivarsa 

Harib'candra 
Haresvara 

Haryauga 
Harya^va 



d. 

k. m. 
k. m. 
a place 
m. 



d. 

k. m 
k. m 
k. rn. 
k. m 
rn. 
m. 



Havirdhana 
Havisman 

Havisya 
Havi (Laji)- 
syanta 

Havuskadhi m. 
Havyakavya s. 

Hasta (ta) a star 



s. 
s. 
s. 
m. 



Hastimukha 

Hastl 
Ha^aka 

Harlta 



d. 



I. 87.49 (division of gods at the time of 
Dakaputra Manu). 
I. 138.24 (s. r.) (son of Yuvana^va). 
I. 138.27 (s. r.) (son of Rohitasva). 
I. 81,2 (river Ganga at). 
154,10 (one of the sons of Agnidhra, 
ruler of Jambudvipa). 

I. 138.26 (son of Trisaiiku, the latter 
known Formerly as Satyavrataj. 
I. 185.14 (6iva addressed as an inter- 
locutor). 

, I. 139.72 (1. r.) (son of Gampa). 
. 1.138.21 (s. r.) (son of DrdhSbva). 
138.25 (s. r.) (son of Anaranya). 
138.46 (s. r.) (son of Dhrtaketu). 
140.18 (son of Arka). 

I. 6.9 (son of Antardhana in the line of 
Uttanapada) 

I. 87.22 (at the time of Caksus.a Manu). 
87.40 (at the time of Dharmaputra Manu). 
87.43 (at the time of Rudraputra Manu). 
I. 87.43 (at the time of Rudraputra Manu). 
1.87.26 (one of the sons of Vaivasvata 
Manu). 

1.87. 14 (one of the sons of Tamasa Manu}. 
I. 87.36 ( at the time of Daksa SSvriji 
Manu). 

1.59.4 (star of Savitr); 59.H (good for 
journey); 59.15 (etc. 5 stars good for 
wearing upper garment); 59.19 (a ptrw 
mukha star); 59.40 (Sun in, causes Siddha 
yoga); 59.44 (good for jalakarma etc.). 
I. 129.22 (one of the Names of " 
worshipped). 

I. 140.8 (one of the 3 sons of Suhotra^ 
I. 69.23 (one of the 8 kinds of MuktS" 
I. 93.6 (one of the law-giveh 
(critical days in 
ing to). 



fever 



335 



Haha (A gandha- d. 

rva) 
Hidimba w. 

k. m. 
d. 

int. 



GARUpA 

I. 58.9 (dwells 



A STUt>V 

BMskarama^ala, 



HimavSn 



Hiranyagarbha 
Hirai?yan5bha 



Hiraavan 



mt. 
d. 



Hutabhuk 

(Fire-good) 
Hutahavyavaha m. 



I. 140.39 (wife of Bhlma). 
I. 138.21 (s. r.) (son of Nikumbha). 
I. 46.12 (one of the deities worshipped 
prior to erection of temples). 
54.8 (in the south); 55.17 (people inhabit- 
ing the region east of). 

I. 5.17 (marrying MenS, daughter of 
Svadha and Pitrs). 

1.6.39 (born to Diti); 640 (4 sons of); 
142.7 (Visnu in the form of Narasirhha, 
kills). 

I. 194.11 (Visnu addressed as). 
I. 138.42 (son of Vi^vasaha). 
I. 87.18 (at the time of Raivata Manu). 
I. 6.39 (son of Diti); 6.42 (sons of); 87.30 
(Visnu assumed the form of boar and 
killed). 

I. 54.11 (one of the 9 sons of Agnldhra, 
ruler of Jambudvlpa). 
55.1 (situated in south east). 

I. 78.1. See Huta^ana below. 



I. 6.31 (son of Druhina, in the line of 
UttSnapada). 

Humana (Agni) d. I. 51.18 (one wishing for wealth to propi- 
tiate); 69,16; 214.1 (one of the things 
which are always pure). 
Hrdika k. m, I. 139,50 (1. r.) (son of Svayambhoja). 

d. 34.1 (addressed by Rudra as an inter- 
locutor); 45.6 (saluted 131.10 (saluted); 
194.5 (requested to protect the mind); 195.4 
(saluted); 196.12 (requested to protect). 

gold I. 69.38 (used in wearing mauktika)i 

ro. 139.69 (son of Rusadratha). 

I. 69.23 (one of the 8 kinds of Mukta- 
phalas). 



(a mame of 



Hrma 



Hetnaka 



AlTODIX ?~INDEX Of THE NAMIS IN 6?, 38? 

a ml I 54,8 (in the south); Cf, Hemaiaila 
below, 

Heiiwunth k, m, 1, 138,11 (s, r.) (son of Vifala), 
Heiiwila mt, 156,9 (in Kuiadvlpa). 

Hiaya k.m, 1,139,19 (Lr.) (son of ^atajit), 
Hrasvaroman m, L 139,49 (son of Svarnaroman), 

m. 16,40 (one of the 4 sons of Hiraijyaka- 



Hrl 1 28,8 (woshipped), 



THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES 

OF 
THE ALL-INDIA KASHIRAJ TRUST 

1, His I Holiness Maharaja Dr. Vibhuti Narain Singh, M.A.,D.Litt.; 
Fort Ramnagar, Varanasi.-- (Chairman). 

I'm* 6?,* nominated ly the Gfovt, of India : 
1, Dr. Raghunath Singh, M.A., Ph.D., LL.B.; Varanasi. 

fmtim nominated ly the. Govt. of Uttar Pradesh : 
'j. Faiiditaraja Rajeshwar Shastri Dravid; Principal, SSngaveda 
VidySllaya, Varanasi. 

4, Pt. KarnalapatiTripathi; Chief Minister, Uttar Pradesh, 

frurttt-t nomintrtt'd /'y J/w Bighne the Maharaja of Banaras :- 

5. Dr, Suniti Kumar Chatterji, M.A., D. Litt. (London), 

F, A. S, B,, Profeatior Emeritus of Comparative Philology, 
Uuivwshy of Calcutta j National Professor in Humanities, 

) Maituruj'kumar Dr. Raghubir Singh, M. A., D. I 
Rtigbubir Niwas, Sitamau (Malwa), 

7, Pt, Giridhari Lai Mehta, Varanasi; Managing Di. 
iHidine Han.k'rson Ltd.; The Scindia Steam Naviga 
Lt.1, ; Trustee : Vallabhram-Saligram Trust, Calcutta. 



EDITORIAL BOARD 

Padma-Bbushan Pandita-raja 6rl Rajcsvura tiaslrl Druvidti,' 
Principal, Sanga-Veda-Vidyalaya, Vuranasi. 

Padma-Bhushan Dr. V. Rtightivan, M. A,, Ph. D. J 
Rtd. Professor and Head of the Sauskrii Dept., 
Madras University, Madras. 

Dr. Ludwik Sternbacb, LL. D., Pruf. of Indology, 
University of Paris, Paris (Sorbonne). 

Shri Anand Swarup Gupta, M. A., Shastri ; Asstt. Din-ctor, 
P.irana-Dept, All-India Kashira j Trust. ( Editor+n-Ohargr } 



Authors are responsible for their v i ews , which, do uot 
wnd the Editors and the Trust. 



PURAMA 



Vol. XV., No. 1] TOOTOttlg: [February 8, 1973 

Contents 

Pages 



: [Eulogy of Devi by Mahcavara] 1-5 

With notes By Sri A. S. Gupta 

2, Society and Socio-Economic Life in. the Brahma- 
Vaivarta Puraoa 



6-92 

By >r. Anantray J* Rawal:, 

Oeptt. of Sanskrit, J. P. Arts and Science 
College, Broach. 

The Holy Places of North India as mentioned in 
the Skaixda Purana 

ffTt fl^Wt] 93-120 

By Dr. U. K. Thakur; 
St. Joseph's College, Darjeeling. 

[S'Srfikliya mixed with the 

PSficarHtra-theor}] 121-123 

By rl Ganesh Thite-, 

Centre of Advance Study, Poona University, 
Poona. 
5. Two legends From, the Skanda-Purana : A Study 

4 QC f Qf> 



By Dr. R. JV. Mahata and Dr. S. G. 
M.S. University of Baroda ; Baroda 

6. Vedic Sakhas [ |f5.=hk!T^T: ] 

By Dr. Ganga Sagar Rail 
All-India Kashiraj Trust. 



Notes and Comments 

I Did the Blugavata know Kjlidjsa? I4M2 

B flr.Okfli Madras, 



8, TheDateoftheNarasiiphaPurija 143-145 

By flrJ,%kfln; Madras, 



9, Activities of the All India Kashiraj Trust 146-163 



v 



NOTE ON THE DEVl-STUTI 

The brief context in which this stuti of the Goddess occurs 
in the Vui'tiha-Purana is as follows : 

King Sindhudvipa, who in his previous birth was the sou 
of Tvastr and was killed by Indra by means of sea-foam, perfor- 
med severe penances for procuring a son who might be able to 
kill Indra. During the time of his penances the presiding 
Goddess of the river Vetravati approached him in human form 
for begetting a son from him. A son was consequently born to 
them, who was known as Vrtrasura. He became the king of 
PrSgjyotisa country and vanquished Indra and other gods. The 
gods resorted to Lord &va for help ; God &va took them to 
BrahmS, who at that time was engaged in reciting the GnyaM, 
standing in the waters produced from Visnu's feet. The gods 
cried to BrahmS for help. BrahmS then pondered over the 
matter, when a divine girl with eight hands and wearing white 
garments, garland and diadem rose from the waters and riding 
on a lion came out. She fought with the demon Vrtrasura for a 
thousand divine years and killed him. The gods were overjoyed 
and bowed to her and God Siva (Mahewara) praised her with 
the above stuti 



From this context it appears that this Goddess might be 
Gpyatri, the presiding deity of the gnyatri verse which Brahma 
had been muttering. But in the beginning of the Adh. (28.1) the 
intc rlocutor King Prajapala puts the question to sage Mahatapas 
how the formless Goddess Maya called also as Durga or Kstyayanl 
was born in a form : 



feRTT flSFRT f 

From this question it is clear that this stuti relates to 
e Dur f '' such ^^hets in this stuti as ft^fofr, ft? etc. also 
^, CCOrdin S tothe P<"anic conception, however, the 
SS 



manifestations of the same 
i s devoid of al! names and forms, yet all 



JAN., 1973] NOTE ON THE DEVI-STOTI 3 

the conceivable names and forms including those of Gods ind 
Goddesses may also be said to belong to this Highest Absolute 
Reality, which has been called in the Far. -P. (17.73f.) as Visnu, 
Vedanta.purusa, Narayana and Jaaardana, from which all Gods 
and Goddessess originate (17.23-25) and are also identical with 
It 117.59-61) :-_ 



TRT 
?sf 



u 

being the manifestations of the same Reality, different 
Gods and Goddesses are also often treated and described as 
identical with "each other, and hence in the Puranas the same 
epithets are often found used for the different Gods and Goddesses 

In Si 30 in the stud the epithet Gayatri is used for Dui^a. 
The Devi-Pur ana (Adh. 45) explains this epithet of Goddess 
Durga or DcvT as "niT^I^ TjfRTSjft IT^t f^tlfam". In the Dal- 
Bhagavata (VIH 30.81) and also in the Malsya-Purzna (13.51) 
we have * nr^Wt %^5% TRflY fw^f^T^t". The epithet .UaA,lmtlj>3 
(SI, 30d) is generally used for Durga, as in the Deul-M&hnttnya of 
the M'&rkandeya-Purnna. 

The epithet Veda-ma.tr (%&m) (6l. 32a), though generally 
used for Goddess GayatrT (cf. Kilrma-P., cr edn., II. 14,55 ; 
Padma-P., Sr.-Kh., 17.309; etc.), is also cited as one of the 1008 
names of ParvatI or Durga in the Kunna-P. (I. 11. 1^9'- The 
epithets glr. t gau, dhl, aksara and Qmktira (SI. 33) are also j^jiyraHy 
used for GayatrT^ Savitrl or Sarasvatl, but here in this ftuti .md 
also elsewhere these epithets have also been used for GodcK-ss 
Durga. The epithet Saras vat i (33d) is used here for Durg.1, as in 

the Durgn-stotra by Arjuna in the Bh^ma-Patvan (23 12) of the 

Mahabhnrata : 



The epithets Svlha and Svadh* (SI. 34 d) in this art of tho 
Varaha-P. for Goddess Durga also occur in the above quot.'d SI 
of the B hi j ma- Par van. 



; PUR SNA [VOL. XV. NO. 1 



Not only the epithet Sarasvatl is used here (SI, 33 d) for 
Goddess Durg5, but she has been eulogised in the same tone of the 
metaphysical and philosophical description as Goddess Sarasvati 
in the Sarasvatl-stotra of the Mnrkandeya-Purnna (23.30-47) and 
the Vamana-P. (cr. edn.j H. Tfr. 1 1 .6-22). Thus the description of 
Goddess Durga in our stuli as faofftf^, feffi 1 ?^, ^IK^ (v. 1. ^Q^t, 
^'^t&j, fastfi^) is to be compared with the following description of 
Goddess Sarasvati in the Sarasvati-stotra referred to above : 



wr 



-P, 6ls 34-37; 
. P. fsls. 10-12). 

The epithet MakZvidyS. (si. 35c) may mean here Durg5 oj- a 
form of Durga. In the Tantra-works ten Mah5vidya-s ('a class 
of personifications of the Sakti or female energy of Siva') are 
mentioned, and they are also mentioned as identical with the ten 
AvatSva-s of Vispu, for Visnu has been identified with Prakfti 
and Siva with Purusa : 



^ErTgrfiT*Tt 



, as q. n ^ 

Thus, Durga as one of the ten MahSvidya-s has been identi- 
tiw! with Kalki, a would-be avatara of Visnu in Kaliyuga. 

Kirtiti(-a-}nl (i\. 36b) is also an epithet of Goddess Durga 
.Urns or ParvatT), for Goddess Uma also assumed the form of a 
Kirati (A female mountaineer belonging to a KirSta tribe) 



JAN., 1973] NOTE OF THE DEVI-SI OH 5 

when she accompanied iva, who had already assumed the form 
of a Kir5ta, at the time of his fight with Arjuna ; cf. Mbh , Vana- 
Parvan, Chitrasala Press edn. 39.1-4 : 



Variant readings 

Some of the variant readings given in footnotes above deserve 
our notice 

2. The v.l. szrg^ for si^S* connotes the same sense, for the 
Akgara Oihkara is also said to be consisting of three aksara-s 



7. The v. 1. smt Jrers^;% for JTirm^'S^ is a S ood readi "g> 

for the epithet TTIWt^ has already been used in hi. 30. 
8- The v.l. S?tffs? for *$*( Both these readings bring out the 
cosmic aspect of the Goddess; the v. 1, H3?fw (having all the 
created beings and elements as Her limbs) denotes a concrete 
or physical conception of Durgji, while the reading H3?T 
(pervading everywhere) stands for the jnental or subtle 
conception of the Goddess. 

12. The v. 1. %wfr and sft for WrWt might have been the 
results of an effort for substituting an easier reading for 
the original faufifa. The reading fefflfofr might be due 
to metrical exigency, the correct reading is ftTOffa (Voca- 
tive of PRf^). The epithet Kirltil for DurgS has already 
been explained above. 

14, The v. 1. cRirfa m^tfwi for atSt ^T^ iftf^Rfr makes the Goddess 
as identified with the Tattoa or Reality, and not merely as 
residing in the Rtality, as the reading in the text would 
mean. 

SI. 36c. The reading XWtft is uniformly given in all the collated 
Mss , and also in the Bib. edn. But WWII perhaps would 
have been a better or correct reading here ; or, still better the 
word tf preceding the word TSRPt may be taken as 
redundant. 

Aoand Swarup Gupta 



SOCIETY AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC LIFE 
IN THE BRAHMA VAIVARTAPURAJSTA 

By 
Anantray J. Ravval 

SOCIETY 
I. SOCIAL ORGANIZATION 



^r ff^Rf: 
i 
?rTTcrT: 



introduction 



In the study of cultural history, social structure is important 
and for it, one studies the caste-system, the behaviour of the 
different units of the society in their inter-relationship, their 
belief, superstitions, customs, conventions, systems of marriage, 
family etc. 

In the study of the Indian social structure, the study of the 
caste is very important, 1 The terms used to denote the caste are 
generally Varna, Jati and Jnsti. The word Varna occurs as 
<wJjr the RV, where in most of the passages 2 it means 8 'colour* 
w 'complexion* or 'light'. The four Varnas viz. Brahmana, 
Rftjanya, Vatfya and Sodra are mentioned in the Purujasukta, 4 
but the word Var^a does not occur therein. 



JAN., 1973J SOCIETY AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC LIFE IN BVP. 



he V ' ' , occurs in 

the word Varnasarhkarah (1.10.14). The word used in the BVP 
ti. 10.16) to denote the main four castes viz. Vranas-is <Jnti>. 
The word J'ati in the sense of caste can be traced back at least 
to the time ofNirukta (12.13), but it hardly occurs in the sense 
ofcasfe in the Vedic literature r \ 

The word Jsti implies the heridiry connotatione, while the 
word Varna implies the colour connotation, which was so strong 
that when the classes came to be regularly described as Vargas, 
four different colours were assigned to the four classes, viz. white 
to the Brahmin, red to the Ksatriya, yellow to the Vaisya and 
black to the gudra by which their members were supposed to he 
distinguished. The BVP does not refer to the idea of the 
ascription of colour to the castes. 

Theory of the Origin of the Four Social Orders 

Various theories have been propounded by the scholars 
regarding the origin of the caste-system, viz. Risley's Racial 
Theory, 7 Nesfield's Occupational Theory. b etc. 

According to the Indian tradition 9 the oldest referenct about 
the origin of the four Vargas, as rioted above, is found in the 
Puruasukta. which is regarded on the ground of language and 
matter to be one of the late hymns of the R.V. 10 It states that 
*'the Brahmarja was his mouth, his arms were made into the 
Rsjanya., his thighs were the Vaisya, from his feet the Sudra was 
born". The same account is repeated in later works with slight 
modifications. The BVP uses the word Jati instead of the word 
Varna 

Varj^a-Systena 

Brahmins t 

The Brahmins formed the first and the foremost order of the 
Hindu sociely. They not only claim almost divine honour as 
their birth right, but also in general thp other three classes 
submit readily to their authority, and hence the BrShmins claim 
superiority over all. 11 It is states that the four JSt proceeded 
from the limbs of BrahmS that is tc say from Brahm&'s mouth 
Brahman a, from his arms Ksatriya, from his thighs 



8 g*T*sra;-FURAJsiA [VOL. xv. NO. 1 

and from his feet 6udra was born, and the intermingling of these 
four main Jatis led to the formation of the Varnasarhkara jatis 
(1.10.14-16). 

The early Hindu literature dwells much on the pre-eminence 
of the Brahmins. ia 

On the earth all holy-places are said to dwell in the feet of 
the Brahmins (1.11.26^. The BVP directs that not only among 
all the Varnas but also among all the gods the Brahmin should he 
considered as the highly respectable man (i. 11.10-15, 2.26.24, 
4.21.54, 4.83.33, 485.210) and hence a Brahmin whether literate 
or illiterate is respecied as Visnu (1.11.30). The Brahmins are 
further glorified by observing that the Brahmins are the very life 
breath of Krsna (483.40). The Brahmins are said to have a 
birth in the divine family The BVP states that they were born 
in the family of Brahma and his sons (1. 11.36). The duties and 
privileges of the Varnas are dealt with at length in the works on 
Dharnas'astras The study of the Vedas, performing sacrifices, 
are enjoined on all the first three Varnas, 13 whereas teaching of 
the Vedas, officiating as priests at sacrifice and receiving the 
gifts are the special privileges of the Brahmins. 

The BVP emphasises the importance of not only the Vedic 
studies but also of SnSna, Tarpana, Sraddha, worship of gods, 
Ahnika and samdhya (2.41,4-6). 

The Brahmin lost his social status under certain circums- 
tances. In this connection the comparison of Brahmin with a 
poisonless serpent is very significant, because nobody fears it 
and hence it gets no recognition from the people; the same 
applies to a Brahmin if he folio .vs the following mode of life : if 
he does not perfrom samdhyS, takes dinner from a washerman 
ands'udra, cooks for ^udra, is asijivl or masijivi, is Kanyavikrayin" 
or Vidyavikrayin, eats fish and takes dinner at the time of rising 
the sun (1,11.40, 2.23.23-36). The Brahmins also observe some 
vratas like Ekadaii, Janmastamlj ivaratri and RSmanavarm 
(4.59.71-72). 

The BVP states that the Brahmins should not eat fish, and 
meat in their food (4.8S.25). They should take havisy&nna 
(4.43.53). They should not use milk, curd, ghee and navanlta 
got from buffallo (4.85.20). If one Brahmin takes psdodoka of 



JAN., 1973] SOCIETY AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC LIFE IN BVP. 9 

another one he gets religious merit of Raj asuya sacrifice (1.11.32). 
A Brahmin may accept gift from a Ksatriya, but he can not give 
it to a Ksatriya (3.24.43). A Brahmin who acts badly and eats 
the food of Stidra becomes a Sddra (1.26.4) and also if he marries 
with a udra woman, he becomes a CandSla (1.20.28). 

Ksatriyas 

They form the next order of society. The BVP provides the 
following information regarding the Ksatriyas, A Ksatriya should 
give a gift to the Brahmins and should worship NarSyana. He 
should take care of the people of his state like his own son. He 
should not return from the battle field and should either win or 
die ,4.85.68-73, 4.5954-). The BVP defines the concept of king 
as follows : if a Ksatriya performs his duty with 'rSga' (affection) 
he is called a raja (King). The BVP directs the king that he 
should look upon women of his state as his mother (4.59.75). 
This ideology is in consonance with that of the MS (7.35). The 
BVP gives the definitions of the rajan, mandaleiSvara and rajendra 
as follows : 

A king is who has a kingdom having an extent of four 
yojanas. A king who possesses a kingdom hundredfold more in 
extent than that of a king is called a mapdalesVara (4.46.18). 
The king Gaitra was a maijdaleiSvara (2.61.94). A man who has 
a kingdom tenfold more in extent than that of a maijdale^vara 
is called a rajendra. In the assembly of Kedara who was a son 
of NandasRvarni who was the grandson's grandson of Brahma", 
there were five lacs of such rajendras (4.16.18-2). 

Army is necessary for the king to protect the state from 
enemies. The BVP mentions that the Ksatriyas should maintain 
elephant- army, cavalry, chariots and foot soldiers (4.8372). 
Jsaukhacuda had three lacs of horses, five lacs of Elephants, one 
crore of chaiiots and three crores of foot soldiers in his army 
(2.17.10-14). 

Vaisyas 

The BVP mentions only the functions of the VaUyas who 
constitute the third order of the society It states that trade, 
agriculture, worship of the Brahmins and god and observing of 
the vows are the functions of Vaisyas (4.83,74). This is in accor- 
dance with the rules of Dharmas'astras. 15 The BVP permits a 
2 



10 giras;- PURSJVIA [VOL. xv. NO. l 

co dinner of a K$atriya and a Vaib'ya, and this reflects upon the 
flexibility in the caste-rules about the joint dinner (4.115.85). 

Sudras 

They form the fourth order of the society and their special 
duty is the service of the Brahmins (3,35.73, 3.35.87, 4.59.66, 
4 83.75). This is also in accordance with the lules of the Dharma- 



Sub-castes 

There were other professions and crafts even in the times of 
the Samhitas. MM. Dr. P. V. Kane observes that owing to the 
cultural development, division of labour arose and numerous 
arts and crafts came to be developed and they were in process 
of contributing to the complexity of the system by creating num- 
erous sub-castes based upon such occupations and in the times 
of the SarhhitSs and BrShmanas there were groups founded on 
occupations that had become castes or were in the process of 
developing into castes. 17 The BVP gives a list of such groups 
based on the occupations and moreover, sometimes, it also throws 
light upon their evolution. 

As numberous professions developed and as it became diffi- 
cult to assign any particular origin for such groups ofpeople, 
Manu 18 and the Mbh. (13.148.29) laid down that men's sub- 
caste was to be known from their actions arid occupations. This 
shows, as MM. Dr. P. V. Kane observes, that according to 
writers, castes in the times of the Soxrtis were predominantly 
occupational. 30 

Some of the occupational castes as noted in the BVP are 
the progeny of Vibvakarman and a udra-woman, whereas the 
other castt-s owe their origin to inter-caste relations. The names 
of the castes mentioned in the BVP are as follows in alphabeti- 
cal order : 

1. Amba- He is the offspring of a Vaifya from a ,4udra 
stha woman (1.10.48). In the MS (1,108) and YS 

(1 90) it is said that Ambastha is an anuloma 
child sprung from the marriage of a BrShmin 
with a Vaiiya woman. Manu 30 prescribes the 
profession of medicine for him. 



JAN., 1973] SOCUEIY AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC LIFE IN BVP. ll 

2. Asijlvl They followed the occupation of sword-making. 

He could sanctify himself by seeing Krsna's 
devotee (2.6.97). 

3. Al,tSlika He is the offspring of a Citrakara from a Sudra 

kara harlot. He is degraded due to his parentage 

(1.10.96). According to John Wilson, he is an 
architect." 1 

4. Agari He is the offspring of a Karana from a Rfijaputra 

woman (1.10.110). John Wilson explains him 
as a maker of salt. 32 In the census report of 
India of 1951, it is mentioned that their claim 
is to be returned as Ksatriya or Ugraksatriya. 2a 

5. Bhanda He is the offspring of a Leta from a Tlvara 

woman (10,10.101;. 

6. Bhata He is the offspring of a Suta man and a Vai^ya 

woman (1.10.136). 

7. Bhilla It is a hybrid caste and considered as a Sat-Sadra 

(1.10.17-18) but according to Dharma-i'Sstras 14 
he is one of the Antyajas. 

8. Carma- He is the offspring of a Tlvara man and a 
kara Csndala woman (1.10 ; 103). According to 

several Smrtis he is one of the Antyajas. SB 

9. Caijtjala In accordance with the Dharmasastras and 

several Smrtis, 20 the EVP states that he is the 
offspring of a Sudra from a Brahmin woman and 
he is considered as low and impure (1.10.102). 
He is classed with dogs,- 7 

10. Gitrakara He is a painter. He is the offspring of VKva- 

karman and a Sudra woman, He is said to be 
degraded by the curse of a Brahmin for drawing 
Brahmin's caricatures (1.1021). 

1 1. Dasyu He is the offspring of a Tlvara man and a Taila- 

kara woman (1. 10. 100, 114), 

12. Dhanur- It is a mixed caste by the union of a Ksatriya 
man dhara and a Vai^ya woman on the first day of 

menstruation (1.10.117). 



i2 arora; PURAI^A [VOL. xv, NO. i 



13. Dhlvara He is the offspring of a Tivara man and a Vaiiya 

woman (1.10.111). According to MM. Dr. P. V. 
Kane he is same as Kaivarta and Dasa 28 

14. Ganaka A man who takes wealth belonging to a god or 

to a Brahmin is known as Ganaka after having 
his births in animal and bird-creation (2.31.56).- 
He is a Brahmin reborn as a Ganaka because of 
his counting the money (1.10.132). 

15 Ganga- A son born on the bank of the river Gauga by 
putra a Leta man and a Tivara woman is known as a 

Gaugaputra (1.10.107). 

16. Gopa He is a hybrid caste known as Sat-^udra 

(1.10.107). It is one of the castes of Bengal and 

the claim of the Gopa is to be returned as 
Yadava. 39 



17. Haddi He is a sweeper. He is the offspring of a 

man from a Caiidala woman (1.10.105). The 
claim of the Haddi is to be returned as Haih- 
aya-Ksatriya. 3 

18. Jola He is a weaver. He is the offspring of a 

Mleccha and a Kuvindaka woman (1.10.121), 
In Bengal he is returned as a scheduled caste." 1 
According to Pt, Baladeo Upadhyay the word 
Jola is Bengali form of the word JulSha. 33 

39. Kaivarta He is a fisherman. He is the offspring of a Ksat- 
riya man from a Vaisya woman (1.10.111), 
According to Saukara the Dasas and Kaivartas 
are the same. sa 

20. KalandaraHe is Tthe offspring of a Leta man from a Tivara 

woman (1.10,101). 

21. Karana He is the offspring of a Vaisya man from a udra 

woman. He denotes a group of officers like 
Kayasthas and Adhyaksas. 3 * 

22. Karma- He is the offspring of Vi^vakrman from a Jstidra 
kSra woman (1.10.20). He is a blacksmith. 3IS 



25. 



26. 



JAN., 1973] SOCIETY AIND SOCIO-ECONOMIC LIFE IN BVP. 13 

23. KartSra He is the offspring of a Kaivarta man from a 

Konca woman (1.10.104). It may be noted that 
John Wilson 38 reads Kandara instead of Kartara 
as a lection of the BVP but no edition of the BVP 
has this reading, 

24, Karhsya- (V.I. Karitsakara-Ga). He is the offspring of 
kara VisVakarman from a &Gdra woman (1.10.20). 

John Wilson explains him as a braizer. 37 

Kum- He is the offspring of VisSvakarman from a SiQdra 

bhakara woman (1.10.20). U^anas bs says that he is the 

offspring of the clandestine union of a Brahmin 

man with a Vaisya woman. 

Kuvin- He is a weaver. He is the offspring of Vitvakar- 
daka man from a audra woman (1*10.20). 

27. Kubara Tt is a Hybrid caste and designated as Satsftdra 

(1.10.17). 

28. Kudara He was born of Rsi from a Brahmin woman, as 

a result of the sexual relation on the first day of 
the menstrual period (1.12.115). 

29. Kola He is the offspring of a Le^a man from a Tlvara 

woman (1.10.101) . According to Moniev Williams, 
this is a mixed caste, a barbarian, a tribe inhabit- 
ing the hills. 3 " It is an aboriginal race." 

30. Korica He is the offspring of a fisherman and a flesher 

woman (1.10.104). John Wilson reads it as 
Koca.* 1 They are found mostly in Northern 
Bengal.* 3 
He is a coarse weaver. He is the offspring of a 

Tlvara man and a Rajaka woman (1.1.112). 
He is a house-builder. 4 * He is the offspring 
of an AttSlikSkara and a Kumbhaksra woman 
(1.10.97). 

33. Leta It is a hybrid caste by the union of a Tlvara man 

and a Tailakara woman (1.10.100). John Wihon 
reads Leta as Na t a.* 5 MM. Dr. P.V. Kane" 
mentions as Nata and states that he is a scheduled 
caste in Bengal, but he does not note Let*. 



31. 



32. 



Koya.ll 
Ko^aka 



U &rara;- PURSUE/*. [VOL. xv. NO. 1 

34. Malla He is a wrestler. He is the offspring of a Le^a 

man from a Tivara woman (1. 10.101). I* 1S 
another name of Jhalla.* 7 

35. Mantra He is the offspring of a Leta man from a Tivara 

woman (1.10.101). 

36. Mslaksra He is a gardener. He is the offspring of Vis"va- 

karaman from a Sudra woman (1.10.20), 

37. Mamsa- He is a flesher. It is a mixed caste by the union 
ccheda of a Candala man and a Carmakara woman 

(1.10.103). 

38. Matara He is the offspring of a Let;a man from a Tivara 

woman (1.10,101). 

39. Mleccha He is the offspring of a Katriya man from a 

udra woman. The BVP informs that Mlecchas 
have unbored ears, are fealess '.invincible in fight 
and do not observe the rules of purification and 
religious observances (1.10.119-120). According 
to the Ramayana (1.55.3) he is the offspring of 
the clandestine union of a Brahmin woman and 
a VaUya man. 

40. Napita He is a barber. It is a hybrid caste and consi- 
dered as Sat-udra (1.10.17-18). Usanas* 8 says 
that he is the offspring of a clandestine affair 
between a Brahmin male and a Vaisya female. 
Further U^anas remarks that he is so called 
because he shaves the body above the navel of 
a person. The claim of the Napita is to be 
returned as~"Na-ibrahmin.-" 49 

41. Pauod- He is the offspring of a Vai^ya man from a Sm?dl 
raka woman (1.10.109). 

42. Rajaka He is a washerman. He is the offspring of a 

Dhlvara man and a Tivara woman (1.10.112). 
Dhobi is a scheduled caste in Bengal, called 
Bhoba. 60 

43. R5ljaputra--He is the offspring of a K?atriya man and a 

Karana woman (1.10,110). 



JAN., 1973] SOCIETY A1XD SOCIO-ECONOMIC LIFE IN BVP. 15 

44. Sarvasvl He is the offspring of a NSpita man and a Gopa 

woman (1.10.113). 

45. Svarna- He is a gold-smith. He is the offspring of 
k$ra Viiivakarman and a Sudra woman and is said to 

be degraded for stealing Brahmins' gold (1.10. 
19-20). The claim of the Svaroakara is to be 
returned as Visvakarma-brahmin/' 1 

46. Sahara The BVP mentions them (2.31.55). It is an 

aborginal jungle tribe like the Bhilla. s ' i In the 
Mbh (13.53.17) the abaras are mentioned. 

47. Saakha- (V.I. rangakara ka). He is a shell-dresser, 
kara He is the offspring of Visvakarman from a udra 

woman (1.10.19-20). 

48. SarSuka He is the offspring of ajola man from a Kuvin- 

daka woman (1.10.122). 

49. Sutra- ~-(v. 1. Sutrakara-kha). He is a carpenter. He is 
dhara the offspring of Vii'vakar man from a {sudra woman 

(1.10.19-20) The claim of the Sutradhara is to 
be returned as a VibvakarmS-brahmin. 83 

50. Suta The BVP mentions that he was born from a 

Yajna (1.10.134) Kautilya is careful to add 
that ihe Suta who figures in the PurSrjas as the 
reciter is different from this. 84 

51. ^QTjqll He is the offspring of a VaiSya man and a llvara 

woman (1.10.109). 

52. TailakSra He is an oil man. He is the offspring of a Kum- 

bhakara man and a Kotaka woman (1.10 98). 

53. Tambul! It is a hybiid caste and considered as a baniya 

casts (1.10.17). 

54. Tivara He is a fisherman. He is the offspring of a Ksatriya 

man and a Rsjaputra woman (1.10,99). 

55. Yung! -He is the offspring of a Vesadharl man from 

a OaAgBputra woman (1.10.108). John Wilson" 
reads it as Yogi. Sri N. K. Dutta remarks that "a 
peculiar caste is the Yogi, which is neither 
functional nor tribal. It is sectarian caste. They 



16 3*RJ^ PURAJilA [VOL. XV. NO. 1 

are believed to be the degraded descendants of 
a class of Buddhist ascetics, followers of Gorakha- 
nath; many of their local customeSj their diver- 
gence from. Brahmanical rites, their adoption of 
priests from their own caste, their worship of the 
Buddhist deity Dharma confirm this view." 158 

56. Vanacara He is the offspring of a CandSla man and a 

Haddi woman (1.10.106). 

57. Vaidya He is a physician. He is the offspring of Aivim- 

kumara from a Brahmin woman (1.10.123). 
N. K. Dutta remarks that "it is difficult to say 
when Vaidya which was at first a functional name 
became the name of a caste, but it is certain that 
the caste was not formed in the same way and at 
the same time in different parts of India. Even now 
a Vadina caste as we find it in Bengal does not 
exist in Upper India, but the tendency towards 
the formation of a medical caste, can be traced 
as early as the time of the Mbh (13.49.9). There 
is a mention of a caste by name Vaidya, which 
is said to be formed by the union of a Sudra male 
and a Vaidya female". 57 Dr. Baladeva Upadhyay 
informs that the Vaidya caste is believed to be 
socially some-what lower than the Brahmins in 
Bengal. 58 

5B. Vaisnava The BVP states that there is one independent 
and separate caste on this earth named Vaisnava 
over and above the main four Varnas viz. 
Brahmin, K?atriya, Vai'ya, and 6udra (1.11.43). 
The claim of the Vaisnavas is to be returned as 
Satvata Brahmins. 58 

59. Vagatlta He is the offspring of a Ksatriya man and a 

Vaidya woman ''begotten without the consent of 
the mother and forbidden by the voice." 00 

60. VySdha He is a hunter. He is the offspring of a Ksatriya 

man and a Sarvasvi woman (1.10.113). 

61. Vyala- He is a serpent-seizer. He is the offspring of a 

grahl Vaidya man and a 6adra woman (1.10.124). 



JAN., 1973] SOCIETY AND 

The above mentioned 
castes and sub-castes can be 

Resultant's 
Caste 



SOCIO-ECONOMIC LIFE IN BVP. 17 

description regarding the origin of 
shown in a tabular form as below : 
Father's Mother's 

Caste Gaste 



1 . Amba?tha 


VaiiSya 


Sudra 


2. Asijlvi 








3. Attalikakjra 


Citrakara 


Sudra 


4 XL- art 


Karaija 


Rajaputra 


5. Bharjda 


Leta 


Tivara 


6. Bhata 


SDta 


Vai^ya 


7 Bhilla 








8. Garmakara 


Tivara 


Casdala 


9. Caodala 


udra 


Brahmin 


10. Citrakara 


Visvakarman 


^udra 


1 1 . Dasyu 


Tivara 


TailakSra 


12. Dhamirdhara 


Ksatriya 


Vaib ( ya 


1 3. DhTvara 


Tivara 


VaisSya 


14. Garjaka 








15. GangSputra 


Leta 


Tivara 


16. Gopa 








17. Haddi 


Leta 


Gandala 


18. Jola 


Mleccha 


Kuvindaka 


19. K.aivai-ta 


Katriya 


Vaisya 


2O. Kalandara 


Leta 


Tivara 


21 . Karaoa 


Vai^ya 


6udra 


22 Kavmalcara 


ViSvakarman 


6ttdra 


23. K.artfira 


Kaivarta 


Kofica 


24. Kariisyakara 


Vibvakarrr f an 


^udra 


25. Kvirnbliakara 


Vi'vakarmin 


^Qdra 


26, Kuvindaka 


Viivakarman 


^Qdra 


27. K-Qbara 








28. Ktidara 


R?i 


Brahmin 


29. Kola 


Leta 


Tivara 


3O- KLoflca 


Dhlvara 


Marhsaccheda 


3 1 . KoySlt 
32. Kotaka 


Tivara 


Rajaka 
KumbhakSra 


3 3 Lpt n. 


Tivara 


Tailakara 


34. Malla 


Leta 


Tivara 


35. Mantra 


Leta 


Tivara 


3 







18 




3WI. PURS lit A 


[VOL. XV. NO. 1 




Resultant's 


Father's 


Mother's 




Caste 


Caste 


Caste 


36. 


MalSkara 


Vibvakarman 


Sudra 


37. 


Mamsaccheda 


Candala 


GarmakSra 


38. 


Iviatara 


Let a 


Tlvara 


39. 


Mleccha 


Ksatriya 


Siidra 


40 


Napita 








41. 


Paundraka 


Vaidya 


Sujjdi 


42. 


Rajaka 


Dhivara 


Trvara 


43. 


Rajaputra 


Katriya 


Kara^a 


44. 


Sarvasvi 


Napita 


Gopa 


45. 


SvarnakSra 


Vibvakarman 


Sudra 


46. 


Sabara 


_ 




47. 


SaakhakSra 


Vibvakarman 


udra 


48. 


Sarauka 


Jola 


Kuvindaka 


49. 


Sutradhara 


Viivakarman 


Sudra 


50. 


Suta 






51. 


undt 


Vaidya 


Tlvara 


52. 


Pailakara 


Kumbhakara 


Kotaka 


53. 


TambulT 







54. 


Tivara 


Ksatriya 


Rsjaputra 


55. 


Yungi 


Vegadharl 


Gaugaputra 


56. 


Vanacara 


Ciindala 


Haddi 


57. 


Vaidya 


Ab'vinlkurnara 


Brahmin 


58. 


Vaunava 


_ 




59. 


VagatTta 


Ksatriya 


Vaidya 


60 


VySdha 


Katriya 


Sarvasvi 


61. 


Vy 3 lag rah I 


Vaidya 


^Qdra 



A^rama-system 

Varoa as well as ab'rama systems are also the important 
featu.es of Indian social organization. The word a^rama is 
derived trom the root Sram to exert oneself and therefore it may 
mean a place where exertions are performed and the action of 
performing such exertion." Literally an a&ama is a halting or 
a restmg place; the word, therefore, denotes a halt, a stoppage or 
a stage in the journey of life, just for the sake of rest, just for 
preparing oneself for further journey. The Mbh (12,234.15) says 
that the four wages oflife form a ladder or a flight of four steps, 



JAN., 1973] SOCIETY AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC LIfE IN BVP. 19 



Such a scheme of as*rama organization helps towards the realisa- 
tion of Brahman. The as'ramas arc four in number, and each of 
the Dramas constitutes a stage of life in which the individual 
has to train himself for a certain period, and exert himself within 
the circuit of the same to qualify himself for the next. 54 

Different views have been held regarding the number of 
ua'ramas in the initial stages of its development. Dr. P. M, Modi 
quotingthe CHU (2.23.1) and the MS (2.230, 7.78) says that in 
the beginning there were three asramas GJ MM. Dr. P.V. Kane 34 
finds a somewhat obscure reference to the four asVamas in the 
AB (33.11) and Prof. Dpussen"' states that the oldest passage 
which names all the four Dramas in their correct order is Jabala- 
upanisad (4-). Prof. Altebxr concludes that "the system of the four 
Dramas, Brahmacarya, Grhastha, Vanaprastha arid Samnyasa, 
is no doubt now regarded as very early and ancient feature of 
Hinduism but its early history is shrouded in mystery It is 
extremely doubtful whether the system was developed in the 
Veclic age-." 83 According to Dr. N. N. Law who substantiated 
Dr. Jacobi's view, 'the four stages of life were well developed at 
the time of the older Upanisadas and the mutual relations between 
them had been fixed before that period/ 87 

Like the dharmatiastra writers, the BVP also mentions the 
four-fold system of the alramas. The nomenclature as found in 
the BVP to denote the person-; in th different stages of life is 
as follows : 

1. Brahmacarin A student. 

2. Grhastha A householder. 

3. Vanaprastha A forest hermit 

4. Samnyasin or Yati An ascetic. 

Xfee Stage of Student 

The Performance of the upanayana ceremony provides an 
entrance to the first stage of life. The upanayana ceremoney 
marked the beginning of his vedic studies at the teacher's home 
where he had to lead quite a disciplined and regulated life 
engaging himself in attendance on fire, bathing and wandering 
about for alms and always eating food after informing his teacher 
and obtaining his permission 8 



20 UTO^PURAJNIA [VOL. xv. NO 



The BVP does not mention in detail the rules and regula- 
tions governing the life of a bramacarin, It is interesting to note 
that according to the BVP Krsnn's Vedic studies were started 
before the performance of his Upanayana ceremony by his teacher 
SSndlpani (1.24.7, 4.101. 3-5). a9 

The BVP states that first of all a student should get 
Visjjumantra from his teacher and then he should serve his 
teacher to gain knowledge (4,83.9), and he should obey his 
teacher's order (1.236). The brnhmacarin should observe the 
purificatory rules for four- times more than those observed by the 
Grhastha (1.26.32). 

It is in the brahmacaryasrama especially and in general,, 
that a teacher plays a great role in the life of a pupil and thr 
BVP has some eulogistic stanzas in honour of a teacher. 

Since the earliest times, India has attached great impor- 
tance to the teacher. Before starting any work one should pray 
to his teacher, because the teacher is more respectable than any 
deity. The teacher symbolises in him BrahmS, Vistiu, Mahe^a, 
Prakrti, Chandra, Ravi and Anala (1.26.6-12). If anyone wor- 
ships any deity without worshiping his teacher, he incurs a sin 
of hundred brahmanicide (1,26.16) because the teacher is respec- 
ted a hundred times more than one's own mother (2.. 30. 193, 
3.40.88). 

The worship of a teacher is capable of destroying sin, remo- 
ving decease and giving good things and joy (2 61. '25). If the 
teacher is satisfied, all deities are satisfied (2 6i.26 3 3.40,88). 

In case of one's own deity becomes angry with one,, one's 
teacher can save one, but if a teacher becomes angry with one, 
nonecan save one (1.26.14-15, 4.35.62,4.59.153). The teacher 
on his part was under the sacred obligation to fulfil his duties 
towards pupils He was to love his students as his own son and 
should not withold any part of the teaching of the sacred lore 
from him. 70 

The teacher should impart knowledge to the student whether 
he is asked or not, and such a teacher is styled in the BVP as a 
"Sadguru" (1.1.39). 

A teacher who shows a right path to his son, daughter, 
student and servent obtains a permanent Sodgoti. If he shows 



JAN., 1973] SOG ETY AND SOCt'->-EC~>\ T OVnC LIFE IN BVP. 21 

a wrong path to them he goes to a hell called KurnbhlpSka 
(1.8.59-60). 

The stage of a House Holder 

After completing the period of studentship and giving fees 
to his teacher, the man entered upon the stage of a house-holder 
(1.24.8-9). The BVP states that among four asramas, the Grhas- 
thasrama is the best, because, a wife, a son or a grandson are the 
fruit of penance (1.23.8). All the manes and deities remain at 
the home of a householder (1 23.9). 

A householder should marry a good girl and he should pro- 
create a son from her and then should go to forest for practising 
penance (1.21.14). A man should be first a householder and then a 
forest hermit (1 .24.20), because a householder gets fame, wealth 
and religious merit (1.23.11). Pleasure and happiness of intercourse 
with a woman are equivalent with those of heaven so the Grhas- 
thas'rama is the best (1.24.25). 

Thus the importance of the Grhastha>rama is emphasised 
with an accent on sex by the BVP. in the scheme of the Srama 
organization. Incidentally it may be mentioned that the Mbh 
(13.1 1.2, 21) also states the superiority of the Grhasth3.irama over 
all. The Smrds also bestow the highest praise upon this Ssrama 
and states that all the asramas subsist by receiving support from 
the householder and since men in the three other asramas are 
daily supported by the householder with sacred knowledge and 
food, his is the leading a^rama. 71 

Some rules are laid down in Smrtis for the householder, 
among these the concept of the Paflcamahayajfias is very impor- 
tant. According to the MS (3.70) these five Mahayajnas were 
offered to sages, manes, gods, beings and men, and sages were 
satisfied by the Vedic studies, manes by offering Tarpana or 
Sraddha, gods by the burnt oblations, beings by Bali offerings and 
men by reception of guests. This concept of the PaBcamahayaji as 
widened the field of social duties by reorienting th purpose ot 
Yajna and incorporating new Yajfias to men and to the beings m 
the older concept of three debts viz. that to sages, gods and 
manes 7fl 

Th. BVP does not mention these PafichamahSyajna, but 
it states some duties for a householder In response to 



22 g^T'sq; PUHANIA. [VOL. xv. NO. 1 



query as to the rules and regulations governing the life of a 
householder Krsna informed him as detailed below : 

One should take one's bath in early morning, after the bath 
one should observe samdhya and then one should worship 
balagrSma-mani, Yantra and image of devasatka and then one 
can do one's daily routine work (4.75.5-19). A household should 
take his meals after his dependents have taken it (4.84.9), 

The BVP also states the duties of a householder's wife as 
follows : 

She should get up in early morning, after doin<T her obei- 
sance to her husband, she should take a bath. She should 
worship the domestic deities. She should take her meals after 
her husband and guests have taken it (4.84.15-17). 

The Stage of a Forest Hermit 

The man enters upon the stage of a forest hermit for securing 
the liberation of the soul after having seen the offspring of his 
sons and the decaying of his body. In this stage of life, as the 
name itself suggests he has to go to the forest and live on wild 
fruits. 73 In accordance with the Dharmafestra rules 74 the BVP 
states that a person should go to the forest after he has a son to 
whom he should hand over his wife (2.53.26) for looking after 
her by him. 

The Stage of an Ascetic 

The person entered upon the last stage, viz that of an 

ascetic casting of all attachments to the world. 75 

He had to lead a celibate life and practise abstinence from 
anger and pleasures of the senses. TG He should have an equal 
mental attitude towards dust and gold etc He should carry 
with him a staff and a water-pot, and wear red clothes. He should 
pray to Nariiyana and nor touch any woman. He should not long 
for a life oflonger period and abandon all the actions 7T He should 
not sit on any vehicle and not possess a house. He should recite 
merely the name of Nsr&yana (2.36.1 16-124-, 4.41.18, 4.59,78-82, 
483.91-9?.}. If anybody offers food to an ascetic he achieves the 
fruit of the Aivamedha Sacrifice (4.83.85). 



JAN., 1973] SOCIETY AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC LIFE IX B VP . 33 
Slavery 

Slavery has existed as a constant element in the social -nd 
economical life of all nations of antiquity such as Babylon.. E^vpi, 
Greece, Rome and many other nations of Europe, 7 * 

The word Masa' which is of Rgvedic antiquity, is met with 
m the BVP. The Rgvedic passages 78 make it dear that th< 
dasas or dasyus formed the opposite camp against the flry MIS 
The CHU ^5.13.2) and the Brup (6.2.7) and other Vodic pa^.i/^ 
refer to dSsis and on these passages MM. Dr. P, V K.in<- < om- 
merits that 'these passages show that in the \Vdic p< rluri ju-- 
and women had become the subjects of gifts and so \v . rs; isi 
the conditions of slaves. Sl) 

The Mbh frequently refers to the gifts of dasas and d^is." 1 
Tn the BVP the male and female slaves are n.>f.?r;'ni to. 
Druinila gave one lal of dSsas and dasis to the Uraiumm a-- c-ift 
(1.2054) 

At the time of the marriage of Vasudeva and Dcva!:!, Siv.j 
and ParvatT, Baladeva and Revatt and Krsi.ua and Rsik'nh'L 
Devaka, Himalaya, Kakudml and Bhfsmaka gave elcphaius, l.oi&i ?, 
charters, cows, camels, many male and female shm-s, dojhf^, 
ornaments and other vessels in their dovvcry This su.'gi'Sts 
that male and female slaves were also items of sriiis. (i .. ji-5i, 
4.7.10, 4.44.59-60, 4 106.5, 4.109.39) 

II MARRIAGE. 

Introduction 

The institution of marriage is very important ftw U. stit.lv 
of society. Married life covers one of the impmwm prrU^-ji 
one's life and it has significant influpnc* nn the society. H>u 
the study of the institution of marriage and roarry-d life ,>nat.^ 
one to understand and appreciate the spirit of its cultur*- aii^ 
civilization in ai much as repercussions and pt-rvolau ( -m*J> 
are very felt on the various facets of the social org;,iaiz^"-* 

Westerner ck defines marriage as "a rda?n f ^ ^'^ 
men to one or more women which is recognwul hy '^^"J* *' f 
law and involves certain rites and duties boh in '^.^^ 
the parties entering the union and in the cas^ *> 
of it. 83 



24- 3*HU*3; PURANA [VOL. XV. NO. I 

The following terms are used in the BVP to denote the 
idea of marriage viz. vivaha, var and grh, (4.105.12, 4-.44.55 3 
2.12.18, 2.16.113, 2.61.93) out of several terms like Udvaha, 
Vivaha, parinaya, parbayana, pSnigrahana etc. M 

Purpose of Marriage 

From the Vedic times marriage was considered as obligatory 
for man as it enables him to become a householdei'j to perform 
sacrifices in honour of the gods and to procreate sons. According 
to Smrtis and Digests, dharrnasarhpatti, praja and ratiare the aims 
of marriage. 

The importance and necessity of the marriage in ono j s life 
is beautifully pointed out in the BVP by bringing out the impor- 
tance and the need of a son as follows : 

The house is bereft of its beauty without a son, in short, it 
is no house without a son. The penance of an ascetic who has 
no son is futile like the water in trinkling out from the sieve. 
Briefly, the childrenlessness is indeed a great misery (3 2-23,3.5,5, 
2 46.58). Thus the BVP brings out the praja aspected connected 
with marriage. 

The rati-aspect is pointed out when it is said that the 
pleasures of sexual intercourse with a rasika (lustful woman) are 
difficult to be had (4.30.75). The Dharmai?astra also supports 
the rati aspect of marriage. 8C 

Qualifications of the Bride and the Bridegroom. 

The ancient law-givers enumerated the following necessary 
qualifications of a bridegroom, viz. good family, good character 
bodily appearance, fame, learning wealth, support of relatives 
and friends caste, youth, strength, health, and ambition. 87 

One should marry one's daughter with a man having a 
peaceful mind, who is virtuous, young, learned, wealthy, vaisr^ava, 
jolly, beautiful and amicable (2.16.95,3.20.40,4 23.57-60). He 
should not marry his daughter with a man having a bad character, 
who is vicious, old, weak, diseased, illiterate, poor, stupid, deaf, 
blind, dumb, lame, sinful, undiscerning blameworthy, devoid of 
good qualities, short tempered, extremely ugly, defective in limb, 
l, impotent and miserly (2.16 93-94, 3 20.41,48,50). 



JAN., 1973] SOCIE1Y AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC LIFE IN BVP. 25 

Himalaya denied to marry his daughter Parvatl with Siva, 
because Siva was unwealthy, brotherless and friendless. A person 
who married his daughter with a man, devoid of the above 
mentioned qualifications, goes to hell (4.41.48). 

The BVP states that one should marry a girl coming from 
a noble family (1.24.14). The Bp (167.25) also supports the 
above view of the BVP. 

Marriageable Age 

According to VSD (S.I), CDS (4.1), and Ys (1.52) the 
bride should be younger than the bridegroom. As stated in the 
Bp (1.07,47) a young maiden for an old man is as dangerous as 
poison and a younger man for an old woman is as beautiful as 
nectar. 

The BVP gives some glimpses of the marriageable ages by 
some cases. Buddha married, Kubera's daughter, RetasS who 
was sixteen years old (2.61.93), Rsdha married at the age of 
twelve with Rayatja (2.49.37), Savitrl also married at the age of 
twelve (2.26 2). As stated at another place, one gets Durgadana- 
phala by giving one's eight years old daughter to a Brahmin 
(4.76.54, 4.77.58). 

Thus according to the BVP the age limit for marriage 
in the case of a girl was from eight years to sixteen years. But 
the BVP does not throw any light on the age limit of the bride- 
groom. 

Types of Marriage 

There are various types of marriage based on a humaric 
variation in the partners, while others the traditional eight ones 
are distinguished from each other from the point of view of ritual 
and mode. 84 

Monogamy 

"Monogamy is not only the most important form of marriage 
not only that which predominates in most communities, and 
which occurs, statistically speaking in an overwhelming majority 
of instances, but it is also the pattern and photo type of 
marriage/ 1 S!) 
4 



26 SRrara; PURA^A [VOL. xv. NO. 1 

The BVP provides the following instances of monogamy. 

1. Upabarhana MalSvati, (2) Mangala Medha, (3) 
Kubera ManoramS; (4) Kama Rati; (5) Agni SvahS; (6) 
Vayu Vayavj; (7) Satyavana Savitri: (8) Manu atarupa, 
(9) AkQti Ruci; (10) Daksa Prasuti; (11) Kardama Devahati; 
(12) &va -Satl. 

Polygamy 00 

"Monogamy has been the cherished ideal and also the 
legalised form of the Indian institute of marriage and this form 
also seems to have been the ideal and was probably the rule, in 
the vedic period but the vedic literature is full of references to 
polygamy. 91 

The following is the list of polygamists as mentioned in 
the BVP. 

. \arne of the polygamists Name {Number of the conso rts, 

\. Krspa (1) Radha; (2) Rukminl: (,3) Kslindi; (4J Lak- 
maoa; (5) Nagnajiti; (6) SatyabhSma; (7) ai- 
bya; (8) Mitravinda; (9) Ratnamala; (1O) Suslla; 
(11) JSmbavatI; and sixteen thousand one 
hundred daughters of Mura. (4.122.33-35). 

2. Nanda (1) Ya^odg; (2) Rohini; (4 14.27). 

3, X5r3yana-(l)Laks m i; (2) banga; (3) Tulasi; (4) SarsvatT; 

(2.12.1). 

4. Dharma -(1) ^anti; (2) Pust.i; (3) Dhrtij (4) Tu ? ti; (5) 

K?ama; (6) ^raddha; (7) Mati; (8) Smrti; (9) 
Murti; (1.9.9.-IO). 

5, Ka^yapa -(1) Aditi; (2) Diti; (3) Kadru; (4) Vinata, (5) 

Surabhi; (6) SaramS; (7) Danu, (1.9.16-18). 
*j G;indra 27 Nak?atras (1.9.48). 

7. t'pabar- 50 Women (4.130.3). 
has-ia 

These are the examples of several polygamy i.e. marriage 
with two or more sisters. 

Polyandry 01 



he existence of 
MM. Dr. P.V. Kane and Dr. A. S. 



JAN., 1973] SOCIETY AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC LIFE IN BVP. 27 

Altekar 04 deny the existence of polyandry in the Vedic Society 
while Dr B. S. Upadhyaya 9 " mentions that it existed in the Vedic 
Society. 

The most glaring example of polyandry in Sanskrit literature 
is that of DraupadT as the wife of five PSndavas. In the BVP 
there is also a reference to the Polyandarous marriage of 
Draupadi (2.14.60). The BVP also mentions one more instance 
of polyandry. It is the instance of Svadha who was the wife of 
manes (2.1.103). It may be noted that these are the instances 
from the mythological domain. 

Thus it is clear that the BVP favours monogamy and dis- 
approves polygamy. It has nothing to say about polyandry. 
NsrSyaoa said to Ganga : Lakscnl and SarasvatT that the mono- 
gamists are happy and polygamists are never happy. The BVP 
further also observes that many co-wives cannot have dignified 
life together. (2.6.56, 2.6.54). 

Forms of Marriage 

From the times of GS, DS, and Smrtis the ancient Indian 
law recognised the eight forms of marriage which differ in ritual 
and mode. na 

1. Brahma In this form, the father gives his daughter decked 

with ornaments and jewels to a learned man of 
good conduct invited by him. 

2. Daiva In this, the father gives his daughter with orna- 

ments to a priest who duly officiates at a sacri- 
fice during the course of its performance. 

3. A.rsa In this form, the father gives his daughter after 

receiving from the bridegroom a cow or a bull or 
a pair. 

4. PrajSpatya In this the father gives his daughter after addre- 

ssing the couple with the text-Sahobhau carat&m. 

5. Asura In this the bridegroom receives a maiden after 

having given as much wealth, as he can afford 
to give to the kinsmen and the bride herself. 

6. Gandharva In this form, the union of the girl and the bride- 

groom is by mutual consent. 



28 3W3~PURXlsIA [VOL. XV. NO. 1 

7. Raksasa This form of marriage involves the forcible 
abduction of a maiden from her home, while she 
cries out and weeps after her kinsmen have been 
slain and wounded and their houses and fortresses 
have been broken upon. 



is 



-In this a man by stealth seduces a girl who i 
sleeping, intoxicated or intellectually disordered/ 17 

As regards the first four forms all the law-givers approve of 
them and agree also to the fact that the last is the worst but 
opinion is divided as to which of these are the approved ones for 
the members of the different Varyas." 8 

The BVP has the following instances of the Brahma-vivaha 
as well as the Gaiidharva-vivaha. 

Brahma-viv&ha 

Vasudeva Devakl (i.7.9j. 

VrsabhSnu Kalavati (4.17.141). 

iva ParvatI (4.44.57). 

Baladeva Revatl (4.106.4). 

K-rsna Rukmini (4.109.38). 

Gnhdharvadvaha 

Hari Gauga (2.16.113). 

Budha Retasa (2.61.93). 

Krsna Radha (4.15.118). 

Aniruddha UsS (4.114.90). 

It may be noted that the marriage of Aniruddha and Ua 
shows the features of the Raksasa and Gandharva forms of 
marriage. It has the feature of the Raksasa type of marriage 
to the extent that the sleeping Aniruddha was kidnapped and 
taken to the abode of U5. The condition of the Raksasavivaha 
is reversely fulfilled here that the bridegroom is kidnapped and 
not the bride (4.114.79-80). 

The BVP does not mention any case of either an intercaste 
marriage or a Svayartwara form of marriage. It is silent on the 
question of the limitations of marriage. 



JAN., 1973] SOCIETY AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC LIFE IN BVP. 29 
Art of Sexual Life 

"As the practical side of life is never rigidly excluded in the 
glory of spritual exaltation, there is an early and frank recogni- 
tion of the sex impulse as one of the most powerful impulses of 
the human mind 3 '. 100 The knowledge of sex-psychology was 
considered as an important science in ancient India. 101 The 
Kamasutra of Vatsyayana is the best and an authentic work on 
the sex-psychology 103 and the BVP also throws a flood of light 
on this problem. 

The Kamasutra describes various techniques for sexual 
pleasure, e.g. kissing, embracing, nail-marking and teeth-marking 
etc. 10 *, but the BVP mentions kissing, embracing, nail-marking 
and teeth-marking. 

Krstja gave four types of kisses to Radha in their Srrigara- 
krSda (4.15. 149) and he gave eight types of kisses to Gopis 
(4.28.111). Nalakubara, the son of Kubera saw RambbS and 
he gave to her six types of kisses (4.14.33). Thus the BVP states 
some number of kisses that were given, but it does not name 
them. Vatsyayaoa mentions seven types cf kisses, amongst them 
the first four are main 101 . The four types of the kisses mentioned 
here in the BVP may brobably refer to its four main varieties as 
given in the Vstsyayana's Kamasutra. Kokkoka, the author of 
the Rati-rahasya mentions thirteen types of kisses, amongst them 
the seven, types mentioned by Vatsyayana are included therein. 
Likewise kissing is also important in Kiiinaknda. 108 Krsna had 
embraced in nine different ways the Gopis in his krida (4.28. HI). 
Nalakubara gave three types of embracing to Rambha (4,14.33). 
The twelve types of embracing mentioned here in the BVP may 
probably refer to those twelve types mentioned in the Rati- 
rahasya. 107 

Over and above kissing and embracing, nail-marking and 
teeth-marking are included in the Karnakrlda. 108 The BVP 
refers to the nail-rnarks and teeth-marks also (4.14.33-34, 
4.28.1 11-1 12) in the context of Radha, Gopts and Krsna. Gene- 
rally in copulation posture the man is more active than the 
woman. Vatsyayana states that to achieve sexual pleasure a 
woman should also take part as the man and it is for this 



[VOL, xv. NO. l 

reason, he mentioned "Viparita-rati" and this technique is nece- 
ssaryto achieve highest pleasure from intercourse. JM Jayadeva 
also, in his Ratimafljan mentions the Viparlta-rati. 110 He has 
described the Viparlta-rati b'rxigara between Krsaa and Rsdka ia 
his Gltagovinda. m 

The BVP also notes the following instances of Viparitarati 
between 

! Siva Parvatl (3.1.16). 

2 - Indra Rambha (3.20.46). 

3 - K-rspa Viraja (4.3.16). 

4 - Kr^na Radha (4.21.73). 
5. Nalakubara Rambha (4.14.33). 

Kanyavikraya 

The practice of ihe Kanyavikraya is a very ancient one, 
going back to the Vedic period.' 13 Such pieces of evidence 
show that in ancient times girls were purchased for marriage as 
was the case in many other countries. lla 

Gradually the public feeling changed and the sale of 
daughter by the father or brother was not only severally cond- 
emned but even taking of a present by them was looked down. 

But. inspite of such an unfavourable attitude towards 
Kanyavikraya, the practice has not died out entirely even in 
modern times. 

The BVP has a reference with this practice when it lays 
down a prescriptive statement that one should not take any sum 
of money from the husband of one's daughter, and further adds 
that if anyone takes money from one's daughter's husband, one 
goes to hell (2.16.96,, 4.83.64). 

Marriage Ceremony, 

"Among all people, savage as well as civilized, the legal 
marriage is usually accompanied by some form of ceremony which 
expresses the sanction of the group on the act of the couple 
concerned This ceremony is of a magical or religious character, 
though in a few people it is apparently purely social,'* 4 " 

The BVP gives in detail the account of the marriage cere- 
mony mainly in the cases of the following ones : 



JAN., 1973] SOCIETY AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC LIFE IN BVP. 31 

1. Marriage of Krsna with Radha (4.15). 

2. Marriage of Krs.na with RukminT (4.44-). 

3. Marriage of i^iva with Parvati (4.44), 

Qut of these three : the marriage of Krsna and Radha is a 
case of the Gandharvavivaha and Brahma only was present at 
that time as a purohita. The marriage of Krsna with RukminI 
and iva with Parvati arc the cases of the Brahma-vivaha. At 
the time of the marriage ceremony of Krsna with RukminT and 
iva with Parvati all relatives of the concerned were present. 
The bridegroom goes to the bride's house where the marriage 
takes place (4.44, 56.4, 108.7). 

Agnisthnpana and Homa 

It means establishing the fire and offering of ajya oblation 
in the fire. Brahma, was a purohita at the time of the marriage 
of Krsna with Radha he kindled the sacred fire and then he 
performed homa (4. 15.1211 The fire was enkindled according 
to Vedic injunctions and the sacrifice was performed at the time 
of marriage of Siva with Patvati (4.45.1-4). 

Panigrahana 

The BVP states that Krsna took Radha's hand in his 
hand and then Krsoa and Radha recited the Vedic mantras 
(4,15.25-27). 

Abhiseka 

During the marriage ceremony of Krsna and Rukminl 
they both did the abhiseka with water on each other's head 
(4,108.7-8), 

Saptapadl 

This is the most important rite in the whole Saihskara. 
This is done is north of the sacred fire. There are seven small 
heaps of rice and the bridegroom makes the bride step on 
each of these seven with his right foot beginning from the 
west. lls 

The BVP states that Krsna and Radha (4.15.123) and Kr?*a 
and Rukmitf (4.108,7) had this Saptapadl rite performed during 
this marriage ceremony. 



32 *njR ruRSiiA voi^ xv. ON. 1 



Marriage Celebration 

The graphic description of the marriage of Siva and Parvatl 
evidences the fact that the occassion of marriage was then even 
as now an occasion of great j-^y and festivity. This description 
gives an idea of the great pornp with which the ceremony was 
celebrated. 

Himalaya had invited all the gods, demons, and Siddhas 
for the marriage-ceremony of his daughter. Several dishes were 
prepared. ParvatI and other ladies had put new clothes and 
ornaments. The front portion of the houjs of Himalaya was 
decorated with banana trees and pattasutras. Siva was received 
by Himalaya, his wife Menaka and thair other relatives. Hima- 
laya gave many gifts to iva after his marriage. Siva and 
PSrvati euered the V3sagrha 11B for their honey-moon. 

They passed their first night at Himalaya's place and on 
the next day iva and ParvatI went to Kailisa where both of 
them were received by Diva's attendants, and other gods, 
demons and Siddhas (4.44 & 45). Here, the description pertains 
to the mythological dormin still the human elements are easily 
discernible. 

Promiscuity 

The BVP notes the instances of mono^-iiny, polygamy and 
polyandry as well as the instances in which sexual laxity was 
taken. They are as follows 

Candra ard Tar 3 

Gandra saw Tara, Brhaspati's wife, on the bank of the 
river Gatigfl and he raped her. Candra got the shelter of SukrS- 
cSrya with Tsm. Brahm3_, Brhaspati and other demons requested 
Sukra to give back Tara. After their request, Sukra returned 
them Tara enciente. Brahma asked her to disclose the name of 
the impregnates After much hesitation she declared that 
Candra was the impregnator and at the same time she gave 
birth to a son known as Budha (2.61). 

fitdra and AhalyH 

Once Indra came to take a bath at the bank of the river, 
where he saw Ahalya, the wife of Gautama. He raped her, 



JAN., 1973] SOCIETY AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC LIFE IN BVP. 33 

The sage Gautama came there, saw them and cursed Indra 
to be a "Sahasra-yonl" who afterwards was converted into 
"Sahasraksa" (4.47.6-31). 

Upendra and Vasundharn 

Once, the wife of Hari, Vasundhara, attracted Upendra. 
Upcnddra had intercourse with her and she gave birth to Ma cigala 
(1.923-24). 

Visvakarman and Ghrtacl 

Vi^vakarman saw GhrtacT, a Sudra woman and he carried 
away her on the bank of the river Sarasvati where he had 
intercourse with her and she gave birth to nine sons as follows 

(1) MalakUra; (2) Karmakara; (3) atnkhakara; (3) Kum- 
bhaksra; (5) Stitrakara; (6) Svarnakara; (7) Gitrakara; (8) 
Kstiisyakfira; (9) Kuvindaka. (1.10.18-20). 

Knsyapa and Kalavatl 

The king Drumila and his wife Kalavatl were living in 
Ksnyakubja. They had no child and Drumila was unable to 
procreate a child, so he permitted his wife to have sex-relation 
with the sage Kasyaoa, but Kasyapa denied. At that time 
Menaka happened to pass by that way. Katyapa saw MenakS 
and his semen fell down on the earth. Kalavatl took it and then 
she was pregnant (1.20.13-46). 

III. FAMILY 
Introduction 

"The family is the backbone of the society. It provides 
a background and furnishes opportunities for a healthy and 
all-round development of an individual. It designates that 
portion of human experience which has resulted from the enlarg- 
ing, reEning and lengthening of the behaviour that among the 
higher animals gathers about reproduction and care of offspr- 
ing. 117 " 

In this section the information of the BVP about the 
concept of the family, the different members of the family, the 
status and position of the father and son are examined. 

5 



34 3*11^ PURSlvIA [VOL. XV. NO, 1 

The Concept of the Family 

The BVP does not state directly the concept of the family, 
but it can be reconstructed by placing together various senti- 
ments expressed about it. 

It is observed in the BVP that a man or a woman felt 
miserable and unhappy if he/she had no issue (3.2.23, 3.5.5.) 
and this incidently reminds one of the sociological concept of 
family, viz. that even an elementary family is said to be comp- 
lete, if there is a child. 

Kinship Terms 

The BVP does not throw more light on the mutual relations 
amongst the different members of the family, but it notes only the 
terms of kinship. According to the BVP there are three types of 
relations, viz. Vidyaja, Yonija, and Pritija (1.10.164). 

In the society one has relations with others in different ways 
and these are designated as 

1. Vidy&ja a relationship by learning or teaching some one. 

2. Yonija a relationship which is obtained by birth. It is 

the principal relation. 

3. Pritija an ordinary relationship with others. 

The BVP also states one more type of relationship, viz. 
"namasambandha" which denotes a man's sexual relationship 
with a woman other than his wife or a woman's sexual relation- 
ship with a man other than her husband (1.10-166). 

The BVP mentions the terms of kinship as follows : 

Term of kinship Description 

1. Pita, Tata, Janaka Father. 

2. Amba, Mats, JananT Mother. 

3. Pitamaha Fathers' Father. 

4. PrapitSmaha Grandfather's father. 

5. Matamaha Mother's father. 

6. PramSt&maha Mother's Grandfather. 

7. Vrddhapram5t5maha Mother's Grandfather's father. 

8. VrddhaprapitSmahi Father's Grandfather's mother. 

9. Pitamaht Father's mother. 

10. PrapitSmahl Grandfather's mother. 

11. Matamahl Mother's mother. 



JAN 

12. 
13. 
I*. 
15. 

16. 
17. 
18. 

19. 

20. 

21. 

22 

23. 

24. 

25. 

26. 

27. 
28. 
29. 
30. 
31. 

32. 
33. 

34. 

35. 

36. 

37. 

38. 

39. 

40. 



,,, 1973] SOGIETV AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC LIFE IN BVP- 35 

Pramatarnahl Pramatamaha's wife. 

Vrddhapramatamahl Vrddhapramatamaha's wife. 
Pitrvya Father's brother^ 

Mother's brother. 

Father's sister. 

Mother's sister. 

Son 

Son's wife. 

Daughter's husband, 

Husband's brother. 

Husband's sister. 

Husband's/Wife's father. 

Husband's/wife's mother 



MS tula 

PitrsvasS 

MatrsvasS, 

Putra 

Vadhu 

Jamsta 

D evara 

Nanandr 

Svasura 



Bharya, JayS, Priya, 
Kanta. Patnl 
Bharta, SvamT, Priya, 
KSnta, Pati 
^yalaka 



Wife. 



Bhrata 

BhaginT 

Bhrata 

Bhratrja 
Bhagineya, Bhaginija 

A.vutta 

Pautra 
Prapautra 

Kulaja 

Dauhitra 

Bandhava 

Bandhu 



Husband. 

Wife's brother. 

Wife's sister. 

Brother. 

Sister. 

Wife's sister's husband. 

Brother's son. 

Sister's son. 

Sister's husband. 

Grandson 

Grand son's son. 

Grand son's Grandson. 

Daughter's son. 

Daughter's Grandson, Sister's son 

Son's/daughtei's 

(1.10 139-160). 



father-in-law. 



The genealogy of kinship can be shown as follows :- 



36 



[VOL, xv. NO. 1 



A man as Ego 

Vrddhaprapitarnaha A = O Vrddhaprapuamah! 

Prapitamaha A = O Prapitamah! 

Pitamaha A=O Pitamahi 



= O Pitrsvasa = A Pitrvya Pita A = O Mata 

Vrddhapramatamaha A = O Vrddhapramatamahi 

PramS tamaha A = O Pramatamabi 

Matgmaha A = O MatSmahl 



Pita A=O Mata --A Matula =O Matrsvasa 

Pita A = O Mata 

I - ' - 1 

Avutta A = O Bhagini =A Bhrata APati 
= A Bhagineya =A Bhratrja 



Patni = 

BhartS A = O BharvS 



Putra A = O VadhQ Putri O = A Jamata 
Pautra A= =Z^ Dauhitra 

Prapautra A= = A Bandbava 

Kulaja A= 

A woman as Ego 



=A Devara Pati A = O Patni 
Kinds of Sun 

The ancient Indian law recognised thirteen kinds of son- 
ship, viz, (I) Aurasa; i2) PutriksputrS; (3) Ksetraja; (4) Datta; 
(5) Krlta; (6) Krtriraa; (7) Gudhotpannaj (8) Apaviddha; 
(9> Ksmina; (10) Sahodlia; (11) Paunarbhava; (12) Svayarh- 
datta; (13) 



JAN., 1973] SOCIETY AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC LIFE IN BVP. 37 

The BVP mentions with the different terminology, following 
seven kinds of sonship (2.59.70, 3.849). (1) Varaja; (2) Vlryaja; 
(3) Ksetraja; (4) Palaka; (5) Vidyaja; (6) Mantraja; (7) 
Grhitaj 

These may be identified as follows : 

1 , Vlryaja = Aurasa, 

2, Ksetraja = Ksetraja. 

3, Grhita = Datta. 

4- Palaka = A son who is dependent on some other 

person who treats him as his own son 

5. Vidyaja = A student. 

6. Mantraja A son who can be get by a mantra of 

any deity. (As stated at another place, 
a servant, a pupil and a man who comes 
to shelter were also treated as a son.) 

7. Varaja = A son who is obtained by practising 

penance to please any deity, Brhaspati 
was the Varajaputra. (2.59,69). 

Status and Position of the Son 

The yearning for a son especially the valient ones is as old as 
the Rgveda. Ufl In BVP the yearning for the son is also mentioned, 
for the sons are said to be saviours from pum hell. 

The birth of a son was an event of joy and wel-come 
in glazing contracdition to that of a daughter which was an event 
of sorrow and misery. A son is equated to a hundred sacrifies. 

One should not go to practise penance without having a 
son; if he goes his penance becomes fruitless and he goes to hell 
(2.46.58, 4.113.6). 

A son was considered as dear as hundred wives combined 
(1.24.28). It was considered as an event of joy for the father who 
desired that his son should surpass him (1,24.29). 

Father 

The BVP does not throw any special light on the status 
and position of the father but according to it the following one* 
viz Janmadata, Annadata, VidySdata, KanyadSta, ******* 
are to be looked upon as a father. And also one's elder brother 
is looked upon as one's father (1.10.153, 1.23.4, 3.8.47, 4.35.J./J. 



[VOL. xv. NO, I 

Thus the word "pita" has an extension in meaning from 
the point of view of the social conditions and the familiar one 
reflecting thereby the reverential position held by the elder 
brother in the family. 

IV. Position of Women 

The attitude of a community to women has a great social 
significance in any society. Some of the aspects of their position 
have already been discussed under "marriage" and "family". 
Some further aspects are discussed here. 

Women and Higher Studies 

Women were permitted for higher studies in the Vedic 
tiroes, but with the lapse of time the situation changed. The 
cause of women's education suffered a good deal after 300 B. G. 
when the practice of early marriage came into vogue. Even 
the Upanayana ceremony was now reduced to a mere formality 
and then it was dropped altogether putting an end to her edu- 
cation. 121 Lopamudra, Vi^vavara, Siktanivavarl and Ghosa are 
the renowned Vedic poetesses ]S3 

The names of Maitreyi and Gargl of the Upanisads are 
too well known to need any mention. Thd ancient grammarians 
were also familiar with woman teacher. 123 

The BVP throws light neither on their education nor on 
their educational sysum. It does not record any instance 
regarding education in their case, but it notes the following 
instances regarding women and Yogic practice : 

VedavatI gave up her life by Yoga when RSvana tried to 
molest her (2,14.19). ManorarnS the wife of KSrtavIrya also 
gave up her life by Yoga (3.35.5) and the wives of Gandharva 
also gave up their lives by Yoga (1.13.4). Mahalaksml assumed 
various forms by the power of Yoga (2.35.16). 

Woman as wife 

The dignity of a woman as a wife which was survived in 
the mother, the projector of the Arva and a member of unique 
importance in the Aryan family, was recognised as early as the 
Rgvedic Society , ia< 



JAN,, 1973] SOCIETY AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC LIFE IN BVP. 39 

She symbolised to him everything i. e. to say she was the 
friend, philosopher and guide to her husband. 125 Manu 18 " states 
that continuation of the family depends on her and for this she 
was called the Jaya. IJ7 The BVP also expresses the same senti- 
ment when it says the function of the wife is to beget sons 
(1.24.28). 

According to ancient Indian ideals, the wife is the better 
half (ardhaftgana) of man and he completed himself by taking 
a wife and continued the thread of the family through her. 138 
The BVP expresses the similar feelings when it states the function 
of a wife is to procreate a child (1.24,28^. 

The BVP has an eulogy of the husband when it states that 
to a woman, her husband is her very eyes, path, life, wealth God, 
religious merit, penance, ditties, author, creator, ruler, and 
protector in short,, the husband is every thing to her (1.15.13-15, 
1.9.63-65, 2.42.21-23, 4.57.18). 

A wife should consider her husband more than a hnndred 
sons (1.9.68, 2.46.82, 3.44.11). A wife should not insult her 
husband, if she does her penance, religious gifts and vows 
bear no reward (2.46.33), even if a woman has her husband 
who is blameworthy, degraded, stupid, poor, imbecile she should 
consider him as Visnu (3 44.1 1-13). If the husband was satisfied 
with her, all the gods were satisfied. For a wife, the husband is 
Janardana. The gods even wish to touch a women who eats 
the remnant of her husband's meal (4.57.20-21). 

For a wife, Tatiseva' is all in all (4.57.10). All the vows, 
gifts, penance, muttering, worshipping and offerings do not form 
even one sixteenth part of the -PatisevS' (4.17.70-73, 4.24.34-36). 
If a husband is at fault, his wife should tolwate it, if she can 
not tolerate she should die (4.57.17). 

Pativrata 

The Mbh. and the Puranas contain hyperbolical descriptions 
of the power of the pativrata. 1 39 

The BVP has some references bringing out the importance 
of a pativrata woman. The power of pativrat* is the highest 
among all the powers (1 ,13.77). To have a pativrata wife is to 
have the happiness of heaven (2.6.66). The pativrata woman 



40 g^NR. PURSltfA [VOL. XV- NO. 1 

should not talk to him with anger. Alt the holy places are said to 
reside in the feet of the pativrata and the earth is sacred with 
the feet of the pativrata. Pativrata can burn the three worlds 
also (4.83.117.130). The pativratya is the penance for a pativrata 
woman (4.59.73). Fire and not even the sun can be compared 
with the pativrata (2.44.14). 

Woman as Mother 

Motherhood has been the cherised ideal of every Hindu 
woman and the apotheosis of mother has reached a greater height 
in India than anywhere else. 

The MS (2.145) says that one AcSrya excels ten upadhySyas 
in glory, a father excels a hundred acaryas in glory, but a mother 
excels even a thousand fathers in glory. 

According to the BVP a mother excels a hundred fathers 
in glory (2.30.193, 4.59.144,4.72.10). The mother is the form 
of earth (4.72.11). 

The BVP states that the following should be looked upon 
as one j s mother ; 

(1) A food-giver j s wife; (2) A sister j (3) A wife of one's 
teacher (4) One's own mother., (5) A step-mother; (6) A dan- 
ghter; (7) A son's wife; tS) Mother's mother, (9, Fathers rrother; 
(10) Mother-in-law; (11) Father's sister, (12) Uncle's wife, (13) 
Maternal uncle's wife, (14) Father's wife, (15) A pregnant 
woman, (16) The female counterpart of one's favourite deity 
(1.10.154-155, 3.15.41-43, 3.8.48, 4.35.53-56, 4.59.55-57). 
Position of the Widow 

The altitude towards a widow was very pitiable. 130 The 
BVP is silent about the remarriage of a widow. It directs that 
a widow should take her meal only once a day; she should avoid 
fragrant substances, oil and extremely beautiful clothes, vehicle, 
pilgrimage, dance, song, cot, tobacco and fried food. She should 
observe Ekadab'l and Janmastaml Vratas (483.93-104) and should 
do double the purification than that done by any other Brahmin 
(1 26.3!), 

The Custom of Suttee 

The custom of suttee was widely prevalent in ancient times 
and the custom existed, among the Aryanas in the Indo-European 



JAN., 1973] SOCIETY AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC LIFE IN BVP. 41 

period. The Vedic period, however, shows that the custom of 
suttee had died down long ago. 

There are stray references to the custom of suttee from 
about 300 B. C. by about 400 A. D. the custom gradually came 
into general vogue and began to become popular in Ksatriya 
circules and from about 700 A. D. Fiery advocates began to come 
forward to extol the custom of suttee in increasing numbers m 

The BVP records an instance of Renuks. becoming a suttee. 
Jamadagni died in battle, fighting with Kartavirya. At that 
time Bhrgu advised Renuka to become suttee, after her husband, 
and further added that if a woman became a Suttee after her 
husband she got religious merit and if her dead husband was a 
vais.nava, she went to the Vaikuntha (3.28.15-17). 

Para^urama, the son of Renuka, enkindled the fire and 
thereby Renuka went to the Vaikuntha by becoming suttee after 
her husband (3.28.42-48). Bhrgu said that if any one of the 
following i.e. girl, child, pregnant woman,, pre-menstruated 
woman, unchaste, diseased lady, becomes a suttee, she cannot gain 
her husband after becoming suttee (3.28.11-62). 

Prostitution 

From early times prostitution has existed in all the coun- 
tries 1! ' s The RV refers to women who were common to many 
men and in the Mbh it is an established institution. 133 In the 
BVP, while defining a prostitute Krsna said to Nanda that a 
woman who enjoys goes for intercourse with four men is a prosti- 
tute (4.75.64). Mohini was the prostitute (4.33.17). Aprostitute 
was considered as a good omen (3.16 23). 

Attitude Towards Women in General. 

" The degree of freedom given to women to move about in 
society and to take part in public life gives an idea of the nature 
of its organisation and enables us to know how far it had realised 
the truth that women too can make a contribution of their own to 
make to its development and progress, 18 * 

The BVP states that all the women are the parts of primor- 
dial matter (Prakrti) (21.146, 4.84.24). Women have a very 
soft heart (2.11.44). Manu (9.3) as well as the BVP also state 
that a woman does not deserve freedom. In her childhood the 



42 g^R PURAJ^A [VOL. XV. NO. 1 



father should protect her, in the young age her husband should 
do it whereas in old age her son should do it (3.4.6, 4.17,81). 

The BVP gives three-fold classification based on their moral 
conduct viz. Sadhvl, Bhogya and Kulata (1.23.21). Among 
these a Sadhvi serves her husband because she gets fame by 
serving him (1.23.22, 1.24.10), while a bhogya serves him be- 
cause of clothes,, ornaments, sexual pleasures and sumptuous 
dinner (1.23.23-24) and a Kulata serves her husband with a 
fraud and not through genuine devotion. Moreover she destroys 
her husband's family and she is a burning charcoal to the 
family (1.23.25-27, 4. 84.3 1-32). 

At another place the BVP states that asadhv! women 
are of three kinds viz : Mukhadusta, Yonidusta and Kalaha- 
priya (3.2.27). Ladies of these types are said not to make a 
happy home and the husband is advised to resort to the forest 
(2.6.68). 

Once Krsna told Nanda that none should trust upon women, 
because they destroy the path of salvation (4.75.2); BrahmS 
also told Narada that women should not be trusted, because 
they destroy men. The girls born in an ignoble family, spoiled 
because of some paternal fault and immodest in nature are natu- 
rally free i. e. uncontrolled in all their actions and hence a 
man should not marry such a girl but he should marry a girl 
born in a good family (1.24.11-14), 

If a man insults a woman he insults the Prakrti. If he 
worships a woman who is having a husband and a son or if he 
worships a girl eight years old, with clothes and ornaments, he 
worships the Prakrti (2.1.143-145). 

If a woman approaches her householder husband for inter- 
course, he should not deny it (4.30.88J. BVP also says elsewhere 
that none can know the character of a woman (4.32 83) and a 
woman is a basket of all the faults (4.18.109). Women's heart 
is like an edge of a sword, 135 her face is like a lotus and her speech 
like nectar. Women have eight times more sex-urge, double the 
hunger, four times more cruelty and six times more anger than 
those of men. 13B (1.23.29-33). 

A man can control a woman so far as he has wealth (1.23.36). 
So wealth is a controlling factor for woman according to the 



.JAN., 1973] SOCIETY AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC LIFE IN BVP. 43 

BVP, If a woman controls a man, i. e. if he is a henpecked 
one, he is trustless i. e. miserable. Manes and gods do not 
accept offering from such a man (2.16.85-89). If a person gives 
Iiis handsome and serviceable wife with, ornament to any 
Brahmin, he is said to go to Candraloka (2.27.27). 

The EVP has some deprecatory stanzas for women, when 
Nsrada points out the superiority of devotion over the married 
life. Once Saukara said that woman's nature is fidel and 
wavering and exciter and increaser of passion, obstructive to 
religous devotion, a Brahmastra of Kamadeva, destroyer of indiffe- 
rence to wordly objects, a bunch of fault, a fraud incarnate 
{ 1 6 6-9) and a bolt to the gateway to liberation (3.6.54-59). 

Elsewhere Gane^a and Durvasas also express a similar senti- 
ment that marriage is hardship and misery, destroyer ofpenance, 
noose of the wordly bondage, a bunch of several faults and 
destroyer of knowledge and wisdom (3,46.23-26, 4,24 17-18). 

SOCIO-ECONOMIC LIFE 

A study of social and economic life of the people is important 
in the cultural history, and a picture of the same can be had by 
a study of food and drink, dress and ornaments, sports and 
pastimes, customs and conventions etc. 

Food and Drinks 

In the BVP. some eatables are mentioned as gifts to 
Brahmins (2.438-44) and some times they are also mentioned 
in the context of religious or medicinal purposes. (2.4.39,2.39 35, 
1. 16.61). Eatables which are mentioned for medicinal purpose 
are noted in the section on "Science of medicine". 

In the BVP food is classified into four varieties i.e. cosya, 
carvya, lehya and peya. The king Suyajna gave these four types 
of food to six crores of Brahmins (2.50.4, 2.54.). Radha had 
also given these four types of food to Ganesa (4 123,38). 

TheBG. also mentions that Krsna, becoming Vaiivanara 
digests four types of food, 137 i.e. bhojya, bhaksya, co?ya and 
lehya. 138 



44 



[VOL. XV. NO. 1 



Fruits 

Fruits were used as an article of food in good proportion. 
Those who practised penance used fruits as their food. 19 " 1 In 
religious rites also fruits were used. 140 The roots and fruits were 
considered as food for Yogins, 141 As mentioned in the BVP fruits 
were used as an article of food. 

The discussion of the eatables can be done under the 
following heads : 

Vegetable, cereals, pulses, oil and oilseeds, spices, Food-prep- 
pration, dairy products, sweets, betels and nuts, non-vegetarian, 
and drinks. 14 ' 



Vegetables 

Brhatl 

Jlvaka 



Kalambl 

KarkatI 
Kusmnda 

LSngall 
Nitnba 

Mulaka 



(Eggplant) 3 4S . It is prohibited as an article of 
food to the Brahmins, on the second day of a 
month (1.27.29). 

(v. 1. Jlraka). It is a plant growing on the 
Himalayas having a bulbus root and round and 
long leaves 144 It is one of the spices. 145 It is 
mentioned as an antidote against phlegm 
(1.16.70). 
(It is Kadama tree). It is prohibited to Brahmins 

at night, (1.27.26). 
(A variety of cucumber). A well-ripened 

KarkatI causes phlegm (1.16 66). 
(pumpkin gourd). It should not be taken on the 
first day of a month; if taken one loses wealth 
(1.27.29). 
(Cocoanut Tree). It is mentioned as an antidote 

against rheumatism (1.16.77). 

(Margosa Tree). Its use is prohibited on the 
sixth day of a month. It is further stated that if 
it is taken, it leads to a birth in the animal 
kingdom (1.27.31). 

(Radish), Phlegm is caused by the use of 
Mulaka in rainy season (1.16.67). Its use is 
prohibited in the month of Magh a (1.27.26). It 
is one of the items in the SarasvatipujS (2.4.42). 



JAN., 1973] 
Patola 

Pindaraka 
Pfttika 

SindhuvSras 
Sirnbl 

VSningana 
Vartakl 

Cereals 

Akgata 



SOCIETY AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC LlPfi IN BVP. 45 

(A kind of snake gourd). It is prohibited to all 
(1.27.30). 

(Guj. Ratalu). Phlegm is cured by the use of 
the unripened PipdSraka (1.16.69). 

(A kind of herb). If taken one's son dies (1 ,27.34-). 
According to the 6abdakalpadruma It is a 
brahmaghatika on the twelfth day of a month. 146 

-(V. 1. Sindhuramana, Vitex negoundo). 1 * 7 
Phlegma can be cured by its use (1.16.69). 

-(It is a plant). It is prohibited on the eleventh 
day of a month. It is further stated that if it is 
taken, one's son dies (1.27.34;) 

- (V. 1. Kalingana). It is prohibited to Brahmins 
in the month ofKartika and it is considered as 
beef (1.2726). 

-(An eggplant). It is prohibited to all on the 
thirteenth day of a month and if taken one's son 
dies (1.27.34). 



(It is unhusked and pounded rice washed with 
water and used as an article of worship in all 
religious and sacred ceremonies) 1 * 8 It is recom- 
mended as an article of gift in certain rites 
(2.4.39, 2.39.25, 4.123.42). 

Salt -(It is a kind of rice growing in winter which is 

replanted and called "Jadahana" and it is 
mentioned by P&nini). 149 It is mentioned as an 
article of gift (3.6.38, 4.13.154) and ritual 
(2.39.25, 3.13.25). 

Tanclula (Rice). It is recommended as an article of gift 

in certain rites and social ceremonies (3.6.38, 
4.13.154, 4.44.6). 



Pulses 

Caoaka 



-(Guj. Gano). It is prescribed as an antidote 
against bile (1,16.61). 



46 



Masura 

Mudga 

Oil and Oil 

Sarsapa 



PURSivIA [VOL. XV. NO. 1 

(Guj-adada). It is prohibited on the fourteenth 
day of a month. It is said that MahapSpa is 
caused by the use of Masa (1.27.35). 

(Guj-masuia). It is prohibited to Brahmins 
(1.27.27, 4.75.61). 

(Guj-magaK Bile is cured by its soup (1.16.62). 

Seeds 



("Brassica campesbri). IBO It is mentioned as an 
article of good omen. Parasurama saw it on his 
right side at the time of his pilgrimage (3.33.25). 
Sarapataila (Guj. Sarasiyu). Taking of sarsapataila on the 
day of Samkranti, Caturdasi and As^ami is praised 
(1.27.37). 

(Guj. Tala) It is recommended as an article 
of gift. One enjoys at Vijijumandira who gives 
Tila to Brahmins (2,27.25). 



Tail a 



Spices 

Ardraka 



Dhanyaka 

Karpiira 

Kesara 
Lava^a 



~(Guj. Tela). It figures as an article of gift on 
certain occasions (4.13.152, 4.44.6 ; 4.105.53). 
Rheumatism can be cured by its use (1.16.77). 

(Guj, Adu). It is recommended as an article of 
ritual in the Sarasvati pQja (2.4.42) ; It is also 
mentioned as an antidote against bile and phelgm 
(1,16.62, 1.16.70) It is prohibited to take on 
Sunday (4.75.61). 

(Guj. Haladara). It is stated as an antidote 

against pheJgm (1.16.68;. 
(Guj. Kapura). It is recommended as an article 

of ritualin the Durga Puja (2.64.75); and gift 

on the occasion of Nsmakaranavidhi of Krsna 

(4.13.175). 

(Guj. Kesara). It is mentioned as an article 
of ritual in the Sarasvati Puja (2.4.42). 

It is recommended as an article of gift on certain 
occasion (4.13.159, 4,44.7), 



JAN., 1973] SOCIETY AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC LIFE IN BVP. 47 



Marica 
Pippala 
Saindhava 
VesavSra 



(Guj, Mari). It is mentioned as an antidote 
against phlegm (1.16.70). 

(Guj. Pipara). It is recommended as an antidote 
against Phelgm (1.16.70). 

(Rock-salt). It is recommended as an article of 
ritual in the Sarasvati Puj5 (2.4.40). 

There are two varieties of Vesavara i.e. vegetable 
and non vegetable condiments. 151 The BVP 
mentions the vegetable condiments only. It is 
mentioned as an antidote against Phlegm 
(1.16.69). 



Food Preparation 

Apupa It is a cake made of rice or barley meal cooked 

in clarified butter on slow fire. Honey was mixed 
to sweeten it. It is probably the earliest sweet 
known to us. 152 It is recommended as an article 
of gift to Brahmins (2.61.97, 3.6.40). 

Bhrstadravya (fired grains). Garaka mentions that parched 
grains as Mudga, Masura and Kalaya were in 
common use. 1 " 3 It is mentioned as an antidote 
against phlegm (1.16.68). 

It is butter churned out of the curds prepared 
from the previous day's milk.' n4 The old age 
(Joes not visit one who takes it (i. 16.45). It is 
also recommended as an article of gift on the 
occasion of marriage af Parvatl (4.44.7). 

(Sweet ball). The BVP mentions Ladduka made 
ofTila. It is recommened as an article of gift m 
certain rites or ceremonies (3.13.23, 3,2*.* 
4.4,39, 2.64.74, 4.9.68, 4.13.155, 4.21.16, 4.44.8, 
4.123.40). 

(Parched grain or parched rice). It is recommend* 
ed as an article of gift in certain rites (2.4.38, 
3 6 37 3.13.23). It was also made by mixing 
Guda and was called Gudalaja. It symbolized 
good omen (3.33.21). 



Haiyau- 
gavina 



Latfcluka- 
Modaka 



48 S*TO^ PURAJvIA [VOL. XV. NO. 1 

Madhuparka A mixture of certain delicious substances offered 
to deities in religious rites or to distinguished 
guests 115 ". Generally it is a mixture of five 
ingredients viz. curd, clarified butter, water, honey 
and sugar. 156 According to Br. Up. (6.4.46) 
it is a mixture of curd, honey and clarified 
butter. It was offered to the distinguished 
guests by YafodS and Himalaya (4.13.10,4.38.29), 

Navanita In the time o f Su^ruta, it meant fresh butter 
churned out of milk. Later on the word was 
used in the sense of butter in general. 1BT In the 
BVP it is recommended as an article of gift on 
certain occasions and in rites (4.9.69, 4.13153, 
2.4.38). 

PSyasa (Rice cooked with milk and mixed with Sugar). 1 " 

It is recommended as an article of gift in certain 
rites (2.44.17, 2.64.74, 3.6.40, 4.123.43). It is one 
of the good omen (3.33.20, 4.70.13). 

Pis^a Probably cakes made of powdered rice. It is 

recommended as an article of gift (2.39.30, 
4.105.58). A Pista made of Tila is mentioned 
as an antidote against bile (1 .6-62). 

Pistaka A cake made of flour of any grain. 159 The BVP 

describes it as made of barley and wheat flour. 
It is recommended as an article of gift in certain 
rites (2.4.38, 2.39.31, 2.44.17, 2.64.74, 3.6.40, 
3.13.25,4.18.14, 4.123.41). In the BVP pitaka 
is recommended as a gift in the Jsraddha. 180 It is 
mentioned as an antidote against rheumatism 
(1.16.75). 

POpa S. V. ApQpa 

aktu Flour of parched barley or rice grains. 181 It is 

said that a giver of aktu to Brahmins in the 
month of VaUakha remains in the Visnumandira 
(2.27.73). 

Svastika A kind of cake prepared with barley flour. 102 It 

figures as an article of gift in certain rites (2.4.39, 



JAN., 1973] SOCIETY AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC LIFE IN BVP. 49 



2.39.26, 3.13.24). It is one of the good omens 
(3.33.23). 

Takra It contains three parts of curds with one part of 

water. 183 It is recommended as an article of gift 
in certain rites (3.6.35, 4.8.33, 4.13 15^). 

Dairy-Products 

Dugdha (Milk). It is recommended as an article of gift 

in several rites or ceremonies (2.4.38, 3.6,34, 
3.2419, 4.8.33, 4.967, 4.13.152, 4.18,24, 
4.105.57). 

Dadhi (Curd) It is recommended as an article of gift in certain 
rites (2.4.38, 3.13.26, 48.25, 4.13.152, 4.123.43). 
It is one of the good omens (3.33.31). It is prohi- 
bited at night (1.16.47). 

^* - ta (Ghee). It is mentioned as an article of gift in 

ceremonies (3.6.34, 3.13.27, 4.13.152, 4.44.6, 
4.105.57). 
S. V. Dugdha. 
S. V. Ghrta. 



Kslra 
Sarpis 

Sweets 

Madhu 



(Honey). It is recommended as an article of 
gift in certain rites (2.4.38, 3.13.17, 4.9.33, 
4.13.151). It is one of the good omens (3.33.23). 

Gutfa _ (Guj. Gola). It is mentioned as an article of 

gift in certain ceremonies (3.6.34, 4.13.15?, 
4.44.7). 

Iksu (Sugarcane). It is recommended as an article 

in the Sarasvatlptija (2.4.38). 

Sarkara = (Sugar). It is mentioned as an article of gift in 

certain rites and ceremonies (2.4.39, 3-6.36, 
4.13.153,4.44.8). It is one of the good omens 
(3.33.20). 

Betels and Nnts 

GavSkaparoa- The negritos used GflvSka as a betel-nut. 1 " 

cQrna According to Rsjanighantu and BhSvaprakala it 

is Pttga or Pugiphala. 1M It is recommended as an 
article of gift in certain rites (2,64.76). 
7 



50 JFMH- PUR^A [VOL. xv. NO. l 



TSmbula The leaf of piper betel, which together with the 
arecanut, catechu, chunam and spices is usually 
chewed after meals. It was taken with Karpara 
(3.6.42, 3.24.21). It is recommended as an 
article of gift in certain rites (2.23.63, 2.64,76, 
4.8.36). It is prohibited to the Yatis, widows 
and Brahmacarins (1.27.19, 4.83.99). 

Puga (Guj. Soparl S.V. Gfivaka). It is one of the 

good omens (3.33.23). 

Non- Vegetarian food 

Meat eating is mentioned as early as the Rgvedic period. 
Many animals were slaughtered at the Sacrifice and the flesh of 
these sacrificial animals were eaten by the participants, 1Bfl The 
MS (3.268) states that meat-eating was permitted in the Sraddha 
rite. The BVP also mentions it (4.75.51, 4.85.26). The BVP 
states that it can be taken as an article of food except on the 
full moon day (1.27.35). The body becomes healthy by the eating 
of fresh meat (1.16.43). Flesh of deer, rabbits, tortoise, goat, etc. 
were used as the non-vegetarian articles of food (4.105.60-62). 

According to the BVP one should not take the flesh of 
buffalo, bird, serpent, pig, donkey, cat, jackal, cock, tiger, lion, 
leech, crocodile, frog, elephant, cow, horse, man, mosquito, bee, 
ant, bear, deer monkey, etc, (4.85.14-20). 

The MS, (5.11-19) also gives a permission to take flesh of 
these animals as food : 

Matsya (Fish.) Fish were also used as an article of food. 

Generally the eastern people used fish as their 
food.'- 87 The BVP permits every one to eat fish 
except Brahmins and Vaisnavas (1.27.27, 
4.75.52). All except Brahmins and Vaisnavas, are 
permitted to eat fish at the time of J-krSddha 
(4.85.25). It is considered as a good omen, if 
anyone sees a live fish on his way at the time of 
leaving his house (3.33.20) 

Drinks 

Asava An extract of Kappittha in spirrated juice of 

sugar-cane and honey with some spices. 168 It is 



JAN., 1973] SOCIEIY AND SOGIO-EG GNOMIC LIFE IN BVP. 51 

mentioned as a drink served at the time of the 
marriage ceremony of ParvatI (4,44.6). 

Aiksava (Juice of Sugar-cane). It figures as an. article 

of gift in certain rites (2.4.38, 2.39.29). 

Iksurasa S. V. Aiksava. 

Madhvika (An intoxicating drink prepared from Madhvika 
dowers. 103 It is mentioned as an article of gift 
in certain rites (2.46 70, 3.6.35). Kroa and 
RadhS both had taken Madhvika together 
(4,35.49). 

Dress and Ornaments 

The study of dress and ornaments is very important in 
cultural evaluation of.any country Position of the sex-division is 
familiar in society. The sex can be distinguished through dresses 
and ornaments 17 

The religious and social significance of dress is an index to 
psychological education, Along with the dress, came into being 
the art of spinning and weaving, dyeing, washing and purification 
ofclofb.es giving rise to several classes of persons engaged in these 
occupations. 

Nudity 

In modern, times there are primitive tribes who move naked 
eg. the Nuer of Nilotic Sudan. Even there are most civilised 
societies in which persons prefer to remain nude. And they also 
prefer to attend stripty dances which are absolutely nude. 
Perhaps people might have prefered to remain nude in ancient 
India, however such references are not found. Generally nudity is 
connected with iva. In Hindu religion, 6iva is described as 
'digvasas' i.e. having the garments in the form of quarters i.e. 
nude. 171 In the BVP. iva is also described as naked, 171 In the 
BVP Siva is described as 'digambara'. i e. directions were his 
garments (1 3 18) Bhairavas are also described as digambaras 
(1.5.71). 
Bark and Skin Garments 

Generally bark and skin garments were used as a dress in 
ancient India, In the Rgvedic period, such dresses were in 



52 



[VOL. xv. ON, t 



vogue. 17 " The BVP also notes the use of bark garments in the 
Kali age. 174 Bark garments aad skin garments are referred to in 
the BVP. Jamadagni and his colleagues are said as Vrksacarma- 
paridhSnah and Krsnacarmaparidhanah (3.24.27). lianadigpala 
wore tiger's hide (1.5.73). 
Kinds of Cloth and Garments 

Am:>uka It is a type of silk, made from cocoons. 1 " RadhS 

and SarasvatI had worn the Arasuka (1.3.55 3 
1.4.28, 1.1385, 4.3.49). 

KarpSsaja The use of cotton clothes is as old as the period 
of Indus valley civilization. 170 The word Karpfcsa 
does not occur in the Sarhhitas and the Brah- 
manas. The earliest reference to it is found in 
the Abvalayana srautasutra and in the Latyaya- 
nas'rautasutra- 177 The Mp. (85.18) arid the MKP 
(15.28) mention Karpasa and Karpasika respecti- 
vely in the sense of cotton clothes but in the BVP, 
by the vocable Karpasaja the cotton clothes are 
referred to and is mentioned as a gift in certain 
rites (2-23.65, 2.39.36). 

Ksauma Linen cloth. It is probably a silken cloth 

prepared from the fibers of bark of AtSsI tree." 3 
It was spread on the bed of Nalakubara (4.14.32) 
Radha's ratha was decorated with the various 
coloured and painted Ksaumavastra (2.49.17). 

Nlvl A cloth worn round a woman's waist or more 

probably the end of the cloth tied into a knot 
in front. 173 Gai'igS and Radha wore the clothes 
along with the nlvl ;2.1 1.14-20). 

Pa^asutra The patta cloth was made from Pattasutra. 
According to the commentary on Acarariga the 
definition of patta is given as cloth made up of 
pattasutra. ldo The hair of Parvati's head were 
tied with the Patta-sutra (4.44.14). 
Yogapatta It figures as an article of gift (.3. 13. 7). It is also 

referred to in the MKP (32.57). 
Dyeing and Washing of Clothes 

The art of dyeing was known during the period of the later 
Saihhitas, the Brahraanas and the Grhyasutras. 131 The BVP refers 



JAN., 1973] SOCIETY ANO SOCIO-ECONOMIC LIFE K BV P. 53 
to the origin of the Rajaka and Raugakara (V. !. ^afikhakara) 
permitting thereby one to surmise about the professional occu- 
pations viz. washing and dyeing (1.11.112, 2.31.59). Krsna 
Rsdha, NSrayana and Lak?ml are said to have Pltarabara-a 
yellow garment (1.2-17, 1.3.6, 1.3.66, 211.20). The Pltamhara, 
was also considered as a good omen (3.33.26). 

Durga and KLalapurusa put oared clothes (1.3.72, 1.15.22). 
Sanyasi should were raktavastra 2.36.1 17). The Gopl's had "put 
on various coloured clothes i. e. yellow, red, white etc. (4.27 53). 
This suggests thereby that the clothes were dyed differently, 
but the BVP does not mention the process of dyeing. Various 
designs were printed on the clothes, Parvati had put on two 
clothes of having such designs at the time of her marriage cere- 
mony (4. 44.50). One who stole such dabbled clothes was bora 
as peacock thrice (4.85.176). After getting such references it can 
be said that the art of dyeing was very well-known and well- 
developed in the time of the BVP. The BVP does not mention 
various dresses but it refers to the dress either of a male or 
female in duel e. g. Vasasi two garments (1.26.49, 2.10.92, 
2.18.2, 3.7.3). 

Footwear 

Foot-wear were in common use in ancient India both as 
a matter of luxury and as a necessity. 182 

Foot-wear were of two types, viz. one those made of wood 
called "Pad uka" and another those made of grass or leather are 
called "Upanah". One had to wear foot-wears made of leathei 
of a hog at the time of attending Yajna. 183 

In the BVP Paduka is mentioned as an object of gift 
(3.28.52). One who gives PadukS to a Brahmin enjoys in 
Vayuloka (2 27.11). A person should not wear the shoes worn 
already by others. 184 

Chatra (Umbrella) 

In the Gupta period, Brahmins used a Chatra. 585 It fijpw 
as an article of gift (3.28.52). One who gives an umbrella , m 
gift, enjoys in Varurjaloka (2.27.10). The Brhatsa.hhUS (.- 
924) and the Krtyakalpataru (43.62-67) also devote a chapter 
on dana of the umbrella. 



54 3*rcRt puRAijiA [VOL. xv. NO, 1 

Ornaments 

The names of various ornaments occur in the BVP with- 
out their details. These ornaments were made of gold and jewels, 
The following ornaments are referred to in the BVP. 
Angullyaka (A finger ring). 1SQ It was made of jewel ^2.16.34). 
It is recommended as an article of gift (2.16.134) 
(3.13.9). RadhS wore a ring studded with 
a gem. 

Gajamauktika (It is a pearl to wear in front of nose). DurgiS. 
and Gopis wore it (2 64.16, 4.4.100). 

Hara (Necklace). It was made of gold (1.5.37 . It 

is recommended as an article of gift (3.13.1 1) 

Kankana (A bracelet). The GopTs and Radha wore it 

made of jewel (1.5.37, 4.4.98). 

KanthabhusS (It is a short necklace). It is mentioned as an 
article of gift (3.13 11). 

(A small bell or a tinking ornament). Viraja and 
other Gopis wore it (4.13.14, 4.5.57) 

(A crown). Krsna wore it made of jewel, on 
his head. (1.2 19, 2.13.32). It figures as an 
article of gift (3.13.18). 

(It is a celebrated gem obtained with 13 other 
jewels at the churning of the ocean). Narayana 
wore it (1.3.7, 1.28,56). Krsna gave it to Radhl 
(2.10.148). 

(A bracelet worn on the upper arm or an armlet). 
Radha and Gopis wore it made of jewel ( f .5.37, 
4.4.95}. It figures as an article of gift (3.13 10). 

(An ear-ring). Krsjja wore it made of jewel, 
(1.28.58). It is also mentioned as an article of 
gift. t2.10 149, 3.13.8). 

-(A garland of Marnkya), It is mentioned as an 

article of gift (3.13 8). 
(An anklet). Rndha and Durga wore it, made 

ofjewel (1.4.38, 2.64.19). It figures as an article 

of gift (3.13.10), 



Kiiikini 



Kirlta 



Kaustubha 



Keyura 



Mafijira 



JAN., 1973] SOCIETY AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC LIFE IN BVP. 55 

Mukuta (A crown). It is made of jewel. Gods and 

Goddesses wore it (1.2.19, 2 55.115, 4.4.100). 

Nnpura (An Anklet). It was made of jewel (4.4,95). 

A Nupura made with Mani are mentioned as an 
article of gift. (2.10.151). 

Mayttrapuccha (A feather of peacock). It is connected with 

Krsna. He always wore it on his head. 

(1.28.57). 
Ptisaka (A chain). Radha and Gopis wore it. made of 

jewel. (1.5.37, 4.4.99). 
Valaya (An armlet). It is recommended as an article of 

gift (3.13.10). 
Vanamala (A garland of wood flowers). Radha and Kyna 

wore it (1.2.20, 1.5.36). 

Haircoifftrre 

It is well known that in modem times various styles ot 
hair-dressing are being developed and in ancient times various 
styles of hair dressing were developed. 18 ' Long ha* were consi- 
dered to be a sign of beauty.*' The BVP mentions the nnrror 
and a comb, as the means of hair coiffure- A minor was given 
to Parvati in her marriage ceremony (4.44.12). 

The flowers were used by the women in their dressing'^ 

Radha, Gopis and Parvati had made hair-coiffure beautifully 

with the MalatI flowers (1.5.34, 4.4.104, 4.44.1*). 

The Parvatast, had 



. 

' 'thatK^ 

and 



Brahmins on the day of 

do Tarpaija after Ksaurakarma (1.27.46). 

Toiletting and Cosmetics Qf 

The perfumed substance ^ere^used _ 
and cosmetics in ancient I ndia are in common use m 

knowledge that puff, powder and Up.tick. 

modern times. sw eet-sm e lllng. An 

A perfumed oil was used to kee^ ^ ^^ the pe- 
aromatic oil was also - 



56 STUHH-PURXtfA [VOL. XV- NO. 1 



med oil was used. Viou-taila which was made by the Svarvaidyas 
was in vogue (3.13.19). The women used Candana, Aguru, 
KastQrlj Kurnkuma and Sindura to make a tinkling on. their 
forehead (1.4.33.1.20.20,2.10.100,2.11.23,2.16.27, 2.55.17, 4.3,12, 
4.4.101, 4.9.28, 4.15.151, 4.28.96). 

6ankhacuda made a tinkling with Sindura, having the shape 
of burning lamp on Tulasi's fore-head (2.16.136) possibly this 
tinkling may refer to a long flame shaped tinkling popular nowr- 
a-day also. Radha also made such a tinkling with Sindura on her 
fore-head (2.11.23). Widows were prohibited to use the perfumed 
oil, garlands and Sindura (4 83.94). 

The mixture of collyrium and musk was used for anointing 
the eyes at the time of marriage (4.4.107,4.44.13). Both the 
checks were pointed with streaks probably with musk and other 
fragrant substances (2.16.32,2.16.136, 2.64.19, 4.28.96,4.44,13, 
4.13.16). 

The Simantalelcha was drawn with the streak on the head 
of women by them." 1 (2.16.27, 2.55.18). The Alaktaka was 
also used for painting feet and nails (1.2020,2-16.139, 2,64.21, 
4.29,22, 4.44.13, 4.53.24). 

Perfumes Incense etc. 

The BVP mentions Gorocana, Aguru and Dhupa as the 
perfumed substances. The Gorocana and the Aguru were used 
to made body sweet-smelling. ((4.93.22). The gorocana was used 
for a tinkling on the fore-head. lsa 
Weights and Measurements 

In the BVP, there are references to various terms referring to 
different units of weights and measurements. In the absence of 
the description and detailed information regarding them a 
comparative study is not undertaken here as it can not throw 
any special light on the problem of its contribution by the BVP, 
hence the data available in the BVP is noted here. 

Units of Weights 

The BVP mentions two words denoting the units of weight 
as follows : 

L Kulya The BVP mentions it as a denomination of a 
weight of food (4.13.152, 4.105.57, 4.123-43). 
It is equal to eight Dronas 1 " 3 , and a Droija is 
equal to 34 seers. 194 



JAN., 1973] SOCIETY AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC LIFE IN BVP. 57 
2. Pala It is a weight equal to Four karsSs = --- Tul ti >9 * : 

It is referred in the BVP (4.85.99). 
Units of Measurement of Distance 

The references to yojana are very common. Several works 
including Purajjas e.g. the MP. and the VYP. also refer to 
Yojana. 1!> 

The BVP mentions the words Yojana, GavyQti and Hasta. 
(4.17.167, 4.4.161, 4.17.160, 4.19.9, 4.103.59). The BVP does not 
give any detail about these words but detail can be found from 
other references. The MK.P (46.137440) gives the following 
table of the various units of measurements of distances as 
follows : 

8 Paramaijus = I Trasarenu. 

8 Trasarenus = 1 Valagra. 

8 Valagras = 1 LiksS 

8 Liksas = 1 Yuka 

8 Yukas = 1 Angula. 

6 Aiigulas = 1 Pada 

2 Padas = 1 Vitasti. 

2 Vitastis = 1 Hasta. 

4 Hastas = 1 Dhanu 

2000 Dhanus = 1 Gavyuti. 

4 Gavyutis = 1 Yojana. 

Units of Measurement of Time 

The BVP gives in detail the measurement of time an 
as follows : 
Apu (4.96.49) It is a minute division of time. 

-(2.54,7-28, 4.96.5*33). ^ 
time. The BVP mentions this di 
very particularly. To get this dms.on . oneshou 
take a pot made of gold I weighing ^^ 
having depth of four fingen. The 

<*** 



make four holes with the V< Aftw 

of gold having the length of four MJ I ^a* 
that the pot should be put on water and 



58 



[VOL. XV. NO. 1 

taken by it for being filled up with water, is 
called Dantfa. 

(4.96.51). It is a general measure of time. 

(4.96.51). It is a certain division of time. 

(4.96.151). It is a measure of time. 

(4.96.50), It is a minute division of time. Accor- 
ding to the MKP (96.50). It is a 60th of nimea, 
while the BVP states that it is one third of a 
nimesa. 

(4.96.53). It is a particular division of time. 
It is a 30th part of a day. It is a period of 40 
minutes. 197 

(4.96.51). It is a minute division of time. Th 
Bp. (231.4) and the BVP state that 15 nimesas^J 
ksstha but rhe MS (1.64-65) and the NP. (8.5) 
state that 18 nimesas= 1 kastha. 

(2.36.168). It is a particular division of time. 

(4.96.49). It is a measure of time. A twinkling 

of an eye is a paramSou 
Trasarepu. (4.96.49). It is a minute division of time. The 
SS lns states this division as a unit of weight and 
states that 30 paramSqius make one trasarepu. 

(4.96.50). It is a measure of time. 

(4.96.50). It is a minute division of time. 

(2.36.168). It is a particular division of time. 

Thp above tnatter can be put in the tabular form as 
follows : 



Ksana. 
Laghu. 
Lava. 



Muhurta. 



Nimesa. 



Pala. 
Paramaiju 



Truti. 

Vedha. 

Vipala. 



2 ParamSpus 


= 


1 Trasare^u. 


3 Trasareijus 


= 


1 Truti. 


100 Triu-Is 


= 


1 Vedha. 


3 Vedhas 


= 


1 Lava. 


3 Lavas 


= 


1 Nimea. 


3 Nimesas 


= 


1 Ksana. 


5 Ksanas 


= 


1 Kastha 


10 Kashas 


= 


1 Laghu. 


15 Laghm 


sa 


1 Da.nda. 


2 Da^das 


= 


1 Muhurta, 



JAN., 1973"} SOCIETY AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC LIFE IN BVP- -B 

60 Dallas = 1 Tithi. 

15 Tithis = 1 Paksa. 

2 Paksas = 1 Masa. 

2 Masas = 1 Rtu. 

6 Rtus = 1 Vatsara (4.96.40 57). 

At another place 

2 Dandas = 1 Muhurta. 

4 Muhurtas = 1 Yama or Prahara. 

8 Yarn as = a Vasara or tithi. 

(2 54.27). 

Again at another place one comes across the folknvini; 

table '. 

GO Vipalas = 1 Pala. 

60 Palas = 1 Danda. 

2 Dai? das = 1 Muhurta. 

30 MuhQrtas = 1 Tithi (2.36.67). 

The BVP slates that there are seven week days, sixteen titlm, 
and twelve months viz. Vai&kha, Jye,xha, A^ha Sra B .i, 
Bhftdra, A^vina, K.rtika, M,rg., Pau ? a, Mtgha Phalguna and 
Gaitra. The Month of Caitra is the last month of the yeai . 



There are s- 

1 . Vasanta covers Gaitca and Vaifiakha. 
2. Gramma covers Jyes^ha and Asadha. 

3 Vara covers Havana and Bhadra. 

4 ^arad covers Alvina and K Srtika. 
5. Hemanta covers Marga and Pausa. 

6 Sl^ira covers Magha and Ph.lguna (4,93.59-62 . 

of Naksatras, Yogas and 



as the wives of Oandra (4.96. ,!). _ 

The BVP also mentions the name _of Yog ^ ^ v ^ 
The system of Yogas is am ancient e - , s, ub hll !r ; 

^._ V Vi 5tam bha; ^/^(^ftsiDM; ,0) 4* 
; (6) Atigancja; (7) ?* a1 ' V Vyag l,; 

(U) VrddU, D ^ m ^ ! (.8, 
> Va j?; (16 dha( H) VJ P , 

(19) Parigha; (20) Siva; (21) - 



60 tjqjTjq-- PURXJ^IA [VOL. xV. N > 1 

(24; ubha; (25) Brahma; (26) Aindra; (27) Vaidhrti. (4.96 
77-79). 

The Karana is the fifth item in Pancauga and half of a 
Tithi is Karana and thus there are two Karanas in a Tithi and 60 
Karanas in a lunar month. 300 . 

"The Karanas are only of astrological use and must have 
been named many centuries before 400 A. D. 20 ' 

The BVP states the following Karanas : 

(1) Bava; (2) Balava; (3) Kaulava; (4) Taitila; (5) Gara; 
(6) Vaoij; (7) Visti; (8) 6akuni; (9) Catuspad; (10) Naga.; (11) 
Kimstughna. (4.46.79-80). 

The BVP mentions the five kinds of year ( Wsara) Viz 
(I) Sa iivatsara; (2) Pravatsara; (3) IlSvatsara; (4) Anuvatsara; 
(5) Vatsara. (4.96.57-58). 

In the Vedafiga-Jyotisa, 203 a Yuga is considered of five 
Vatsaras. 20 '^ 

Yuga, Manvantara and Kalpa 

The word "Yuga" has probably several meaning viz. a 
short period of- time, a cycle of five years, a long period and a 
period of thousand of years. Prof. D R. Mankad assigns as many 
as ten meanings to the word. 110 * 

In the Mbh, MS and PurSnas, the theory of Yugas, Man- 
vantaras and Kalpas has been elaborated at great length. 205 The 
four Yugas are named Krta, Treta, DvSpara and Ti?ya or Kali. 
Pargiter- " thinks that the division into four ages had a historical 
basis. 

The BVP also mentions this system of chronology. It refers 
to the four Yugas viz.Satya, Treta, DvSpara and Kali, It does 
not mention the length of each Yuga in form of years. It states 
that after the end of Kali there would be again Krta or Satya 
Yuga. 

In Satyayuga each and every member of the society would 
observe his/her duty and Dharma would be with the four padas 
(2.7.63-67). 

The Treta Yuga is the second in this chronology. In this 
Yuga Dharma has three padas, in the D vapara it has two padas 



JA.N., 1973] SOCIETY AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC LIFE IN BVP. 6l 

while in the Kaliyuga it has only one pada and people do not 
observe their prescribed duties, religious rites and regulations 
(2.7.68, 4.90.23). 

Manvantara 

The BVP mentions the following measurements of Chrono- 
logy. 

Krta-fTreta+DvSpara + Kali yu gas=l Gaturyuga. 
360 Yugas =1 Divyayuga. 
71 Divyayugas I Manvantara. 
14 Manvantaras - 1 day of Brahma. (1.5.5-9). 

The BVP also refers to the names of fourteen Manvantaras 
as follows : 

(1) Svayambhuva; (2) Svarocisa; (3) Tapasa; (4) CJttama; 
(5) Raiv a ta; (6) Caksusa; (7) 6raddhadeva; (8) Savarni 
(9) Daksasavarni; (10) Brahmasavarni; (11) Dharmasavarni; 
(12) Rudrasavarrii; (13) Devasavarni; (14) IndrasSvarni; 
{2.54.57-65, 4.41.104-111). 

Kalpa 

The word "Kalpa" is traceable to the RV, but it does not 
occur in the sense of time-computation. 207 In the later works 
e.g. VisnupurSna (6.3-11-12) fourteen Manvantaras are said to 
constitute a Kalpa, which is a day of BrahmS. The BVP mentions 
two types of Kalpas. One Kalpa is equal to a day of Brahma and 
it is called Samvarta or Ksudra Kalpa. Markajjdeya lived for a 
period of seven Ksudra Kalpas, while the duration of another 
Kalpa is a full span of life of Brahma, and its measurement is as 
follows : 

14 Manvantaras = 1 day of Brahma. 

Brahma's 360 days = I year of Brahma. 

Brahma's 108 years = 1 Kalpa (Brahma's lifej 

(1.5.7-12). 

The BVP mentions three Kalpas viz. : 
1. BrShmakalpa 2. VSrShakalpa; 
3. Padmakalpa. (1.5.4). 

In the Briihmakalpa the creator created the world from the 
fat of Madhu and Kaitabha while in the Varahakalpa; Visnu 



62 



XV. NO. 1 



uplifted the Earth from Rasatala in his Boar-incarnation. In the 
Padmakalpa, Brahma created the world from Visnu's the navel- 
lotus (1 5.13-15). 

Dr. A.S Gupta gives the following table regarding the 
Kalpas and Yugas and Manvantaras as mentioned in the 

Puranas, BOK 



360 human years 

4000 divine years 
400 divine years 
400 divine years 

3000 divine years 
300 divine years 
300 divine years 

2000 divine years 
200 divine years 
200 divine years 

1000 divine years 

100 divine years 

100 divine years 

4 Yugas combined 

I Mahayuga 



-, 



MahSyugas 



1 divine year 

Krta (Satya) Yuga 

Krta-Sandhya 1 

Krta-Sandhyariib'a. 

Treta Yuga. 

Treta-Sandhya. 

Treta-Sandhyath^a. 

Dvapara Yuga. 

Dvapara-SandhyS. 

D vapara-Sand hya rh^a. 

Kali Yuga. 

Kali-Sandhya. 

Kali-Sandhya msa. 

1 Mahciyuga, or 1 Divine Yuga 

12,000 divine years, 

43,20,000 human years. 

1 Manvantara. 



14 Manvantaras or 
1000 Mahayugas --= 1 Day of Brahma OR 

The period of a Kalpa 
= 4,320,000,000 human years. 
Music and Dancing 

^ Music is considered as an important element in one's life. 
It connected with religbus and social activities since the Vedic 
penod. The Samaveda is famous for music. Some Puranas e. g. 
Harrvarht.a, Markandeyapurana, Vayupuraaa and VisnupurHna 
also give some references about music. 209 

The various ragas, ragi i s and instruments are important 

SLiTTv,' 7^ rigin f mUSic is considere d to be divine. 
Brahma had sex relations with Savitrl and she bore six Ragas, 
vanous Talas and thirty six Rgginls ( , , 8 3) 



JAN., 1973] SOCIETY AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC LIFE IN BVP. 63 

They are not mentioned in the BVP but the Sarhgita- 
Darpana^ 10 states six rSgas and their thirty six wives raginis were 
born from Mah&deva and Parvatl. 

Music and dancing were played on the occassions of social 
and religious ceremonies. Different musical instruments were 
played upon at the time of Krgna's naming ceremony (4.13.167). 

The Gandharvas and ApsarSs are connected with music and 
dancing (1. 29. 4, 2.13.35, 2.16.171 , 3.28.35, 4.4.5, 4.4.44). 

Ladies knew music and dancing. Rsdha's female friends 
were experts in music and dancing (4.3.54). Music was also 
considered as a good omen (3 16.29, 3.33.12). One who dances 
at the feet of Siva, goes to the ivaloka ^2 27.79). 

Musical Instruments 

Music Vocal and instrumental, and dancing were quite 
well-known in Vedic times." 11 

The various musical instruments and their names are met 
with in the Vedic literature. 213 

The BVP also mentions various names of musical instruments 
as follows : 

Anaka It is a large military drum beaten at one end. aJS 

It was played at the time of giving farewell to 

Krsna from Gokula to MathurS (4.70.77). 

pamaru or A sort of small drum shaped like an hour glass. 
>amaruka iva played it, which was in his right hand when 

he came to see MenakS, the mother of Parvatl 
4.40.72). 
Dhakka A large or a double drum. It was played at the 

time of anna-prakna ceremony of Krsija. 

(4.13.153). 
Dundubhi It is a sort of large kettle drum. It was beaten 

at the time of farewell of Krs^a from Gokula to 

Mathura (4.70,77). 

Charts. (A bell). The Ghaijtsnada is considered a sign 

of good omen (3.16.29), 
KSrhsya (Guj. KSrhsajoda). It was played at the time 

of Krsna's naming ceremony (4,13.166), 



64 
KSrhsyatala 

Kartala 



Mardala 

Mrdanga 
Muraja 

Mural! 
Panava 

Pa^aha 
laamkha 



Sannahani 



PURSlvtA [VOL. XV. NO. 1 

It was played upon at the time of KSrtikeya's 
consecration ceremony (3.17.2). 

V. S, Apte Translates it as "cymbal" but cymbal 

is "musical instrument of two brass plates clashed 

with ruigning sound. The Kartala is a musical 

instrument played upon with the help of fingers 

and by shaking it. Normally it is a pair. 

A kind of drum. It was also played upon at the 
time of Krsna j s farewell from Gokula to Mathura, 
and on the occasion of Krsr.ia's naming ceremony 
(4.70.78, 4.13.166). 

A kind of drum. It was played at the time of 
Krsna's farewell from Gokuia to Mathura and on 
the occasion of his naming ceremony (4.70.78, 
4.13.166). 

A kind of drum. It was played upon by Gopls 
to please Rsdha (4.3.53), and at the time of 
Krsna's farewell from Gokula to MathurS 
(5.70.77). 

A flute or pipe. Krsna is called "Muralidhara". 
(3.42.42). 

It is a small drum used to accompany singing. 
It was beaten at the time of Krsna's farewell 
from Gokula to Mathura (4 .70. 77). 

It is a kettle drum or war drum. It was played 
upon at the time of Kr?na's naming ceremony 
(4.13.165). 

It is a conch-shell used for offering libation of 
water or as an ornament for arms or for the 
temples of elephant. A conch-shell perforated at 
one end is also used as a wind instrument in 
the battles of epic poetry 3 and is held very 
sacred. 2 " Jsaihkha dhvani was considered as an 
article of good omen (3.16.29). 

It was played upon at the time of Kroa's fare 
well from Gokula to Mathura (4.70.78). 



JAN,, 1973] 
Sarayantra 



AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC LIFE IN BVP. 65 



Svara> antra 



-It was played upon at the time of Krsna's naming 

ceremony (4.13.156). 

Snigavadya It was in the left hand of 3amkara and with 
playing it he came to Menaka, the mother of 
ParvatT (4.40.72). 

It was played upon in the RasakridS by Gopis 
(4.53.45). 

A flute or pipe. "The reed flute, Vam^a of the 
ancient books or B&risuri is one of the commonest 
instruments in the musical tradition of India. 215 
It was played upon at the time of Krsna's naming 
ceremony. ^4.13.156). 

A flute. It was played upon by Gopls to please 
Radha (4.3.51), 

The Vina or Indian flute is an instrument of the 
guiter kind and is supposed to have been in- 
vented by Narada. 216 Narada was expert to 
play Vina (1.8.44). He was having a Vina with 
three wires i. e. Tritantrivlna (1.13.19). 

A band. The various types of yantra were played 
upon at the time of Kartikeya's consecretion 
(3 17.2). 

Reception of Guests 

Every householder should perform five Mahayajfias every day. 
Among these five daily sacrifices, the Nryajna or Manusyayajna 
or atithisatkara i. e. reception of the guests is the main and impor- 
tant one. 217 The worship of the guests gives wealth, fame,, long 
life and heaven.'-* 18 

The BVP also emphasizes on the atithisackara. All holy 
places reside in an atithij so the house-holder should well-come 
him (3.8.35). One who worships atithi, worships three worlds 
(3.8,34). If anyone does not worship atithij he is considered a 
MahSpapi and he goes to Kalasutra hell (3.44,54, 4.84.2). 

One should give a seat to a guest when he conies and also 
should inquire how he does. Sauti was offered a seat by iaaunaka 
when the former came to latter in the NaimisSrauya and requested 

9 



Venu. 



Vina 



Yantra 



66 aswro; PURStfA [VOL. xv. NO. l 

for the narration of the BVP. Manes, deities and fire do not go 
to the place of one who does not worship an atithi (2-51.7). If a 
guest returns without satisfaction, he takes the religious merit of 
the host and gives him his sins inreturn (2 51,10, 4.84.5). Receip- 
tion of the guest is also praised in the Upanisad. 819 

One who does not worship an atithi, gets sin of goghna, 
Strlghna, Krtaghna, Brahmaghna and Gurutalpaga (2 51-9). 

Art and Architecture 

There are a number of independent texts on art and archi- 
tecture and may be of a later period. 220 The BVP supplies the 
information on art and architecture mainy while describing the 
Goloka, Kailasa, Vrajamandala including the Rasa maijdala, 
Vrndavana and elsewhere also. The information that is obtained 
here indicates its developed form and consequently its late date. 

The BVP gives some technical terms about architecture 
describing the Goloka., Kailasa, Dvaraka and Rasamandala 
Elsewhere. These references are as follows : 

Attalika (4.17.8). If A house of two or more storyes, a lofty 
house, palace. 221 

Asrama (4.10.150). "A temple, a hermitage, a dwelling. A 
religious establishment comprising the main 
temple, its attached tankj kitchen, alms 
house, guest-house, store-house, cow sheds., 
halls, dressing house for the deity, bed 
rooms, and other houses and flower gardens., 
orchards and the surrounding walls. 

"A pleasure garden". 

"The arm-pit". 

"A door, the panel of a door. 



Udyana (4.17.9) 
Kakss (4.73,30) 
Kapata(4.4.134) 
KrldSsarovara 
(4.4.109) 
Kutira (4.91.48) 
Caturasra 
{1-2841-47) 
Tadaga (4.17.10). 



"A pleasure-lake." 

"A hall, a cottage." 

"A type of building which is quadrangular 

in plan and has one storey and five cuploas". 

"A tank, a pool"i 



JAN., 973] SOCIETY AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC LIFE IN BVP. 67 

Parikha (4.4.157, -'A ditch, a moat, a trench round a fort 

4,13.16,30. 4.92.41). or town". 

(1.28.46-48,4.4.94) 

".A well, an enclosure., a fence, a rempart, 
a surrounding well elevated on a mound 
of earth". 



Prakara (4.4.157, 
4.73.16, 30, 
4.92.41. 1.28 46 : 
48,4.4.94.) 

Bhoga (4.4 112). 
Vajra (4.17.185) 



"A class of the single-storyed buildings''. 

"A datnantine forked, zigzag, a diamond, the 
thunderbolt of Indra, a type of building, a 
type of column, a paste, plaster of cement. 

Vlthi (2. 1 7.6) "A road, a way, a street, a market-place, 

a stall,, a shop, a terrace". 

Vedl (4.4.151). "Originally a hall for reading the Vcdas 

in, an altar, a stand, a basis, a pedestal, 
a bench, a kind of covered varandah or 
balcony in a courtyard, a moulding. 

Sibira(2.54.18) "A Gamp, a royal residence, a fortified city. 

Sarvatobhadra "A type of building pavilion, hall, entabla- 

(4.103.27) ture, window, phallus, a joinery a fourfold 

image one on each side of a four- faced 
column, a village, a town, having a surround- 
ing road and entrances on four sides; a house 
furnished with surrounding terraces. 

Sitt ha (4.92.46- "A type of pavilion, a class of oval buildings, a 

3.29.18) riding animal (lion) of^gods." 

Painting 

The BVP refers to the art of painting. The pictures of war 
between Rama and Rsvana and das"avatSra war drawn on the 
wall of Radha's a^rama (4.92.58). There were drawn many 
pictures on Radha's chariot, viz. KailSsa, Vrndavana, RSsa 
mandala. (4.2.39, 56.4.45.48-50). 

Pictures were also drawn on certain religious occasions and 
the BVP refers to the drawing of a picture of a doll on the 
occasion of Sathlpuja (2.43.49). 



68 



[VOL. xv. NO. 1 



Puttalikas and Pradmas 

The BVP refers to puttalikas and pratimas in the Chapters 
on the Vastukala. The GopTs stood with puttalik&s in their hands 
when Krsna went to Vrndavana (4.16.166). Akrfira also saw 
pratimas of Krsna and PSrvati in his dream (4.70.18). 

Science of Medicine 

The Ayurveda is considered as the fifth Veda. It was an 
important part of life of ancient India 

Some doctrines of Ayurveda. are found in so ne Pur?nas, 
and some legends connected with the Ayurveda are also found 
in some Puranas. The PP mentions that the different Puranas 
are the different parts of bo^y and according to it, the BVP is 
the left knee of Visr>u. 532 

Origin and Doctrines of the Ayurveda 

The BVP mentions the origin and some doctrines of the 
Ayurveda. PrajSpati created first four Vedas and then he 
created the fifth Veda The Ayurveda (L16.9J. After creating 
the Ayurveda, Prajapati taught it to his pupil BhSskara who 
composed then his own Ayurvedasrhhita (1.16.10). 

BhSskara taught the Ayurveda to his sixteen pupils and 
these pupils composed separately sixteen Ayurveda tantras as 
follows 



1. Dhanvantari composed 

2. Divodasa ,, 

3. Kasiraja ,, 



A^vin 



Nakula 

Sahadeva 

Arki 

Cyavana 

Janaka 

Budha 

12. Jabala 

13. jajali 
Paila 
Kratha 



14. 
15. 



1 6. Agastya 



Cikitsatattvavij liana. 

Cikitsadarpana. 

Cikitsakaumudl. 

Cikitsasara & 

Bhramaghnatantra. 

Vaidyakasarvasva. 

Vyadhisindhuvimardana, 

JfiSnarnava. 

JlvadSna. 

Vaidyasarndehabhanjana. 

Sarvasara. 

Tantras5raka. 
Vedaiigasara. 
Nidana. 
Sarvadhara. 
Dvaidhanirnaya. 

(1.16.11-21). 



JAN., 1973] SOCIETY AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC LIFE IN BVP. 69 

As Dr. S. N. Das Gupta observes that "nothing is known of 
these ' works, and it is difficult to say if they actually existed. 
According to the BVP the Bhaskara Samhita is the best (i. 16.24). 
But, now-a-days, the CarakasarhhitS, the SusYuta samhitS. and the 
A?t5nga hrdaya are considered as the Vrddhatrayl and hold an 
important place among the Indian people. 

Name of Diseases 

According to the BVP the fever is the main cause for 
other diseases. The fever is of four varietiess : i.e. Vayuja, 
Pittaja, lesmaja and Tridosaja and from these four types of fever 
other twenty-two diseases are produced viz. : 

Modern name 





Name of Disease 


1. 


Bhramari 


2. 


Darunt 


3. 


Galagandaka 


4. 


Goda 


5. 


Grahani 


6. 


Gulma 


7. 


Halimaka 


8. 


JvarEtisara 


9. 


Kamala 


10. 


KSsa 


11. 


Kubja 


12. 


Kustha 


13. 


Mutrakrcchra 


14. 


Paijdu 


15. 


Pliha 


16. 


Raktadosa 


17. 


Sotha 


18. 


Jsulaka 


19. 


Sannipata 


20. 


Viameha 


2i. 


VisQcT 


22. 


Vraija 




(1.16.27.33). 



Tumour 
neck. 



the side of the 



and swelling of 



Diarrhoea. 
Hardening 
the spleen. 

Jaundice due to anaemia. 
Dysentery with fever. 
Jaundice due to intestinal- 
disorders. 
Chronic cough. 
Hunch-back-condition. 

Chronic skin disease. 
Dysuria. 
Jaundice. 
Splenic disease. 

Oedema 
Typhoid. 

Choleraic diarrhoea. 
Wounds, Sores. 



70 gT<!J3;-PURAliIA [VOL. XV. NO. I 

The tridosavSda is very well known in the Ayurveda and 
this is the basis of theAyurveda. 224 Any disease is caused because 
of Vikara of these three humours. 235 

According to the BVP any disease is rooted in these three 
humours (1.16.29). Mandagni is the cause of fever and from 
the fever various diseases are produced. The Sus'rutasariihita 
(39.3) also states that all diseases are to be called by Jvara and this 
Jvarais the king of all diseases. 

This Jvara is considered as ivabhakta, Yogi, Nisthura, 
Vikrtakrtij Bhlma, having three legs, three heads, six handSj nine 
eyes, raudra, bhasmapraharana and Kalantakayamopama 
(1.16.27-28). 

The Bhp (10.63.22-23) also states that there are two types 
of Jvara. One is Mahesvara Jvara and another is Vaisnava 
Jvara. The Mahesvarajvara is having three legs and three heads. 
The MahesVara Jvara of the Bhp corresponds to the 6ivabhakta 
Jvara of the BVP. 

If anyone commits a sin he becomes victim of disease, so no 
one should do any sin and keep control over his senses. 238 Sins 
and diseases are friends of each other and sins are pogenitors of 
old age and diseases. (1.16.51-55). 

Definition of a Vaidya 

The BVP defines the Vaidya thus A person who knows the 
Ayurveda and diagnosis of the disease, who is religious minded, 
kind, and gives relief from a disease is the best of Vaidyas. 
(1.16.25-26). 

In this definition the BVP follows the Carakasamhita (1.136) 
which defines the Vaidya as follows : 

"A person who gives relief to his patient from a disease, is 
called the best of the Vaidyas". 

The BVP mentions three humours i.e. Vata (rheumatism), 
Pitta (bile) and Kapha (Phlegm), and also states their remedy 
and residence in the body as follows : 

(1) Antidotes for Vata (rheumatism) which takes his birth 
from Ajnacakra, Pakvarambhaphala, Sauvlra, water with garkara, 
Mahi ?a dadhi, Narikelodaka, Pakvataila, Takra, Supis t ak a , 
Tilataila, Lsugall, Tala, Kharjura, Gandana, (1.16 74-78) 



JAN., 1973] SOCIETY AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC LIFE IN BVP. 71 

(2) Antidotes for Pitta (bile) which takes his birth from 
Manipuracakra, Sarkara, Dhanyaka, Pista, Catiaka, Pakvabil- 
vatslaphala, Aiksava, Ardraka, Mudgasupa, Tilapista (1.16.58-63). 
(3) Antidotes for Kapha (Phlegm) which takes his birth from 
Brahmarandhracakra, Bastabhauga, Parvataila, Rocanacrirpa, 
SuskapakaharJtakl, Apakvapindaraka. Apakvarambhaphala, 
Vesavara, SindhuvSra, Sarkara, Marlca, Pippala, Suskardraka, 
Jlvaka, Madhu, (1.16.67-71). 

Custom and Conventions 

Custom and conventions have their own importance m 
social life, because one can know from the study of the custom 
and conventions about the social states, a rnoda of socio-economic 
life and some other peculiarities. 



One should offer a seat to a guest and embrace him and 
also offer him Madhuparka (1.29.7, 1.25.5, 2.61.8, 4.13.10, 4.41.16 
4.87.43). The reception of a guest with an embrace is still 
prevalent in some parts of India e.g. in Saurashtra. 

A father worried about his daughter for her marriage and 
he tried to get a better bridegroom for his dughter. 

Usas, the daughter of Bar-a said to Aniruddha that she 
could not marry with him without her father's prior permwsion 
(4.114.36). The father was pelped in the problems connected 
with marriage bv W> priest (4.44 6, 4.17.UO, 4. 105 18). Sura- 
bhanu married his son Vrsabhanu with the daughter -of Bhana- 
ndana with the help of his pries, Gargac.rya. (U7.140) Himalaya 
and Bbigmaka also had taken the advice from their P ^ the 
marriage Parvatl and Rukmini respectively (4-416, ^;J; 
The guests were informed by invitation cards to remam prcsen 
on occasions like the naming ceremony, and the marn age cere 
mony (4.13 151,4.64.35, 4.99.9, 4.105.59). 



TUe mU5i c wa !pl a V ea at * , 

the occasion of the birth of a son (4.15.142) ^ ^ ^^ 
gifts and dinners on such occasions (1.13.1 f !-- > *' 

* -II^P deity at the time of marn- 
The offering was given to village d*y 
age ceremony. Such an offering was gtven on 
of Rukmint (4.105.61). 



marriage ceremony 



72 a*rarc- PURStfA [VOL. xv. NO. i 



The bride and the bridegroom wore variegated coloured 
rich garments (4,107.38-42). Before marriage a bridegroom was 
permitted to see and to taik with his fiance. ^arhkara was 
permitted to talk with PSrvatI before their marriage (4.38-34), 
but the final right in the selection of a husband for a daughter 
rested with the bride's mother (4.39.19). 

Sasthldevi was worshipped at the time of a birth of a child 
for its welfare (243.45-50). 

A bride was given a mirror after she was decorated at the 
time of the marriage ceremony. On the occasion of her marriage 
ceremony, ParvatI was nicely dressed and decorated by the other 
ladies and was offered a mirror (4.44.12). 

The house was decorated with the trunks of banana tree on 
the occasion of the marriage ceremony. (4.44. 1 7). 

After the marriage ceremony the bride and the bridegroom 
passed their first night at the house of the bride's parent. 6iva 
and ParvatI passed their first night at Himalaya's house (4-. 45. 5). 

If a husband does coiffore of his wife, it was considered good 
for his wife (4.45.16). 

Brahrr.anas were given religious gifts at the time of the 
cremation of (he dead person. KSrtavnya and Bhrgu gave such 
gilts after the death of Manorama and Jamadagni respectively 
(3.2850,3.35.20) The custom of Suttee was familiar. Re^uka 
became a suttee after her husband Jamadagni's death (3.28.1-4). 

Beliefs and Superstitions 

"As long as a society has a particular texture of custom and 
conventions woven around it and inherent in it, it would be 
id e to dream of a society inmune from superstitions which In 
turn try to enforce the former's operations. 8 " 

This m ay be illustrated by a custom mentioned in the 

the m de f the 



to the 
. 11.24, 



JAN., 1973] SOCIETY AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC LIFE IN BVP. 73 

The friendship with a good man was considered more than 
Vaikutjtha (1.13.33). Some of the rivers are believed to possess 
purifying powers, 938 e.g. the Ganges is believed to purify a person 
by its very sight and to destroy the sins (1.10.83). The fame was 
considered much important than the life (1.23.12), and an ill 
fame was considered as death (2.60.85). If a husband abandoned 
his wife without any reason he was to go to hell (2.6.73). 

The BVP holds that a woman is not guilty if she is raped 
by the adulterer against her wishes. But she is guilty, if she 
enjoyed by hei: paramour with her permission and desire. This 
is observed by the sage Gautama when AhalyS was raped by Indra 
(4.61.53). 

It is permissible to surmise that according to the BVP a 
lady would get her beloved husband in the next birth, if she 
committed suicide by entering into fire. MalSvati committed 
suicide by falling into the Vahnikunda at Pukara for getting her 
beloved husband (1.20.. 8-1 2). 

The number "three" was considered inauspicious (2.6.56). 
The violation of au oath leads one to the Kumbhlpaka hell 
(4.62.25). 

Disturbance at the time of co-habitation, casting down of 
the semen and condition of childlessness are considered wretched 
(3.2.22). 

Happiness and misery come in rotation like a wheel' as so 
unenlightened persons repent while the wise do not (2.17.70). 

It was believed that one should speak first the name of a 
woman and then that of a man, because Prakrti is the mother 
and Purusa is the father of the world (4.52.34-40). 

One was believed to suffer from the disease of eyes and ears 
if one co-habits by day. !3 (4.75.22). 

One had to face diseases, if one were to see a sky when only 
one star is visible there, sunset, moon-rising, reflections of solar 
and the lunar in water (4.75.23-25) 

On Sundays one should not eat fish,, non-vegetarian food 
and lentil in the brazen vessel (4.75.71). 

One should not see the moon on the fourth day of the 
bright half of the month of BhSdrapada, if one sees her, one 
has to face an allegation. Krsna had seen the moon on the said 
10 



74 gniai.-- PURA^A [VOL. xv. NO. 1 

day and he was alleged for the theft of the Syamantaka gem m 
(4-78.60, 4.122.9). This belief is still prevalent and people 
throw stones and pieces of brickbats to avoid this evil, hence it 
is known as dagadScotha in Gujarat and Maharastra. 

If any one were to put mukta, sukti, ivalinga } 6ankha, 
and ratna on the earth, he was to go to the Kalastttra hell 
(4.4.33-39). 

A menstruating woman was considered impure for the 
purpose of worship of a deity for five days and for any other 
purposes. After four days she was considered to be pure (3.28.1-4). 

Krsna says to Nanda that if anyone sees a holy place, a 
Vaisnava etc. he gets religious merit and if he sees an iconoclast, 
a patricide, etc. he incurs sins or has to face misery (4.78.45-51). 

The belief in good omens and bad omens wes highly in 
vogue. Whenever anyone set out from his/her house for any work, 
he/she thought first about an omen good/bad. The following 
were considered as good omens : 

PGrnakumbha; Candana; Dvija, rgala; VeiyS; Nakula, 
Darpana, Sava, Madhu, Rajaharhsa, Durva, Mayura, Aksa, Khan- 
jana, Vrsa, 6uka, Gaja, Pika, Turaga, Paravata, Agni, Cakravakas, 
Suvarna, Surabhi, Pradlpa, Gamari, Mani, Dhenu, Mukta, Pa^aka, 
Mala, Vsdya, Marhsa and Samgfta. (3.16.23,29, 3.33.18-29). 

The following were considered as bad omens Muktake^T, 
Visa, Chinnanass, Pinda, Digambara, Motaka, Krsijavastrapari- 
dhrma, udra, Vyadhivukta, ^unyakumbha ; KuttinT, Kacchapa, 
DakinT, Kukktua, Pun^caU, Vilada, KumbhakSra, Mahisa, Taila- 
ksra, Gardabha, Vyadha, Vrka, Nagna, J^ukara, ^yena, Sarpa, 
Bhalluka, Godha, Vayasa and ^asaka. (3.35.25.45). 

The BVP notes some matter about dreams also. If anyone 
sees herself/himself riding on a cow, elephant, horse or seated on 
a place, tree and mountain in one's dream, he/she is believed to 
get land. If he/she sees an elephant, gold in a dream he/she is 
believed to achieve fame (4. '/ 7. 14-20). If one sees Payasa in a 
dream he/she is believed to become a king (4.77.2 ). 

If anyone sees a widow, Sudrapatnl, Nagna, Gardabha, 
Mahija, Vrsa, Bhalluka, Sukara, Kaka, Vanara etc. in a dream 
he/she is believed to die. Kansa had seen such things in a dream 
so died. (4.77.70.80). 



JAN., 1973] SOCIETY AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC LIFE IN BVP. 75 

If anyone sees such a bad dream he should perform a homa 
with red sandal wood and should do a Japa of the name of 
Madhusudana for hundred times (4.82.42-45). 

A dream may take an effect within a period of an year, 
eight months, three months, half a month, ten days and imme- 
diately , if he dreams in the first Prahara, or second Prahara, 
or third Prahara or fourth Prahara or at the time of the morning 
break or in the early morning respectively. (4.77.5-7). 

The dream bears no reward if it is with reference to a 
person who is ill, afraid of, naked and having dishevelled hair 
(4.77.8-9). 

Daily and Periodical Duties 

The daily and periodical duties and ceremonies form an 
important topic of the Dharma^astra. The BVP contains some 
information on the same topics The date of the BVP as regards 
the daily duties of a house-holder, a forest hermit and an ascetic 
are discussed. The data not covered under the said section are 
discussed here. 

Getting up from the Bed 

From very early times, getting up before the sun rise is 
prescribed specially to a student and in general to one and all. 3 
The BVP following this general dictum, states that one should 
get up from the bed in bi-ahmamuhurta and after getting up, one 
should pray to one's deity (1.26.6-8). 

Sauca 

There are several laws laid down in the ancient Sutra and 
Smrti literature on the topic of sauca 331J 

The BVP states them in detail. One should not defecate 
urine in water, near the hole in the ground, near animals, tem- 
ples, at the root of any tree, on a road, on the plough field, in 
a garden and on the fire. One should defecate urine or stool 
in the north side by day, on the west side at night, and on the 
south side in the evening. One should first make a hold in the 
ground than he may defecate and it should be covered with clay 
(I.26.I8-3G). Some of the PurSnas, Smrtis and Dbarma&stras 
contain similar rules.* 34 



76 sroro; PURSSA. [voi. xv. NO. i 

After defecating one should purify hands and feet with clay 
and that with water. At the time of purification one should 
apply once the clay to clean his penis, four times to his left 
hand, twice on both the hands. If he wants to purify after inter* 
course, he should do all these twice. If one wants to purify after 
nature's call, he should apply the clay once on penis, thrice 
on anus, ten times on the left hand, seven times on both the hands 
and six times on the feet (1.26.27-33) 

One without an Yajnopavlta, a 3udra and a woman should 
purify their above mentioned limbs till the bad smell is removed 
(1.26.33). 

Widows should carry out these rules of purification twice 
and Yati, Vaisnava, Brahmacarin and Brahmarsi should carry 
out four time more than others (1.26.31-32). 

Katriya and Vais'ya should carry out these rules as they 
apply to a Brahmin (1.26 34-35). 

One should not use clay for purification from an anthill, 
a hole of mouse, from the earth which is under the water and 
field (1.26.37-41). 

Dantadhavana 

DantadhSvana comes after s'auca and Scamana and before 
snana. ss& The BVP states that one should do dantadhavana 
after s'auca. For dantadhavana one has to take the twig of the 
following trees, crush the end of the twig with his teeth so as to 
make a brush of it and then to clean one's teeth with the brush 
so formed end. One has to take a twig of the following trees : 
Apamarga, Sindhuvara, Amra, Karavlra, Khadira, Sirlsa, Jati, 
Sala, Punnaga, A^oka, Arjuna, Kadamba, Kslravrksa, JambQka, 
Bakula, Tokma and Palala (1.26.41-46). 

The BVP states also that one has not to take a twig of the 
following trees : Badarl, Psribhadra, MandSra, 6almall, a 
tree paving thorns on it trunk, lata, Pippala, Priyala, Tala, 
Tmtjdlka, Kharjura and Narikela (1.26.46-48). 

One who does 'not brush one's teeth, does not do any 6auca 
(12648). It may be noted that some Dharma Sutra texts* 89 
state that one ahould not take a twig of the Palasa tree for danta- 
dhavana whereas the BVP praises the Palasa for dantadhavana. 



JAN., 1973] SOCIETY AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC LIFE IN BVP. H 

Snana 

After dantadhavana comes snana. The BVP mentions 
that one should remember the holy-rivers like GafigS, YamunS, 
GodSvarT, Raver 1 !, Narmads Sindhu etc. at the time of the bath. 
One should first clean one's body with clay and then water 
(1.26.60-66). If one takes one's bath in a step-well, river (male 
or female), cave or holy place, he should first take up five balls 
of the clay from that place and then he should take a bath 
(1.26.57-58). 

Samdhya 

Generally the Sathdhya comes after a bath 287 The word 
Satfidhya literally mens "a twilight" but it also denotes the action 
ot" prayer performed in the morning and in the evening. This 
act is generally styled "Samdhyopasana" or "Saihdhyavandana" 
or simply "Sarhdhya". 238 

The BVP mentions three twilight devotions. One in the 
morning (purva), second in the noon (Madhyahna) and third in 
the evening (Pascima). 

The performance of three twilight-devotions in a day is 
considered as a bath taken in every holy-place and one who does 
not perform it, is considered as impure and is not eligible to do 
anything and has to remain the K^lasutra hell for a period of one 
Kalpa (1.26.51-55). 

Tilaka 

The BVP states that after taking a bath one has to make a 
tilaka on the root of his arms, on the fore-head, on the neck and 
on the chest. One's Snana, dana, Tapa, homa, devakarman 
and Pitrkarman become fruitless if one does not make tilaka 
(1.26.71-73). 
Homa, Tarpana, YajBa 

The EVP suggests that one should perform Yajna, Sraddha 
and dana after devakarman (1.26,101). 

Bhojana 

Bhojanaisoneof the most important subjects treated of in 
the Dharma^astra works and the greatest important is 
the numerous injunctions and taboos about food 



78 3 ^tjj T __puRAlNlA [VOL. XV. NO. 1 

should take meal twice a day. One should not take a meal at 
night. One should not take p5yasa, ghrta, lavaaa, svastika, guda, 
kira, takra and madhu from another person directly from hand 
to hand (4.85.9-12). 

At the time of taking the meal, if one touches the Parivesana- 
kara, one should not then take the food (4.85.13). 

Food 

The most elaborate rules are laid down in the Dharma^astra 
texts about what food and flesh should and should not be taken 
and from whom food may and may not be taken." 8 

Brahmins should take havisySnnas (1 .27.5). They should not 
take their meal on Haridina i.e. Ekadasl, Sivara'.ri (1.27.8). 

Brahmin should not take ucchis^abhojana, milk in a copper 
vessel, milk with salt, Narikelodaka in Kuhsyapatra, honey and 
sugar cane-juice in a copper vessel (1.27.27-33, 4.85.1-8). 

Brahmins should not take fish in their food for sake of 
pleasure. If taken they should observe a fast for three days. 
(1.27.28, 4.85.25). 

Brahmin should not take milk, curd, ghee, butter and Svas- 
tika made of buffalo-milk (4.85.20). 

Sleep 

Numerous rules are laid down in the Smrtis and digests 
about sleeping, 240 The BVP, states that one should not sleep by 
day and at both the twilights. He should not have sexual relation 
with his wife by day as well as with a woman in her menstruation 
because it will l ea d one to hell (1.27.39-40). One should not 
have sexual relations on the day of Rohinl, Vi^'akha and Uttara 
Naksafras (1.27.45). It also lays down that a woman during 
menstruation should be avoided for all purposes, for she is consi- 
dered impure for four days and after four days she can do Deva- 
karman and Pitrkarman (3.28.3-4). In menstruation, woman 
is treated as Candall, Mlecha and Rajakl, for the first, second and 
third day of menstruation respectively (4.59.12-13). 2n ~ 43 

REFERENCES 

1. Dutta N. K., Origin and Growth of Castes in India 
Vol. I. Ch. I. 



JAN., 1973] SOCIETY AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC LIFE IN BVP. 79 

2. RV. 1.73.7, 2.3.5, 9.77.15. 

3. Macdonell and Keith, A.B., Vedic Index, Vol. II, 

4. RV. 10.90.13. 

5. Kane P.V., HDS. Vol. II Part I, P. 55. 

6. Ghurye G.S., Caste and Glass in India, P. 47 n 

7. Risley, The people of India, P. 5. 

8. Hulton J.H., Caste in India, P. 148, 

9. Maxmiiller, Ancient Sanskrit Literature, P. 570. 

10. Macdonell A.A., Vcdic Reader. P. 195. 

11. Abbe. J. A. Dubais, Hindu Manners, Customs and 
Ceremonies, P- 304. 

12. MS. 1.93-95, 1.98-101, 4,169. 

13. Gf. YS. 1.118-119. 

14. Cf. Ms. 3.51-52. 

1 5. Kane P. V. , Op. Git., P. 11 1 ff. 

16. Ibid P. 121 ff. 

17. Ibid P. 44. 

18. MS 10.40. 

19. Kane P. V., Op. Git. P. 59. 

20. MS 10.47- 

21. Wilson John, Indian Caste, Vol. I, P. 440. 

22. Ibid, P. 440. 

23. Porter A. E., Census Report of India of 1931, Vol. V 
Part I , P. 427. 

24. Kane P. V., Op. Cit., P. 89. 

25. Ibid. P. 80. 

26. Ibid. P. 81. 

27. YS, 1.103. 

28. Kane P. V., Op. Git., P. 84. 

29. Porter A.E., Op. Git,, P. 427. 

30. Ibid., P. 427. 

31. Kane P. V., Op. Cit., P. 82. 

32. Upadhyay Baladeva, PurSna Vimarsa, P 555. 

33. BrahmasQtrabhasya, 2.3.43, 

34. Kane P. V. s Op. Git., P. 74. 
35 f Wilson John, Op. Cit.., P. 440. 

36. Ibid. P. 440, 

37. Ibid. P. 440. 

38. US. 32.33, 



80 juror* PURXtfA [VOL. xv. NO. 1 

39. Monier Williams., A Sanskrit English Dictionary, P. 313. 

40. Pargiter F. E., MsrkandeyapurSna English Translation 
P. 466. 

41. Wilson John, Op. Git., P. 440. 

42. Dutta RK , Origin and Growth of Caste in India, 
Vol. II, P. 142. 

43. Wilson John, Op. Git., P. 441. 

44. Ibid. P. 440. 

45. Ibid. P. 441. 

46. KaneP.V., Op. Cit., P. 84. 

47. Kulluka on MS. 10.22. 

48. US. 32.34. 

49. Porter A. E., Op. Cit , P. 427. 

50. Kane P. V., Op. Git., P. 93. 

51. Porter A E , Op. Git., P. 428. 

52. Kane P. V., Op. Cit., P. 96. 

53. Porter A. E., Op. Git., P. 428 

54. KaneP.V., Op. Cit. p. 98. 

55. Wilson John, Op. Git., P. 440. 

56. DuttN. K., Op. Cit, P. 130. 

57. Ibid. P. 70. 

58. Upadhyay Baledeva, Op. Cit. P. 555. 

59. Porter A. E., Op. Gil. P. 428. 

60. Wilson John, Op Git. P. 441. 

61. Deussen 'Asrama 5 EREVol II, P. 128. 

62. Cf. Prabhu P. N., Hindu Social Organisation, P. 83. 

63. Modi P. M., "Development of the System of A^ramas 
"Proc. and Trans, of Vllth All India Oriental Con- 
ference Baroda, 1933 (1935). p. 315. 

64. Kane P. V., Op. Git. P. 420. 

65. Deussen, Op. Git. P. 129. 

66. Altekar A. S., 'The AiSrama System'. Ghurye Felicia- 
tion Volume, P. 183. 

67. Law N. N., '1 he Antiquity of the four stages of Life'. 
IA. Vol. LII. P. 272. 

68. Kane P. V., Op. Cit. P. 416. 

69. According to Dhatmaiastras the Vedic Study begins 
after the Upanayana Ceremony. Vide Kane P. V., 
Op. Cit. P. 266. 

70. Apastamba 1.2. 



JAN., 1973] SOCIETY AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC LIFE IN BVP. 81 

71. MS. 3.78-79, 4.89-90. 

72. Of. Mbh. 12.184.13. 

73. Cf. MS. 6.3-5. 

74. Cf. CDS 3.27. 

75. MS 6.33. 

76. MS. 6.8.8. 

77. Karma, V. 1 . Dharma. 

78. Kane P. V., Op. Git. p. 180. 

79. Ibid. p. 33. 

80. Ibid. P. 182. 

81. Mbh. 2.48.39,2.183.30,3.222.41. 

82. Kantawala S. G.., Cultural History from the Matsya- 
puraija P. 62 

83. Westerrnarck, History of Human Marriage, Vol. I. 
P. 26. 

84. Kane P. V., Op. Cit. P. 427. 

85. Ibid. P. 429. 

86. Kulluka on MS 3.45. 

87. Kane P. V., Op. Cit. P. 429 

88. Malinowski "Marriage" EB Vol. XIV. P. 949. 

89. Ibid. P. 950. 

SO. Polygamy is that form of Union in which a roan has 
more than one wife at a time. Cf. Kapadia K. M., 
Marriage and Family in India. P. 97. 

91. Kane P. V., Op. Cit. P. 550. 

92. Polyandry is a form of Union in which a woman has 
more than one husband at a time or in which brothers 
share a wife or wives in common. Kapadia, K.M., Up. 
Cit. P. 52. 

93. Kane P. V., Op. Git. P. 554. 

94. Altekar, A.S., Position of Women in Hindu civilization, 
P. 132-134. 

95. Upadhyay B.S,, Women in Rgveda, P. 112. 

96. Kane P.V., Op. Cit. P. 516. 

S7. Pande R.B , Hindu Sarhskara, P. 204. 

98. Kane P.V., Op. Cit. P. 521. 

99. Dr. Ludwik sternbach opines that there are eieve 
forms of marriage In addition to the f v * e1 ^ 
forms there are two special form, named Svayamvara 

(,) in which there was th ' 
bride to choose her husband, 
Damayantl. 
11 



82 jcri^pURS^A [VOL. xv. NO. 1 



(ii) The bride is won by a feat of provess as in the 
case of Sits and Draupadl (Vlryagulka). The 
Gsndharva-vivaha is to be divided into two forms, i.e. 
GSndharvavivaha combined with the RaksasavavivSha. 
From the legal point of view he categorisf-s the first 
four as orthodox forms of marriage, while the last four 
as unorthodox ones. He brings also out the sociolgical 
implications of the different forms of marriage from the 
customs prevalent amongst the primitive tribes and 
communities. Vide his article "Forme of Marriage in 
ancient India and their development". BharatiyavidyS 
Vol. XII 1951 pp. 62-138. 

100. De. S.K., "Indian Erotics in its origin and Develop- 

ment" P.K. ^ode, Com. Vol. Part It P. 75. 

101. KamasQtra, 1.3.1. 

102. De. S.K., OP. Git. P. 75. 

103. Kamasutra, 2.2.3-5. 

104. Ibid. 2.3.11. 

105. Ratirahasya, P. 64 ff. 

106. Kamasfltra, 2.2. 

107. Ratirahasya, P. 58 ff. 

108. KSmasutra, 2.3-5. 

109. Kamasotra, 2.8-32, 39. 

110. Ratimanjarl, P. 18. 

111. Gitagovinda, 2.1.7. 

112. Mys. 1.10 11. 

113. Kane P. V., Op. Cit. P. 505. 

114. Ellwood Charles, A., "Marriage" E A. Vol. XVIII. 

115. Kane P. V., Op. Git. P. 534. 

116. Agrawala V. S., Harsacarita Eka Sarhskrtika Adhya- 
yana, P. 85-86. 

117. Mac Iver Robert, A Text book of society, P. 196. 

118. Kapadia K. M., Hindu Kinship,, P. 112. 

119. Kantawala S. G., Op. Cit P. 87. 

120. Cf. MS 9. 138. 

121. Altekar A. S., Op Cit. P. 18, 19. 

122. Swami Madhavananda, Great Women of India, P. 26. 

123. Kane P. V., Op. Cit. P. 366. 

124. UpadhayayB. S., Op. Cit. P. 129. 

125. Raghuvarhs'a, 8.67. 



JAN., 1973] SOCIETY AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC LIFE IN BVP. 83 

126. MS 9.28. 

127. Gf. AB 33.1. 

128. SB 5.1.6.10. 

129. Kane P. V., Op, Git. P. 567. 

130. Bp. 92.5. 

131. Altekar A. S., Op. Git. P. 140 ff. 

132. Shadewell Arthu 'Prostitution' EB Vol. XVIII, P. 518. 

133. Kane P. V., Op. Cit. P. 637. 

134. Altekar A. S., Op. Cit. P. 2. 

135. Cf. RV. 10.95.15. 

136. Gf. MS. 9.14. 

137. BG 15.14. 

138. Modi P. M., The Bhagavadglta A fresh Approach, 
P. 209, 605. 

139. Kantawala S. G. s Cultural History from the Matsya- 
pura^ia, P. 234. 

140. Ibid. P. 234. 

141. MKP. 38.11. VYP 16.13. 

142. This classification is according to Food and Drink in 
Ancient India by Om Prakash. 

143. Apte V. S., A Practical Sanskrit English Dictionary 
P. 1171. 

144. SBVPA P. 52. 

145. Om Prakash, Op. Cit. P. 280. 

146. S"abdakalpadruma, Vol. III. P. 216. 

147. Monier Williams-A Saskrit English Dictionary, P. 641- 

148. Apte V. S. } Op. Cit. P. 8. 

149. Agrawala V.S., India as known to Panini, P. 102. 

150. -Om Prakash, Op Cit. p. 265. 

151. Vaidya E.G., Ketalaka Khadya and Peya PadSrtho. 
Svadhyaya, Vol. V No. 1 P. 122 Nov. 1967. 

152. Om Prakasb, Op. Cit. p. 284. 

153. Carakasariihita, CikitsSsthana, 20 37. 

154. Sush-utasamhita, Stttrasthana, 45.84, 

1 55. Benarjee S.C., A Glossary of Smrti Literature, P. 89. 

156. Kane RV., ed., UttararSmacaritara of BhavabhGU, 
notes P. 121. 

157. Om Prakash, Op. Cit. P. 289. 

158. Halayudhakos'a, P. 527. 



84 utfsn^ pURSiiiA [VOL. xv. NO. I 



159. Apte V.S., Op. Clt. P. 629. 

160. Patil D.R., Gutural History from the VayupurSija P. 91. 

161. Om Prakash, Op. Git. P. 29 J. 

162. Ibid. P. 292. 

163. Somadeva Manasoll5sa 3 3.1572. 

164. Om Prakash, Op. Git. P. 2. 

165. abdakalpadruma 3 Vol. Ill P. 345. 

166. Om Prakash j Op. Git. P. 15. 

167. Ibid. p. 15. 

168. Ibid. P. 298. 

169. Sabdakalpadruma, Vol III P. 698. 

170. Firth Raymond, Human Types, P. 98. 

171. Kantawala S.G., Op. Git. P. 244. 

172. Patil D. R-, Op. Cit. P. 85. 

1 73. Majumdar R.C. and Pusalker A.D., Vedic Age, P. 293. 

174. Patil D.R. 5 Op. Cit. P. 85. 

175. Sandesara B. J., Varnakasamuccaya, P. 8. 

176. Katawala S.G., Op. Git. P. 246, 

177. Motichandra, PractnabhSratlya, VesabhusS P. 14, 
178 Ibid. P. 13. 

179. Apte V.S., Op. Git. P. 936. 

180. Motichandra, Op. Git. P. 148. 

181. ApteV.M., Social and Religious life in the GuhyasQ- 
tras, P. 68, 71. 

182. Majumdar R G., Op. Git. P. 205. 

183. Motichandra, Op. Cit. P. 20. 

184. Brp. 221.41. 

185. Motichandra, Op. Cit,, P. 206 plate 362. 

186. Meaning of these ornaments are given from A practi- 
cal Sanskrit-English Dictionary by Apte V.S. 

187. Altekar A.S., Op. Cit. P. 350. plate III. 

188. Bp. 41.22. 

189. Rtusarhhara, 2.25. 

190. Atrideva Vjdyalankar, PrScInabharatake Prasadhana 
p. 16. 

191. Gf. NQ 15.55. 

192. Atrideva Vidyalankara, Op. Cit. P. 58. 

193. Apte V.S., Op, Cit. P. 588. 

194. Tripathi R.P., Matsyapurana, Hindi Trans. P. 205. 



JAN., 1973] SOCIETY AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC LIFE IN BVP. 85 

195. SS. P. 12. 

196. Kantawala S.G., Op. Git. P.259. 

197. Monier Williams, Op, Git. P. 825. 

198. SS. P. 12. 

199. Kane P. V., HDS Vol. V. Part I P. 705. 

200. Ibid. P. 707. 

201. Ibid. P. 708 

202. Diksita S.B., Bharatiya Jyotisha Shastra. 

203. Kane P. V., Op. Git P. 686, 

204. Ibid. P. 687. 

205. Mankad D.R., Puranic Chronology P. 19 ff. 

206 Pargiter F. E., Ancient Indian Historical Tradition 
P. 175. 

207. Kane P. V.. Op. Cit. P. 706. 

208. Gupta A. S., 'Turaoic Theory of Yugas and Kalpas" 
PurSija, Vol. XI No 2. P 320. 

209. Joshi Umesh, Bharatiya Samglta Ka ItihSsa P. 100. 

210. Samgftadarpana P. 74 ff. 

211. Majumdar R. C., The Vedic Age P. 392, ,56, 578. 
212 Desai V.S., Vedic Samglta ane Anyalekho, P, 48. 

213. The meaning of these musical instruments are taken 
from A Sanskrit English Dictionary by Apte V.S. 

214. Oxford Dictionary, P. 119 

215. Herbert A. Popley, The Music of India P. 116. 

216. Ibid, P. 116. 

217. PadeJ.S., ed., VlnSprapathaka and Vi^alaksaoa by 
Paramesvara Gos 1960. 

218. Kane P.V., HDS Vol. II Part II P. 749 ff. 

219. MS. 3.106. 

220. Taittarlyopanisad 3.10.1. 

221 Vinapani Pande, Harivarhsapuraoa ks Sarhskrtika 
Adhyayana, P. 167. 

222. The meanings of these architectural words ate taken 
from A Dictionary of Hindu Architecture by Acbarya, 
P. K. 

223. Bulletin of the department of History ofmediciae 
Osmania Medical College Hyclrabad, Vol. Ill No. 
4 P. 201-202. 

224. Dasgupta S.N., A History of Indian Philosophy* Vol. II 
P. 432-433, 



86 



[VOL. xv. NO. i 



225. The meanings of these diseases are taken from Caraka- 
sarhhita A Scientific synopsis by P. Ray and H. N. 
Gupta. 

226. Vaidya M. G., Cikitsabdhi. Satfipurna Arya Vaidaka 
Grantha P. 68. 

227. Mchata B. N., Ayurvedano Saraksipta Itihasa, P. 65. 

228. CarakasarhhitS, 8.20. 

229. Kantawala S. G, 3 Op. Git P. 252. 

230. Kane P. V., HDS, Vol. V P. 560. 

231. Cf. Meghadutam 2.49. 

232. Gf. MS. 11.174. 

233. Cf Brp. 10.56. 

234. Kane P.V., HDS. Vol. II P. 647. 

235. Ibid. P. 648. 

236. Ibid P. 649. 

237. Ibid P. 653. 

238. Ibid. P. 655 ff. 

239. YS 1.98. 

240. MS 2. 15. 

241. Kane P.V. Op. Git. P. 771 

242. Ibid. P. 800. 

243. Gf. MS. 3.47 



AB 
ABORI 

A.I.O.C. 

Ap. 

ASS 

Bg. 

Bru 

Bhp 

BP 

Brp 

Bap 

BVP 

CSS 



A bbr eviations 

Aitareya Brahmana. 

Annals of Bhandarkar Oriental Research 

Institute. 

All-India Oriental Conference. 

Agnipurana. 

Anandashram Edition Poona. 

Bhagavadglta. 

Brhadaranyaka Upanisad. 

Bhagavatapurana. 

Brahinapurana. 

Brahmandapurana. 

Bhavisyapurana. 

Byahmavaivartapurana. 

Ghowkhamba Sanskrit Series Office. 



JAN., 1973] SOCIETY AND SOClO-ECXWOMIO UP, IN BV P. 87 



Chu 

Dbhp 

EA 

EB 

ERE 

COS 

GP 

CDS 

GGP 

HDS 

HOS 

HVP 

IA 

JBORS 

KP 

LP 

MB 

Mbh 

MKP 

MP 

MS 

NG 

NP 

NSP 

PP 

RV 

SB 

SBVPA 

SE 

SKP 

SP 

SP 

ss 

ssv 

VMP 

VP 

VRP 

vs 

YS 
YVVS 



GhSndogya Upanijad. 
DevibhagavatapurRn a. 
Encyclopaedia Americana. 
Encyclopaedia Britanica. 
Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics. 
Gaekewad Oriental series. 
GarudapurSpa. 
Gautamadharma<mtra. 
GltS. Press, Gorakhapur. 
History of Dharma^astra. 
Harvard Oriental Series. 
Harivamsapuraga. 
Indian Antiquary. 

Journal of Bihar and Orissa Research Society. 
Kurmapuraija. 
Lingapurana. 
Motilal Banarsidas Delhi, 
Mahabharata. 
Markandeyapuraoa. 
Matsyapurana. 
Maitraya^Iyasaitihita. 
Naisadhacaritam. 
Naradapurana. 
Nirijaya Sagar Press, Bombay. 
Padmapurapa. 
ligveda. 

Satapatha Brahmana. 

Sarnksipta Brahmavaivarta Purapa Ar'jka. 
Saka Era. 
Skandapurana. 



SaurapurSija. 

Sariigadhara Sarhhita. 

Sastu Sahitya Vardhaka KSryalay, 

VSmanapur&ija. 

Visnupurfiria. 

Varhapur5pa. 

Vikrama Samyat. 

Yajnavalkyasmrti. 

Yajurveda vajasaneylsarfihitS. 



88 su'sm^- PORTIA [VOL. xv. NO. 1 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 
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3. Bhagavadglta (with S"ariikarabhasya) : ME 1964. 

4. Brahmapurana : ASS 1897. 

5. Brahmasutra S"amkarabh5sya : NSP1927. 

6. Carakasamhita : SSV 

7. Gautamadharmasatra : ASS 1931. 

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9. Halayudhakoia : Ed. by Jayashanker Joshi, Sarasvati 
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10. Kamasutra of Vatsyayana with the Jayamangala Com- 
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11. Mahabhsrata : Critical Edition, Bhandarkar Oriental 
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12. Manasollasa of Somadeva : Gaekwad's Oriental Series, 
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13. Manusmrti with the Commentary of Kulluka : Ed. by 
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14. Markandeyapur5i?a : Bibliotheca Indica Series, 
Calacutta, 1862. 

15. Meghadutam of Kalidasa : Ed. by R. R. Deshpande 
and T. K. Tope, Bombay, 1942. 

16. Oxford English Dictionary : Prepared by William 
Little, At the Clarendon Press, Oxford 1959. 

17. Raghuvam^a of Kalidasa : Ed. by H. D. Velankar, 
Bombay 1948. 

18. RatimanjarT of Jayadeva : CSS. 

19. Ratirahasya of Kokkoka : Freeman and Company, 
Kashi 1922. 

20. Rgveda : Vaidika Samshodhan Mandal Poona, 1933, 
1936, 1941, 1946, 1951. 

2L RtusamhSra of Kalidasa : Ed. by Sitarama Chaturvedi, 
Kalidasa Granthavali, Akhila Bharatiya Vikrama 
Parisad, Kasi. VS 2007. 

22. Sabdakalpadruma Vol. Ill : Ed. by Radhakant E>eva 
MB, 1961. 



JAN., 19733 SOCIETY AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC LIFE N BVP. 89 

23. Sarhglta Darpana of Dsmodar Mishra : Samgita 
Karyalay, Hatharas 1950. 

24. &S.rngadhara Sarhhita : SSV. 

25. &atapatha Brahmana : Ed. by A. Weber, Leipzig 1924. 

26. Su^rutasarhhita : SSV. 

27. Taittarlyopanisad : SSV. 

28. UttararSmacaritam. of Bhavabhuti : Ed. by P.V. Kane, 
Popular Book Depot, Surat 

29. Vloaprapa^haka and Vlnalakana of ParamesVara : 
Ed. by Fade. J.S , COS, Baroda 1960. 

30. Y&jnavaklyasmrti with the Mttaksara of VijfiSnes'vara : 
Ed- by Vasudeva Laksmana Shastri, Panduranga 
Javaji, Bombay 1926. 

(B) General Works 

1. Abbe J. A. Dubois : Hindu Manners, Customs and 
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2. Acharya P. K. : A Dictionary of Hindu Architecture, 
Published by The Oxford University Press, Allahabad, 
1927. 

3. Agrawala V. S. : Harsacarita Eka Sarhskrtika Adhya- 
yana, Bihar Rashtra Bhasa Parisad, Patna 1953. 

4. Agrawala V. S. : India as known to FSaini, University 
of Lucknow 1953. 

5. Alex Comfort : The KokaSastra, Munshiram Manohar- 
lal, Delhi. 

6. Altekar A. S. : "The A&ama System" Ghurye Felici- 
tation Volume Ed. by K. M. Kapadia, The Popular 
Book Depot., Bombay 1954. 

7. Altekar A. S. The Position of Women in Hindu Civili- 
zation, The Culture Publication House Benaras 1938. 

8. Apte V. M. : Social and Religious Life in the 
Grhyasutras. 

9. Apte V. S. ; A Practical Sanskrit English Dictionary 
MB 1965. 

10. Barxerjia J. N. : "Some Aspects of S"akti worship in 
Ancient India". Prabuddhabharata Vol. LIX No. Ill 
1954, 

11. Dasgupta S. N. : A History of Indian Pnilosphy, Vol. 
II Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1952. 

19 



90 gsrem; FURXtfA [VOL. xv. NO. 1 



12. De S. K. : "Indian Erotics in its origin and Develop- 
ment". P. K. Code Coram. Volume, Part If, Ed. by 
H. L. Hariappa and M. M. Patkar, Oriental Book 
Agency Poona, 1960. 

13. Desai V. S. : Vaidic Sarhgita ane Anyalekho, The 
M. S. University of Baroda, Baroda, 1956. 

14. Deussen : "AsSrama" ERE Vol. II. 

15. Dikshit S. B. : Bharatiya Jyotisha SMstra, Arya Bhu- 
sana Press, 1931. 

16. Dutt N. K. : Origin and growth of castes in India, Vol. 
I, II, Firma K. L. Mukhopadbyay, Calcutta 1968, 
1969. 

17. Ellwood Charles A. : "Marriage" EA Vol. XVIII. 

18. Firth Raymond : Human Types, Thomas Nelson & 
Sons Ltd , London 1956. 

19. Gupta A. S. : "Puranic Theory of Yugas and Kalpas, 
PurSna, Vol. XI No. 2 July 1969. 

20. Gupta F. N. and Ray P. : Carakasarhhita A Scientific 
Synopsis, National Institute of Sciences of India, New 
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21. Ghurye G. S. : Caste and Class in India, Philosophical 
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22. Herbert Jean : "Saka^a and PQtana", PurSna Vol. II 
No. 1-2 July 1960. 

23. Joshi Umesha : Bharatiya Sarhgita k& Itihasa, TVfana- 
sarovara Prakashan, Firozabad, 1957. 

24. Kane P V. : HDS Vol. II Part I 1941. 

25. Kane P. V. : HDS Vol. II Part II 19*1. 

26. Kane P. V. : HDS Vol. V Part I 1958. 

27. Kane P. V. : HDS Vol. V Part II 1962. 

28. Kantawala S. G. : Cultural History from the IVtatsya- 
purSna, The M. S. University of Baroda, 1964 

29. Kapadia K. M. : Hindu Kinship, Popular Book Depot, 
Bombay, 1947. 

30. Kapadia K M : Marriage and Family in India. 
University of Bombay Publications, Sociology Series 
No. 3 , Bombay 1955. 

3L LawN. N, : "The Antiquity of the four stages of Life" 
LA. Vol. Ill 1923. 



JAN., 1973] SOCIETY AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC LIFE IN BVP. 91 

32. Ludwick Sternbach : "Forms'of Marriage in Ancient 
India and their developments', Bharatlyavidya, Vol. 
XII 1951. 

33. Mac Iver Robert M. and Page C. H. : Society, an 
Introductory Analysis, Macmillan & Co. Ltd., London 
1952. 

34. Macdonell A. A and Keith A. B. : Vedic Index. 

35. Mankad D. R. : Purariic Chronology, Gangajalia 
Vidyaphha Prakashan, Aliabad, Jamnagar, 1951. 

36. Majumdar R. C. and Pusalker A. D. : The Vedic 
Age, George Allen and Unwin Ltd , London, 1951. 

37. Max M tiller : Ancient Sanskrit Literature, Bhuvanesh- 
vari Ashram, Allahabad. 

38. Mehta B. N. : Ayurveda no Samksipta Itihasa, Sayaji 
Sahitya Mala, No. 100, Baroda 1925. 

39. Modi P. M. : Bhagavadgita, A fresh Approach, 
Published by P. M. Modi, Baroda 1955, 

40 Modi P. M. : "Development of the system of Alramas' J , 
Proc. and Trans, of Vllth A I.O.C., Baroda 1933, 

41. Monier Williams : A Sanskrit English Dictonary. The 
Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1899. 

42- Motichandra : Pracina Bharatiya Veb ? abhu5, Bharati 
Bhandar, Prayag, VS. 2007. 

43. Om prakash : Food and Drink in Ancient India, 
Munshi Ram Manohar Lai, Delhi 1961. 

44. Pande Vinapani : Harivarmapurana kS Samskrtika 
Vivecana, Publications Department, Uttarpradesh, I960. 

45. Pandey R B. : Hindu SamskSra, CSS 1966. 

46. Pargiter F.E. : Ancient Indian Historical Tradition, 
OUP London, 1922. 

47. Pargiter F.E. : Markandeya PurSna, English Translation, 
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48. Patil D.R. : Cultural History from the Vsyupuraoa, 
Deccan College Post Graduate and Reserch Institute., 
Poona, 1946. 

49. Porter A. E. : Census Report of India of 1931 Vol. V, 
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50. Prabhu P.N. : Hindu Social Organisation, Popular 
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92 fl-PURXtfA [VOL, XV. NO, 



51. RisleyH, ; The People of India, Oriental Book 
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52. : Samksjpta Brahmavaivarta Pur&ija Anka GGP 
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53. Sandesara B. J. : Varnaka Samuccaya, PrScIna Gurjara 
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54. Shadwell Arthur : "Prostitution" EB Vol. 18. 

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56. UpadhyayBaladeva: Puraoavimarb'a. CSS 1965, 

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58. Vaidy M. G. : SampOrpa Arya Vaidaka Grantha, 
Antaka Nigraha Press, Jamanagar 1936, 

59 Vidyalankar Atrideva : PradnabhSrata ke Prasadhana, 
Bharatiya Jnana Pith, Kashi 1958. 

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Macmillan & Co. London 1894. 

61. Wilson John; Indian Caste Vol. I, II Times of India 
Office, Bombay 1877. 



THE HOLY PLAGES OF NORTH INDIA AS MENTIONED 
IN THE SKANDA-PURANA* 

BY 
UMAKANT THKUR 



?F??5*N!ftERt cftlfal tffTflr'f fe^K fat 



i ] 

This article deals with the holy places situated in the 
Northern Parts of India which comprise the present states of 
Uttarpradesh, Delhi, Himachal Pradesh Most of the tirthas are 
located in K.S&, Ayodhya, Prayaga, Mathura, Badarika^ama, 
Haridvara. The KabSkhanda of the SK. P. -deals with the tirthas 
scattered in and around the holy land of Ka^l. 

In this article the places of pilgrimage have been briefly 
dealt with and their identification and location have also been 
ascertained. They are arranged in alphabetical order. 

Abhaya VinUyaka :- According to the Skanda PurSga' the 
temple of Abhaya- Vinayaka is situated to the north of Vakra- 
tu^da-tlrtha in VSranasi. 

Acchadasara : This sacred reservoir is located in Vfiranasl. 1 
Dr. P. V. Kane'' refers to a lake Known as Acchodaka, which 
has been located by him at the fort of the mount Gandraprabha. 

Aditjahtava :-The image of Adityakea^va* is placed to the 
east of Adikesava in VSrSnasI. A mere visit to this God releases 
the visitors from different varieties of sins. 



An article 'The Holy places of *aat India in Stand. F-J 
satneauther has been published in PurSna XIV. 1 (Ja. l 



* ie - 2 Ibid 12.84 

1. SK. KS. 57,89-90 20 ^ 2< * a " ^ 

3. History of Dharma Sastra, vol. IV- p. 730. 4. 5 . 



94 3tf<a*f- PURSfjIA [VOL. XV. NO. 1 

AgastitlTtha : The Sk. P. 1 mentions that Agastl^vara stands 
on the bank of this sacred place. 

Ambarlsallrtha : It is a reservoir situated in the vicinity of 
Prahladatlrtha in Varanasl. 8 

Ambikagauri .-This image of the Goddess GaurT exists with 
the images of lord Siva known as Ambikebvara, 3 and her son 
Sadanana in the middle of the two, A mere visit to them in 
KSssi brings about cessation of rebirth. 

Ambikesvara : This holy place 4 is situated in the vicinity of 
Ambikagaun in V. ranasi. 

Am\tesvara : The Phallus of lord s'iva known as Amfte- 
s"vara 5 stands on the bank of Arnrtakupa. To the west of this 
image is situated the temple of Siddhalaksml. 

Anantavamana : This is the name of Lord iva. G The temple 
of AnantesVara is situated adjacent to it. 

Anantesvara : The temple of the phallus known as 
Anantesvara 7 is situated near the temple of Ananta Vamana in 
V5ranasT. 

Angirasesvara : According to the Sk P. B the temple of 
AngirasesVara is located in Harikesava vana. A visit to this 
phallus has been highly eulogised. Dr. P. V. Kane also refers to 
it and places it in Varanasi. 

Antaroedlksetra : The place 9 lying between the river Ganga 
and Yamuna is regarded as a holy place. When Vrttra was slain 
the sin engendered due to the killing of a Brahmana descended 
on the land between Ganga and Yamuna, and the place came to 
bi known as Antarvedi. Dr. P. V. Kane 10 refers to the SK. P. in 
this connection and agrees with the above statement. N. L. Dey 11 
holds that Antarvedi is the Doab between the Gangs and the 
Yamuna. He alludes to the Bhavijya PurSna and the Hemako^a 
in this concern. Dr. B. C. Law 13 is inclined to mention two places 



I. ibid 61. 111. 2. ibid 58.49. 

3. ibid 68.S 19-220, 4. ibid 

5. ibid 70.53-56. 6. Sk. Ka, 61.191. 

7. ibid 8. ibid 18.20, 

9. Sk., Ma., Ke. 17.273-275, ]0. Hist, of Dhs. IV- 733. 

11. Geog. Diet. 8. 12, Hist. Gcog. 66.141. 



JAN., 1973] HOLY PLAGES OF NORTH INDIA 95 



of this namfi. One of them is located in Northern India while the 
other is in the Southern India, which according to him Is situated 
on Godavari. However, it finds mention in the Indore Copper- 
plate 1 Inscription of Skanda Gupta (466 A. D.) which evidences 
that it is the country lying between the Ganga and the Yamuna, 
and between Prayaga and HaridvSra. 

Ary&varta : The name occurs two times in the Sk.P." but as 
to the location of this country it remains silent. It is only 
referred as the holiest land in India. Again it is stated that 
ArySvarta contained 5 Lakhs Villages 3 during that period. 

However, according to Manu 4 , Aryavarta is bounded on the 
east by the East sea, On the West by the West sea, on the north 
by the Himalayas. 

N. L. Dey 15 agrees with this statement. Dr. Kane also 
refers to this holy land and is inclined to support the statement 
mentioned above. 

Ajodkyn : The Vaisnavakhanda of the Skanda contains a 

chapter known as Ayodhya mahatmya, It deals with the glori- 

fication of sanctity of Ayodhy a in ten chapters. Accordingly' it 

is situated on the bank of the holy river Sarayu. The three 

letters vi*. 'A', ya, and 'dha' of Ayodhya symbolises Brahma, 

Visnu and Rudra respectively. 8 It extends miles to the east and 

we'si of Sahasradhara ksetra*. It is called the antargrha of \ ^ 

and has ,he shape of a fish. It is known as one of t he -even m n 

holy places of the Hindus. It is referred to by several modtrn 

scholars . N. L Dey' identifies it with the ancient Audb. 

:-This holy place stands in between the five 



stones aancaa near the temple of 

tefc . M . It is also known as VahnU.tha oc ~^ to 

has been highly extolled in the SK.P. ur. 

AgniHrtha locating it at several p aces, ^ bu he ha, 

notice of the Sk.P- about its location m Badaritaurama 



2 

*. 

' 



5. Geog.Dict.W. 
n. Sk. Vat. Ayo 1.81, Geog.Dtol.W- 
9. ibid 164-65. Hist-Dhs. IV. Wl- 
ll. Sk., Vi. B.M. 3.14.1B. 12. Htflt ^ 



[VOL. xv. NO, i 

Anales'vara : The Phallus of 3iva known as Analdvara 



stands before the temple of Nale^vara 1 in 

Anuyoginl tlrtha : This is a place of pilgrimage* situated 
near AgnitTrtha in Varanasl. A bath in it has been highly 
eulogised. 

Atkavinnyaka : The temple of ArkavinSyak 3 stands at the 
confluence of the river Ganga and Asi in VaranasT. A visit to 
this God on Sunday removes all the wordly troubles. 

Arundhatltlrtha : The sacred place known as Arundhatt- 
tirtha 4 is situated near Vasisthatlrtha in Kas"l. It is auspicious 
mainly for chaste women. 

Arun&ditya : The n^me occurs in association with the sub- 
tlrthas in VSranasT and worshippers of this diety never face any 
trouble, sin or poverty. 6 

A$ndhlsvara : According to the Sk. P. 6 it is situated to the 
north of BhSrsbhutibatirtha in Kasl. It is said to have been 
worshipped by AsadhT. 

Aftaoinavaka : According to the Sk.' P. there are eight 
temples of the diety Gaoes'a in Kaai, which are known as Astavi- 
noyakas. They are ]^>hundhiraja or Arkavhjayaka, Durgaviniyaka, 
Bhtmacapda VinSyaka, Dehall Vinayaka, Uddancla Vinayaka, 
Pa^apani Vinayaka, Kharva Vinyaka and Siddhi Vinayaka, 
N. L. Dey" also refers to As\avin5yaka, which has been located 
in the Poona district by him. Hence it is evidently different 
from that of Skanda Puraija. 

Alrlsvara \ The phallus known as Atrlavara 9 is situated on 
the north bank of Gokarnesa tlrtha (reservoir) in Varanasl. A 
mere visit to this holy place has been greatly ewogised. 
Dr. Kane> also refers to this tlrtha in Varanasl. 

Alyugra Ntvasirriha : The Sk. P. avers that the temple of 
Atyugra Narasimha stands to the west of Kalalesvara in Varanasl. 
One who worships this God is released from great sins. 11 

I. Sk. ka. 69.165. 2. ibid 61. 173. 

3. Jbid57;50. 4. ibid 61. 16. 

5. ibid 51. 22. fi. ibid 55 28. 

7. ibid 57.43, M-67. 8; Geog. Die. 1 2. 

8. Sk. Ka. 18* 14.16. 10 . Hiat. Dhs. IV. 135, 
11. Sk. Ka 16-193, 



JAN., 1973] HOLY PLAGES OF NORTH TNDIA 97 

Avimukta. : The name Avimukta is the synonym of Varanasl. 
The extent of this sacred place is ten miles' 1 The temple of God 
VisvesVara stands therein. As the God Vi^vanatha never leaves 
this place it is called Avimukta. 2 N. L. Dey s and Dr. Kane* also 
refer to it and identify it with Varanasi. 

Ayogandhlluara : The phallus of AyogandhfsVara is situated 
to the north of Matsyodan in Varanasi. There is a reservoir named 
Ayogandhakunda in the vicinity of this temple. 

Badarikasrama :-~The Sk.P. deals with this holy place in a 
special chapter in Vaisnava Khanda, known as Badarimahatmya, 
which contains eight chapters. It is known as Muktiprada 9 in 
Krtayuga, Togasiddhida in Treta, ViscLlz in Dvapara and BadarikZ- 
s'rama in Kaliyuga. A thought of pilgrimage to Badarl even in 
mind is equated with a severe penance in other holy places. 
According to Sk. P. 7 there is no other holy place like Badarl in 
the three worlds. As it distroys the material body of soul by 
knowledge this place is called VisSalS. 8 Regarding the origin of 
the name Badarl it is narrated that because nectar drops from the 
Badarl tree here this place is known as Badari, where there is 
gathering of the sages. This is the place of God Visnu, who 
never abandons this place, where as the other places are abandon- 
ed from time to time and from one Yuga to another Yuga. 9 The 
mountain known as Gandhamadana stands to the south of Badari. 
Garuda, according to the Sk. P. performed asceticism here on the 
Gandhamadana mountains to the south of Badarl. 10 The hermitage 
of Narayaoa (NarayanasYama) and the river Gangs are situated 
on mount Gandhamadana 11 , N. L. Dey 1<J explains that the temple 
of Badaranatha is situated in Garhwal (U. P.). Ic is a P eak of the 
main Himalayan range, about a months journey to the north of 
Hard war and 55 miles north-east of Srinagar. Dr. B. G. Law 1 . 
and Dr. Kane 1 * also agree with Prof. Dey. 



1. Ibid 22.81-83. 2. Si. Vai, P. M. 18.41-43. 

3. Geog. Die. P. 9. * Hist- Dhs, IV. 736. 

5. St. Ka. 69.20-22. 6. Sk. Vai. B. M. 1.56.57. 

7. Ibid 1.54-55. 8. Ibid 1.58. 

9. Ibid 1.50-60. 10. Sk. Vai. B. M. 4.3 

II. Ibid 2.31-32. 12. Geog. Die. 15. 

13. Hiat. Geog. p. 69 1*. Hist. Dhs. IV pp. 738-737. 
13 



98 J^WR PURSfcIA [VOL. XV. NO. 1 

Badarltirtha: Same as BadarikasVama. 

Badarivana: The name occurs in the VenkatScalamahStmya 1 
but the location is not clear. However^ it may be identical with 
Badarikai'rama as mentioned above. Dr. Kane" also refers to it 
but as its location he is silent. 

B a thlkadesa: According to Sk. P. 3 the country of Balhlka 
comprised four lacs of villages. Besides this no further informa- 
tion about this country is available in the Sk. P, However, as 
the name is associated with Lankadesa it may be located in the 
south. Prof. N. L. Dey* mentions Balhika as a country and locates 
it between the Beas and the Sutlej, north of Kekaya. Further he 
identifies it with Madras whose capital was akala. This latter 
statement of Prof. N. L. Dey seems to be identical with that of 
the Sk. P, According to Kavyamlmarrisa 5 it is located in northern 
India. 

BalivUmana: The temple of Balivamana is situated to the 
west of BalibhadresVara in VarSijasT. It was worshipped by 
Bali. 

Bandikunda : According to Sk. P. it is a pit in VarSriasI. 
North to this shrine stands the temple of Mahakala known as 
Bandlsvaras. 7 

Bandimahadevl : The name of the Goddess known as Band!-- 
mahadevi 8 occurs in association with the names of the sub-tlrthas 
under Varanasl. 

Bandlsvaraltnga : Same as Bandikunda (Q,. V.) See above. 

B&neharalinga : -The temple of Bilne^vara 9 is situated to 
the west of Mayure^a which stands to the west of Kundodareva- 
ralinga on the bank of the river Asi in VarariasT. A mere visit 
to it removes all the sins. It was worshipped by BSna 10 , who 
could attain thousand arms by the grace of this God. Dr. Kane 11 
has rightly referred to Sk, P. in connection with this holy place. 

i. Sk. Vai. Ven. 10 6S 2. Hiat. Dha. IV P. 737. 

3. Sk. Ma. Kau. 39.1 5. 4. Geog. Die. p. 19. 

S. KSvyarnVmamaS (Rajaaekhara) 6. Sk. Ka. 61.201. 

8 ( 9 > 30a >- 7. SK. Ka. 97.136. 

8 SK. Ka. P. 33.177- 9. S K. Ka. 53.79-80. 

10 ' ibid3U39 11. Hist. Dhs. IV p. 737 



JAN., 1973] HOLY PLAGES OF NORTH INDIA 99 

Bhadrakarnesalinga : This is the temple of lord 6iva known 
as BhadrakarneiSa. The reservoir called Bhadrakarrja 1 stands near 
this temple. The location of this tirtha is to the east of the 
temple of Uddanda Ganapati in VSraoasi. Dr. Kane 2 has also 
referred to it and has located it on mount Arbuda, and hence it is 
not identical. 

Bhaglratha Vinnyaka : According to the Sk. P. a the temple 
of Bhaglratha Vinayaka stands near Hariacandra Vinayaka in 
Varanasl. 

Bhaglratha tirtha : This is a reservoir situated to the south 
ofBrahmanala in Vararjasl. A bath in this shrine releases one 
from the sin of slaying of a Brahmana. 4 

Bhnrabhutlsvara Lingo. : The phallus of Lord iva named 
BhSrabhutlsVara 5 was worshipped by one of the Ganas known as 
Bharabhnta in Varfinasl. Dr. Kane G also mentions this tirtha 
under VarSnasT. 

Bharadvnjasrama : This is the hermitage of the sage Bhara- 
dvaja. It has been dealt with by several modern scholars like Dr. 
Kane 7 , Dr. Law 8 , and N. L. Dey. 9 All of them have located this 
place in northern India, but according to the Sk. P. it seems to 
be situated in south India. The Kauravas are said to have visited 
this hermitage. Plantain, coconut, mango and sandal trees are 
said to have been existing there. 10 

Bharatakunda : This is a reservoir said to be situated in 
Nandigrama. 11 The king Bharata of Raghu dynasty ruled over 
the kingdom residing at this place during the exile of Rama and 
having established the image of Rama made a reservoir there in. 
Hence it is named after his name. It is situated to the north of 
Bhairava Kunda. Nandigrama has been identified with modern 
'Nandagaon' in Oudh about eight miles to the south of 
Fyzabad. 13 



1. SK. Ka. 69.104-105. 2. Hist. Dhs. IV. p. 738. 

3. SK. Ka. 57,124. 4. ibid 61.157. 

5. Sk. Ka 55.13. 6. Hist. Dhs. IV p. 738. 

7. Ibid 8 - Histl Ge S- P- 7I> 

9. Gcog- Die. SI. 10. Sk. Vai. Yen. 30.23.24. 

11. Sk. Vai. Ayo. 9.46-50. 12, Hist. Dha. IV p. 784. 



100 3?;w^ PURSJiia [VOL. xv. NO. 1 



Bhairavatlrtha : This is the temple of the diety known as 
Bhairava. It is said to be situated to the south of Sitakunda 1 
in Ayodhya . A mere visit to this God is said to release one 
from all sins. Dr. Kane 2 refers to Bhairava but as to its location 
he is silent. 

Bhargavatirtha : It is a reservoir situated to the east of Bhrgu- 
keiava in KSssi. A bath in it has been highly eulogised. 8 

Bhzskaradri : According to the Sk. P.* it seems to be the 
eastern part of Sona mountain. 

Bhavalinga : This is one of the Phalli of Lord Siva in Kabl. 
It is said that the God Bhava of Vastrapatha ksetra came down 
near Bhlmacandi 5 in KasJ. It is also known as BhavesVara 
here in Kab!, 

BhavesnaTa Linga : Same as Bhavalinga. 

Bhlmacanda Vintiyaka : The temple of Bhlmacanda Vinayaka 7 
is situated to the south-west of Bhimacandl in Kasl. A mere 
visit to this diety is said to be the remover of great troubles. 

Bhlmakunda : It is a reservoir" situated in the vicinity of 
Bhimacandl in VarSnasi. 

Bhlmesvara ; This is a phallus of Lord Siva known as 
Bhimebvara". It is situated in front of the temple of the God known 
as Nakuliba. A holy place 10 of the same name, sacred to Pitrs, 
is said to be situated under Narmada also, which is not identi- 
cal with this tirtha. 

Bhurbhuvali Linga: The name of this phallus known as Bhur- 
bhuvahlinga 11 finds mention in the Sk. P. in association with the 
phalli found in VSrSnasI The temple of this phallus is said to 
be situated to the west ofGanadhipa. The contents aver that 
this phallus has come down from the mountain of Gandhamadana 
to KS&. 

BhWanntha : This is the temple of God iva near Dharma- 
^^^ya". This Dharmaranya 13 is situated in Gaya. 
1. Sk.Vai.Ayo. 9.41. 2 . Hist. Dhs. IV. p. 738. 

3. Sk.Ka. 58.52. 4 . S k. Ma. Ach. V. 4.27. 

5, Sk.Ka, 69.99. 6 . sk . Ka . 69 99f 

7. Sk.Ka. f.7.61. 8 . Sk.Ka. 70-73. 

*-. 10. Hist. Dhs IV. 739 

W J CK Sl 69 ; m ' 12 ' SK. Bra. Dh.Kh. 4.78 

13. Hist Dhs. IV. 749 



JAN., 1973] HOLY PLACES OF NORTH INDIA 101 

Bindusara : N. L. Dey 1 observes that Bindusara is a sacred 
pool situated (a) on the Rudra Himalaya, two miles south of 
Gangotri (bj at the foot of the Gauda Parvata on the north of 
the Kailasa range, which is called Main&kaparvata in the 
Mahabharata (Sabha. ch. 3), and (c) in Sitpur 2 (Siddhapura in 
Gujarat) north west of Ahmadabad. Dr. Kane 1 observes that it 
is located (a) on mount Mainaka., near Badari (b) in VarSnasi, 
here Siva is said to have bathed in it and the Kapala of Brahma 
that had stuck to his hand dropped and thus it became Kapala- 
mocana tlrtha, (c) under Ekamraka :-it is so called because 
Rudra collected drops of water from all holy places and filled 
these with (d) in Kashmir 4 it is Dikpala in the east of the country. 

However, according to the Sk. P. f> Bindusara tlrtha is a 
sacred and popular pool (lake) situated to the north east of 
mount Meru, which has already been located near the Himalayan 
region. 

Bindiivinoiyaka : This is one of the important temples of the 
deity Ganesa known as Vinayaka in Kasl. A visit to this sacred 
place removes all sorts of troubles." 

Brahmakunda : The name of this sacred pit finds mention in 
association with the sub-tlrthas under Badarltlrtha (q. v.). A visit 
to this sacred place has been highly eulogised in the Sk, P. The 
Sk. P. reveals the fact that even a great sinner gets rid of all the 
sins 7 by a visit to it and attains the blessed region of Brahma 
(Brahmaloka) too. 

Brahmakunda : This is another reservoir known as Brahma- 
kunda 8 which is situated in Ayodhya. God Visnu is said to 
reside here always 

Brahmakunda : This is one of the three sacred pits 3 (Kupdas) 
known as Brahmakunda, Vaisnavakunda, and Rudrakunda 
situated in Madhupurl i.e. MathurS. 10 Among these three reser- 
voirs Brahmakunda is regarded as the great one. A bath m it, 



3. Hist B .'DhB'.IV. p.749 * NM.-Ulfl-H"-Q' by Hist 

5. Sk, Ava A. Kse.M.70.5-8. 6. Sk, Ka. 57.123-125. 

7. 5k- Vai. B. M. 6.22-3. 8. Sk. Vai. Ayo. M, 2 1546. 

9. Sk. Vai. Ma M. 17.53-54. 10. Sk. Vai. Mai. M. 17- 



102 J^rcj*?; PURXtfA fvOL XV. NO. 1 

gift and SrSddha here are said to be of great importance. The 
month of Mar gas" ir s a is pointed out as more auspicious for all the 
religious activities to be performed here, 

BrahmanUlatlrtha : This is one of the subtirthas in VSranasl, 
It is said to be situated to the north of Bhagirathatlrtha 1 i e. 
Bhtigirathlsvara linga. A bath in this holy reservoir has been 
extremely praised in the Sk. P. N. L. Dey 2 identifies it with 
Manikarnika in Varanasi. 

Brahmapura Ksetra : This is a place of Pilgrimage where 
Indrajit is said to have established the phallus of Lord Siva on 
the bank of Puskarinl. 11 

Dr. Kane" 1 Locates Puskarigi at NarmadS and again in 
GayS. It finds mention in Brhatsainhita* also according to which 
it is identical with Garwal and Kumaon. Dr. B. G Law B refers 
to it as the ancient capital of the Ghamba State in the Punjab. 
Dr. Cunningham identifies it with Vaira^a Pattana. According 
to Hiuen Tsang 1 the kingdom of Brahmapura was 667 miles in 
circuit. Dr, Cunningham 8 observes that Brahmapura existed in 
the districts of Garhwal and Kumaon. However, according to 
Sk. P. as it finds mention in A Gh. M. it should be located in 
south India. 

Brahmasramapada: According to the Sk. P. the place known 
as Brahrnasrama pada is situated in the vicinity of the Himalayas. 
it contains several types of trees and animals like deer and 
elephants. 

Brahmauarta: This is a well (Kupa) situated in front of the 
Bevadevaliriga existing to the north of Dhundhiraja in VarSnasI. 
One, who having taken bath from the water of this well worships 
the Lord Siva, attains the fruit even crore times more than that 
of Naimiaranya. 10 Again according to BadarikSmahatmya of the 
Sfc. P. this holy place is located in Badarikas"rama. A mere visit 
t<Mh !* SaCred plaCS r?rnoves a11 the sins - al N. L. Dey 12 also refers 

1. Sk.Ka. 61.155 aad 157. 2. G c og. Die. p. 40. 

3. Sk.M a . A .Ch, M.U.2.53. 4. Hist. Dhs. IV. P. 794. 

5. Bi^tsarfihitaCh.U. 6 . Hist. G cog . p, 72. 

8- Refused by B. C. Law vide History of Geog. p. 72. 

II S'v*^*?;"* 19 - 2 **** 10 - Sk,Ka. 69.11-13. 

II- Sk. Vai .B,M. 8.49. 12 . Geog . Dic<p . 40 . 



JAN., 1973] HOLY PLAGES OF NORTH INDIA 103 

to one Brahmavartta as a landing ghat on the Ganges at Bithur 
in the district of Kanpur. But it is not identical with that 
of Sk. P. 

Brnkmyatlrtha : This is a reservoir in the vicinity of 
Arunadris-a. It is said that the creator (Brahma) himself comes 
here in the month of Marga and having taken bath in this 
reservoir worships Arunacala. Again in the month of Pausa, 
Indra is said to come here and take bath in this shrine. 1 

Bjhaspati fCunda: According to the Sk.P. this is a pit situated 
to the south west of Kglrodakasthana in Ayodhya. 2 Brhaspati 
is said to have resided here and performed sacrifice. A Pilgrimage 
to this place on the fifth day of the second half of Bhadra or on 
any thirsday has been highly eulogised. 

Buddhatlrtha : The name occurs in association with the sub- 
tirthas of VaraoasT. According to the Sk. P. 3 there are one 
thousand Buddhas in VSranasI. 

Cakra Ksetra: In order to reveal the importance of MathurS, 
the names of the other Tlrtha Ksetras have been associated with 
it. In t his connection the name of Cakra ksetra also finds 
mention. But as to its location there is no clear indication in 
the Sk. P." 

Cakra Hari : This is the temple of Lord Visou situated on 
the western bank of the Sarayu It accomplishes all the 
desires. 6 

Gakratirtha (1): According to the Sk. P. 8 Cakratirtha is a 
reservoir situated in Ayodhya. It is said to have been founded 
by the Gakra (wheel) of the Lord Vinu Himself and hence it is 
known, as Gakratirtha. A man who bathes and awards gifts here 
goes to the abode of Visnu. 

Cakratirtha (2): This is another reservoir known as Cakra- 
tlrtha which is located in Varanasl. A b'raddha to the ancestors 
here has been highly praised. 7 Dr. P. V. Kane 8 also mentions 
Cakratirtha. He has assigned its location to eight different places. 

1. Sk. Ma. A. Ch- M. P. 6 107-109. 2. Sk. Vai. Ayo. 7.9. 

3. Sk. Ka. 61.208. * Sk. Vai. Ka. M- 4 28-31. 

5. Sk. Vai. Ayo. 6.10. 6. Sk. Vai. Ayo. M. 1.95-9? 

7, Sk. Ka. 58.S6. 8. Hist. Dhe. IV p. 743. 



104 3W* PURS.VIA fVHL. XV. NO.] 

But as regards its situation at Ayotlhy.1 hii has prHVrrvd silence. 
Hence it is not identical- N. L. Dey 1 h;is atao ykipptMl mor thi s 
point. 

Capdlsvara Lifiga: The Phallus of I.tircl Siv:i known as 
Gandlvara H Liiiga is situated near th(! temple of I'ilSapSui 
Vinayaka in VSr.luasl. A visit to this gtvai phallus h;ts In-u 
greatly oulogisod. 



Candroda JCurula : The pit known as ri.mdiMil.i Kuyr];i is said 
to be situated in VarCnasl. It is a, snrrc<l phu < tit !'t' P"t inninntr 
Sraddha 3 ceremony far iinrvstors A |wrsnn ;;<(*; u<l ">' all the 
ancestral dobts if he ofTi>rs pirjtdas hi-if on tin 1 haul: nf Cl.m.lnula 
Kuijda, 

Carmamundn : Th tt'inple of the G*nl<lc.si r.-illcd (*auna. 
munda is located noar Daruki.'o.i in lh <'astcnt p:ti t ol' Vru.'uMSi. 1 

Calurdanta Vinftyaka :~-Thc Sfc. K ft reveals ili.it iht- t*'ni;li- of 
Gaturdanda Vinayaka is situated to thi' north i-ast ' Kimitatsa 
tlrtha in VarSnasl. A mure visit to this tuuijtl- xvitmvi'S all 
troubles. 

CaturmuWutsoaralinga : The phallus of Kurd Siva known as 
Gaturmukheiivara was installed l>y t. Ci.iga niuiK-tt < latutitmkha in 
VsrSnaal. It stands in the vicinity of the tempi.- of VrcUih<ik.U>.',i" 
to the south of Kedara tlrtha in 



CaturvedlSvara Linga : Thf phiiUus ol'CSutiitVfth.'vai.i 7 Mauds 
near the temple of Iha^arva in VJUayasI. Dr. 1'. V. Kan.' 11 also 
refers to it in VaranasT but his refcn-nce !,> tin- Sk. T- f"wnsio 
be wrong. 

Chzgehari Devi : It is also known ; Olin:{.tv:ikn-'v.ui 'l.;vi' J . 
The temple of this Goddess stands to the south nl' Vr|,ili)a(iliMJa 
in Vsranasl. The wordhip of this Goddi-s* has Ijt-en sji.-ci.illy 
prescribed on the auspicious day F Mulia 



:The temple of tho C;id Ciitaia t ioi 
j s situated to the south cast of Huramba 1 * HI 



14.34.55. 



JAN., 1973] HOLY PLACES OF NORTH INDIA 105 

This God has been compared with Cintamani 1 , a kind of gem 
with magic powers of conquering wealth. 

Citraghanta : It is situated near Citraguptelvara in 
Varaijasi. 2 

Citraguptesvara : The temple of Gitraguptelvara 3 stands in 
the vicinity of GitrakQpa tlrtha in Ka^T. An immersion in and 
visit to this sacred place leads to material and spiritual gain. 

Citrangades'vara : According to the Sk. P. 4 this is a phallus of 
Lord Siva which exists in VaranasT. It finds mention in other 
Puranas 5 also. It also bears the designation of Citrangadatlrtha. 

Cudakitlrtha : The Sk. P. mentions that Cudakl is a sacred 
place in Ayodhya. One who remembers this Goddess at the time 
of adversity or fear receives speedy relief and remedy. The 
devotee has been directed to make noise with his thumbs and to 
offer lamps at this shrine. 

Dadhivamana : The name of this shrine occurs in connection 
with the description of the sub-tirthas of Varapasl. The Sk. P. 7 
explains that a man who recollects the name of this deity is 
released from poverty. 

DaksciyaryLsvara. Lingo. : This is the phallus of Lord Siva 
known as Daksayanib'vara 8 which is said to be situated to the east 
of the temple of RatnesVara in VSrSnasI. 

Danda Puskarinl : This is a reservoir in VisSla 9 , i. e. Badarl- 
natha. An immertion in this pit is said to have superior spiritual 
efficacy in comparison with other identical holy reservoirs. The 
offering of Pigdas at this place confers spiritual benefit that 
surpasses what is to be gained by performing identical acts at 
Gay5 by eight times. It is also known at Dandodakatlrtha. 



1. It ia worthy to remark that the conception of CintSmani concurs 

with, that of Gintaraja that finds mention in the sacred texts of 
Buddhism. 

2. SK. Ka. 70.38-39. 3. ibid 

4. ibid 70.43. 

5. K. I. 35.11 -\ 

Van, 48.39 } f. by Hist. Dhs. IV. p. 744. 

6. Sk. Vai. Ayo. 8.29-31. 7. Sk. Ka. 61.199- 

8. ibid 68.216, 218. 9. Sk. Vai. B.M. 8.33-40, 

14 



106 HW^-PURSlvIA [VOL. XV. NO. 1 



Dandlsvara : The phallus of Lord Siva known at DandiSvara 1 
is situated to the east of Sadehal! VinSyaka in Var&tjasl, The 
Sk. P. explains that Dandi, who chastises the sinners, comes 
from Devadaruvana to Varanasi. He stays there in the form of 
a phallus. One who worships this phallus has not to undergo 
rebirth. Dr. P, V. Kane 2 also refers to it and agrees with the 
above location though he does not give any reference to the Sk.P. 
Dantahasta Vin&yaka : This is the temple dedicated to lord 
Ganes'a 3 standing in the south of VighnarSja, According to the 
Sk. P. all the sins committed by the individuals in Varanasi are 
noted down by Him. 

Daruvana : The name of this forest finds mention in the 
Sk. P. 4 It is also known as Devadaruvana. According to this 
Purana Lord Siva is said to have wandered in this forest for 
begging alms. But its location cannot be ascertained from the 
account given in this Purana. According to N. L. Dey 5 also 
Daruvana and Devadaruvana are identical. It is said to have 
been situated on the Ganges near Kedara in Garwal. It is 
further observed that Badarikasrama was situated in this forest. 
Dr. P. V. Kane 6 says that it is the Himalayas near Badarinatha. 
An other section of scholars 7 has located it near Vijayebvara in 
Kasmir. 

Darukesvaratlrtha : This is a reservoir near the temple of 
the phallus known as Daruke^a in KSbi . 

Dasaharesvara : This is the temple of Lord Siva known as 
DaaharesVara situated to the west of Svardhuni 8 tlrtha in Kasl. 
A mere salutation to this God has been greatly eulogised. 

Dasfthamedha : It is also known as Da^IU'vamedhika. This 
is a renowned place of pilgrimage in VaranasT. Previously it was 
known as Rudrasara and later on it came to be known as 
Svardhuni, after the arrival of Bhaglratha. A phallus of Lord 
Siva was installed there by the creator Himself, which was named 
as Da^svamedheSa Linga. A holy dip in this tlrtha specially on 

1. Sk, Ka. 69.102. 2. Hist. Dhs. IV. p. 715. 

3. Sk. Ka. &T.94. 4, Sk. Ma. Ka. 6.281. 

5. Geo. Die. P. 54. 6. Hist. Dha. IV. P. 74=5. 

7. H. G 10.3 ref, by Hist. Dha.p. 745. 8. Sk. Ka. 70-8- 

9, ibid 52,95. 



JAN., 1973] HOLY PLACES OF NORTH INDIA 107 

the first day of the second half of the month of Jyestha liberates 
one from all the sins. 1 Dr. Kane 3 also refers to this tlrtha and 
locates it at eight different places including Var5ijasT. But he has 
not cited the authority of Sk. P. in order to confirm his finding. 

Dattntrayesvara : The temple of the Phallus known as 
Dattatraye^vara s is situated in the vicinity of Adityakelava in 
Varagasi. It is a place of pilgrimage fit for performing iraddha. 
It stands on equal footing with Gay5 as a sacred place for offering 
pindas to the departed ancestors. It may be identified with 
Dattatreya Linga as referred to by Dr. P. V. Kane. 4 

Dehall VinUyaka : According to the Sk. P. this is the temple 
of Gane^a know as Dehalf Vinayaka in Varanasl. It removes all 
the troubles of its devaut worshipper. 5 

Dhanayaksakanda : This is a reservoir standing to the south 
west of Rukminlkunda in Ayodhya. This is the place where the 
great wealth of the renownded king Hariscandra was preserved. 

Dharanl Var'aha : This is a place of pilgrimage situated near 
PrayagesVara in Varaijasl 7 . 

Dharmak$etra : (a) This is a place of Pilgrimage 9 situated to 
the north of VSranasi. It is usually believed that Lord Vi?nu 
resides in this place (b) It has been further stated in the Sk. P. 
that the place south to the confluence of GangS in MSnasa is 
called Dharmaksetra. According to the Sk, P. this holy place is 
thought to be situated in the Himalayan region in the vicinity of 
Badarinatha". 

Dharmakttpa : This is a sacred well standing near Ai&vi- 
nayaka in V5r5nas!. 10 The offering of Pindas to the ancestors here 
has been extolled owing to its great spiritual efficacy. 

Dharmnranya : The Sk. P. in its Brahmakhaoda contains a 
separate chaper on Dharmaranya. It gives an account of the 
sub-tirthas included within the jurisdiction of it (Dharmarapya), 
But as regards the problem of the location of DharmSraaya, the 
Sk. P. 11 does not contain any allusion to it. According to the 



1. ibid 52.68,87. 2. Hist, Dha. IV. p. 745 

3. Sk. Ka- 58.51. * Hist. Dha. IV. p. 745. 

5. Sk.K a . 57.62 0- S. R V. Ayo. 

7. Sk. Ka. 61.208. 8 - ^^%'L 

9, S-K. Vai Vai. B.M. 842-44. 10. Sk. Ka, 33,1-6- 

11. Sk. Bra. Dh. chapter 2. 



108 mronrPURXJilA [VOL. xV. NO. 1 



Sk. P. 1 it is a holy place known as Csara tirtha. The trinity viz. 
Brahma, Visiju and MahesVara resides in this place. N. L. Dey* 
refers to it and locates it at different places. First he says that it 
is a holy place situated at the distance of four miles from Buddha 
Gay5 in the district of Gaya. A group of scholars including N.L. 
Dey" considers that this ks.etra comprised the portions of the 
districts of Ballia and Ghazipur. Secondly it has been identified 
with Moharapura or ancient Moherakapura,, 14 miles to the 
north of Vindhyacala (town), in the district of Mirzapur- Three 
miles to the north of Moharapura is the place where Indra 
performed austerities after being cursed by Gautama ^.si, the 
husband of AhalyS. Thirdly it has been asserted to be situated on 
the Himalaya 4 , on the southern bank of the river Mand&kinT. 
According to the MahabhSrata*, it is identifiable with the her- 
mitage of sage Kaova near Kota in Rajasthan. Dr. Kane 8 locates 
it in Gaya and again near Mabakala at Ujjayinl. 

Dhautap&pesvara : This is a phallus of God iva near 
Kiranewara in Varanasi 7 . Dr. Kane 8 also refers to this tirtha 
and has quoted the relevant verses from the Sk. P. 

Dhundhirnja : According to the Sk. P. s it is one of the 
temples of Ganesa in Varaijasi, It is situated to the south of the 
lord Viijvanatha. This deity permits the devotees to stay at VarSijasI 
only after a thorough investigation. They ultimately attain the 
fulfilment of their cherished desires by means of his divine grace, 
Dr. Kane refers to the same deity by the name of Dhuijdhi 
Vin&yaka. Both of them are identical. 

Dlptamahasakti : This is the temple of Goddess Maha^akti 
known as Dlpta situated near the temple of Sambaditya 10 . The 
worship of this Goddtss bestows wealth on the worshippers. 

Draupadaditya : According to the Sk. P. this is one of the 
sacred temples of the sun as one of the supreme deities in VarSnasI . n 



1. Sk. Bra. Dh. Kh. 2.3. 2. Geog. Die. p . 56. 3. Ibid. 

4. KurmaP. ch. 14-ref by N. L. Dey, p - C 6 

5, Mbh. Vana. ch. 82. ref. by. NL Dey p, 56. 

G Hist Dha. IV. p 747 7. Sk. Ha. 33. 1 56. 

8 Hist. Dhs IV. p. 747. 9. Sk. Ka. 57. 43. 

10. 5k. Ka. 70.62. 11. Sk. Ka. 49.25- 



JAN., 1973] HOLY PLACES OF NORTH INDIA 169 

Dfmicandes'vara : In the text of the description of the sub- 
tirthas of VarSijasi 1 the name of this phallus occurs in the Sk. P. 

Dugdhesvara : According to the Sk, P. this is one of the sub- 
tirthas situated in Ayodhya. This sacred place is the temple of 
Lord Siva which stands near the famous reservoir known as 
Sitakunda a The other pit known as Kslrakun da also exists in 
the vicinity of this holy place. 3 Dr. Kane" 1 also refers to one 
Dugdhesvara which he locates in SabhramatT. And again he 
has assigned its site to the south of Khadgadhara So it is evident 
that his statement is at variance with that of the Sk. P. 

DurbharUkhyasara : This is a sacred reservoir in Ayodhya/' 
It stands to the south west of the MahSratna tirtha. An immer- 
sion and offering of gift at this sacred pit have been highly 
panegyrised. 

DurgU Bhagaoatl : This is one of the SubtTrthas of VSiTinasI. 
It is the temple of the Goddess Durga and as such is held in 
deep reverence by her devotees. To it has also been accorded the 
holy name of Citraghan^T. 

Durga Vinayaka : While describing the different names of 
Gane^a 7 the name of this sacred place has also been referred to 
by the Sk. P. The name that it bears is a significant one. Its 
adoration brings about the cessation of all sins and sufferings. 3 

Dvadasaditya .According to the Sk P." there are twelve 
temples of the Sun, dedicated to his twelve divine forms. 
Their collective designation is Dvadasaditya Their names may 
be set down in the following order : Lolarka, Uttararka, SSmba- 
ditya, Drupadsditya, Mayukhaditya, Khakholkaditya, ArunS- 
ditya, Vrddhaditya, Kes"avaditya, Vimaladitya, Gangaditya, 
Yamaditya. All of them are situated in. VSranasi, and each 
of them has received separate treatment. Dr. Kane 10 refers to 
another Dvadasaditya Kunda in Badar! which is distinct from 
the one referred to above. 



1. Sk. Ka 49,25. 2. Sfc . Vai, Ayo 9.39. 

3. Sk. Vai. Ayo. 8.68. 4. Hist. Dhs. IV p. 748, 

5. Sk.Vai. Ayo, 8.38-39. 6. Sk. Ka. 33.174-175. 

B. The K t a cir,p 7 l"e of Durgavinayaka is situated in VltrSnaal near the 

temple of Goddess Durga in Durg3kun4a Mohalla. 
9. SK. Ka. 46.45-47. 10. Hiat. Dhs. IV p. 74a 



110 J^TOH PURS^IA [VOL. XV. NO. I 

Dvicatufka Vinftyaka : The Sk. P. 1 has laid down that there 
are five distinct types of deities that go under the name of 
Dvicatuska Vinayaka. All of them are the guardian deities of 
the sacred land of VarSnasI. Upon them has been conferred 
the following names, viz. SthQladanta, Kalipriya Vinayaka, 
Caturdanta Vinayaka, Dvitundigaijanayaka, and Jyestha Vina- 
yaka. According to the Sk. P. the temple of Sthuladanta is 
situated to the north of Abhayaprada, on the bank of the 
Ganges. The temple of Kalipriya VinSyaka stands to the north 
of Siriihatunda, which is the celebrated shrine of Gaijesa. The 
temple of Caturdanta Vinayaka is located to the north east 
of the Kujjitaksatlrtha. A repair to this temple removes all the 
hindrences that stand in the way of realisation of desired ends 
of human life. The temple of the God known as Jyestha Vinayaka 
exists to the south east of Gintamaoi Vinayaka in Varanasi. 

Dvitunda Vinayaka :-This is one of the five temples of God 
Ganes*a known as Dvicatuska in Varanasi*. 

* 

GabhastlJa : This is a great phallus of Lord iva in 
Varanasi. 3 The Sk. P. has narrated that the renowned sage 
Markandeya, the son of Mrkandu, had performed severe penance 
at this place. 

Or Kane 4 has mentioned the name of this phallus and has 
given chapter and verse quotation from the Sk P. in support of 
his observation. But the reference appears to be wrong." His 
allusion to chapter TV should be amended to chapter VI of the 
same Purana. I think it is a case of misprint. 

Gabhastldnara : According to the Sk. P. B it seems to be 
identical with Gabhastl^a. The text about it reveals that 
chanting of "Satarudrl" in the month of Kartika, at this place 
brings aboyt siddhi of Mantra. 

Gad&ttotha : This is a place of pilgrimage 6 situated near the 
Cakratlrtha in Varapasl. According to the Sk. P. it is also fit for 
performing Sraddha and other allied obsequial rites. 

1. SK.K*. 57,97-1 03, 2. ibid. 

. Ibid38,154 4. Hist. Dhs.IVp. 757. 

5. Sfc,Vai. 9.6.44^5, 6. Sk.Ka. 58.37. 



JAN,, 1973] HOLY PLA.CES OF NORTH INDIA. HI 

Gandhamadana : The Sk. P. 1 holds that BadarTnStha is situat- 
ed on th e mountain of Gandhamadana. The celestial bird Garuda 
practised penance on the peak of this mountain in order to become 
the carrier of God Visnu. It is mentioned as one of the impor- 
tant mountains of north India' 2 . It is on this mountain 3 that the 
demon Vrttra observed austere penance in order to receive grace 
of Lord Siva. The forest known as Citrarathavana which is 
named after the king Citrarathn stood before this mountain. As 
to its location the Sk. P. 4 has observed that it is situated to the 
south of mount Mem/ the site of which has been assigned to 
the middle of the Jarnbudvlpa, According to the text of the Sk.P. 
this mountain is regarded as one of the few mountains which are 
the representatives of the Phallus of Lord S"iva, Consequently these 
mountains are worshipped even by the supreme divinity, Vi?pu 
and others. They are themselves the removsrs of the sins. 
Among these sacred mountains of India the names of the 
following 6 mountains are mentioned, namely Jmsaila, Mahendra, 
SahyScala, Malyavat, Malaya, Vindhyacala, Gandhamadana, 
Sveta Kxrta, Trikuta and Dardura parvata. N. L. Dey 7 observes 
that it is a part of the Rudra Himalayas. He has really thought 
that Badarika^rama is located on this mountain. Further more 
he has stated that the portion of the mountains of Garwal 
through which Alakananda Bows is called Gandhamadana, 
Dr. Kane's 8 view coincides with the account recorded in the 
Sk P. Obviously he has not referred to the Sk. P. by name. It has 
also been endorsed by Dr. B. G. Law. 9 It is remarkable that the 
Brahmakhanda of the Sk. P. has ad vented to another mountain 
bearing identical name. It is situated in southern India and 
is associated with Ramesvaralinga at Setubandha N. L Dey 
also says that a portion of this mountain (Gandhamadana) was 
brought by Hanumun. It is pointed out near Ramelvar. m south 

India. . rt 

Gandhamndanaoon* :-While describing the boundary 
great mount Meru, it has been mentioned m the Sk. P, 

2 sk< V ai. Ven. 

L Sk. Vai. B. M. 4.3. *' " ^ ^ 

8. Sk. Ma. Ke. 17.93-94. * 

5. Sk. Ma. Kua. 37.29. l ' ^ ^ , v . 

7. Geog. Die. p. 60. ' Bf ^ ^ M . 

9. HiBt. Gcog. p. 76. ' s 
11. Gcog. Die. p. 60, * ' 



H2 gUlpT PURXtfA [VOL. XV. NO. 1 

the east of this mountain lies rat. Mandara and to the south 
of it stands mt. GandhamSdana. The mountain known as Vipula 
stands to the West of it whereas ml. SuparsVa exists to the north, 
The flowers called Kadarnba are found on Mandaracala and the 
fruits Jambu grow on GandhamSdana in abundant quantity. The 
Asvattha tree is found on the Vipula mountain and the sacred 
tree known by the name of Vata is to be found on mt. Supar^va. 
Besides it has been stated that there are four forests on the peak 
of these mountains. The name of those forests are-Caitraratha 
Gandhamadana, Vaibhraja and Gitraratha. 

GandhamSdana Ksetra : The name occurs in connection with 
the description 1 of the holy lands of India. This land was 
consecrated by Hanuman (Anjaneya). In this place Lord iva 
is adored by the name of Mrtyunjaya. Later on, this land came 
to be designated as Goparvata, where the renowned gram- 
marian, Panini attained supernatural power through mercy of 
Lord 6iva. 

Gangnditya : -This is one of the twelve temples of Sun-god. 
According to the Sk. P. a it is situated to the south of Lord 
ViSvanstha in Varanasr. A mere visit to this holy place of 
pilgrimage brings about the purification of the visitor. 

Gangndoara : It finds mention in connection with the 
description of the glory of Mathura. The Sk. P. has observed 
that Gangsdvara is superior to Ayodhya" in point of sanctity. 
Its identification is not clear in the Sk PurSLna. However, N. L, 
Dey* faas rightly identified it with Haridvara. Dr. B. G. Law s 
has remarked that the united stream of .he BhSglrathl and 
maanda from Deva Prayaga is called the Ganges. It is from 
Dun that it has descended downwards It has finally 



Haridvara that passes under, the name of gate of 
* Uae So it i s evident that Gangadvara is identical 
Dr. Cunningham* also holds identical 



SK.K..51.101. 

i . 6 , 

unningham, p. 405. 



JAN,, 1973] HOLY PLACES OF NORTH INDIA JJ3 

Gangftkeiavatlrtha : This is one of the subtlrthas of 
VSiapasi 1 . It stands to the south of Agastya tlrtha. This sacred 
shrine is the destroyer of all the sins. 

Gangesvara : The phallus of God Siva that has been inducted 
and established by the Goddess Ganga 7 herself in VarSnasI beurs 
the designation of GangeWara. It is also called Gangesa It 
stands to the east of the super-most Lord ViavanStha. The worship 1 * 
of this phallus leads spiritual edification particularly on the 
auspicious day of Da^ahara, i e. the 10th day of the second half of 
Jyestha. Dr. Kane 4 locates it under VarSnasi and on the bank 
of the Narmada as well. 

Gangesa : Same as GangesVara (V. 90). 

Gaurlvana : Its name occurs in connection with the- glori- 
fication of onadri. According to the Sk. P. once the renowned 
kingNala entered into the forest known as Gaurivana, which was 
inaccessible to all beings. Consequently he was converted into a 
women. Thereafter he consulted his priest, Vasijtha, who 
instructed him to worship the mountain called Sonadri. It is by 
observing an austere 5 penance in that place that he succeeded to 
regain his former male form. 

Gaurl Sikfiara : It has boen related in the Sk. P. that it is 
on this mountain peak that Gaurl attained white completion and 
pleased her consort by her hard penar.ce. Dr. Kane holds that 
[t is a tTrthanear Kasrnir. Further more he agrees w.rh the 
version of the Sk. P. He has not however, alluded to the 
authority of the Sk. P. 

*pa :-This i, a reservoir (well) si.ua.ed ,h &>u,h 
ku^ain Ayodhy*". According ,o he Sk P. 
of AyodhyS. 1,1. par.icu.ar.y 



- 



also. The performance of 



2. ibid 91- 4-5. 



. - 

1. Sk. Ka. 61.180. HiBt.Dh^IV P .W. 

3. ibid 91. 4-5. ' M Ac M.0. 17 St. 

5. Sk. Ma. Ach. M. P. 6, 71-75. 6- 5 ^ ^ ^ g< wo . 

7. Hist. Dhs IV. p. 752. 
15 



114 3<ra*T-pURAi}iA [VOL. xv. KO. i 

Monday and on the 35th day of the first half of a lunar month, has 
been highly panegyrised. 

Ghargharn-Sarayu-Sangama : This is the confluence of the 
holy rivers Gharghara 1 and Sarayu in Ayodh\a. The holy con- 
junction of these two rivers is very near to Gupta Hari. It is 
situated at a distance of twentyfour miles to the south of GopratSra 
tlrtha. N. L. Dey 2 identifies the river Gharghara with the modern 
river Ghagra or Gogra, which flows f.orn Kumaun and has entered 
into the river Sarayu. Dr. Kane 3 opines that the accumulated water 
that flows due to the merger of Gogra and other livers including 
Sarayu are called Gogra or Sarju from Bahrampur. 

Ghosarka Kunda : The sacred reservoir named Ghosarkais 
situated to the south of Urvasi-kuijda in Ayodhya. 4 A bath in 
and gift at this place assist one to attain the solar re ion which 
has the Sun-god as its presiding diety. This pit was named after 
Ghosa, who was a king of solar dynasty. 6 

Giri Nrsimha:The temple of the God known as Girinrsimha 
is situated to the east of the temple of Dehali Vinayaka In VarSnasl. 

Gokarnesahrada : This is a reservoir in VarajpasT. The 
phallus of Lord 6iva called Atrlwara 7 is situated on the western 
bank of this shrine. Dr. Kane 8 refers to one Gokaroahrada but 
as regards the question of its location he remains silent. 

Gckarnesalinga : The great phallus of GokaroeiJa 9 j s located 
to the west of Antargeha in Varan asT. 



la tlrtha ; In the course of furnishing the description of 
the temples dedicated to the different forms of Visnu the Skanda 
Parana" has stated that there are five hundred terr.ples of 
Nsrayana, one hundred temples of Jala/ayT, thirty temples of 
tortoise (Kamatfiarupa), twenty temples offish, one hundred and 
eight temples of Gopala, one thousand temples of Buddha, thirty 
tsmpbs of Parashar&ma and one hundred and one temples of Rama 
ro V&ranasl. 



1. >Ud 8,67-69. 2- Gcog. Die. P. 65. 

3. Hist. DhB. IV. P, 753. 4. Sk.Vai.Ayo. 7.108-109. 

5. ibtd7J13andl38. 6 . S k. Ka. 81.101. 

!' *W 15 8. Hist Dhs, TV. p. 754. 

t. Sk.Ka.5SSl. 



JAN., 1973] HOLY PLACES OF NORTH INDIA. 115 

Gopratnra tlrtha : This is a place of pilgrimage situated at 
the confluence of Sara} ft and GhargharS in Ayodhya. The temple 
of the God known as Gupta Hari stands there. 1 N. L. Dey'"' 
identifies it with Guptara a place of pilgrimage on the bank of 
the Sarayu at Fyzabad in Audh, where Rsmcandra is said to have 
cast aside his mortal body and left for celestial regions. Dr. Kane 1 
also refers to it in the same way as alluded to above. 

Guptahari : According to the Sk. P. this is holy land in 
Ayodhya 4 Its importance from religious point of view has been 
repeatedly emphasised. The performance of sacrifice and other 
religious rites and ceremonies in this particular placn yeild 
immense spiritual merit. N. L. fi Dey identifies it with Gonrat'ira 
as referred lo above. 

Hamsatlrtha : It is a reservoir in VaranasI 6 . It is situated 
near the KrttivSsa tTrtha This tirtha remains surrounds .1 by 
innumerable 7 lingas Dr. Kane* also refers to one Hamsa tirtha, 
About as to its location he differs from the account given in tht> 
Skanda Purana. 

Hanumat Kunda : This is a shrine situated to the vvrst of 
Sugrlva Kunda and to the east of VibhTsana 9 Kupda in AyodhyS. 
An immersion in and offering of gifts at this holy place bung 
about the fulfilment of all the cherished desires of life. 

Harasiddhi : The temple of Harasiddhi 10 is located to the 
east of the temple of Siddhi VinSyaka in VSrauasI. Tiveaiior.a. 
ion of this diety is productive of both mat-rial gain and spiritual 
elevation. 

Hareivara :-This is one of the sub tlrthas of V^raoast. It 
is situated in. front of the temple of HarUcandrt^'vara. 11 

Harikesa Vana :-This is a place of pilgrimage" within the 
jurisdiction ofVaranasT. The tample of the phaHus kno^n as 
Angirase^vara stands therein as an expression of divine 



j. Sk.Vai. Ayo.672. * <**' *' P 

3. Hist. DhB.IV p. "754. * ^ ** 

5. Sk.Ka. 68.65. 6 ' SK 

8 Hift- 

7. ibid 6.865. " 

9. SK.V.i.Ayo.8.,7.,8. 

11. SK. Ka. 69.80. ] 



116 g^nirJT pURXiiiA. [VOL. xV. NO, 1 



Hari K^etra : Immediately after the mention of the holy 
place, Kuruksetra 1 , the name of Hariksetra has been referred 
in the Vaisrjava khanda of the Sk. P. According to this 
Purana it is said that devotee who gets a glimpse of the image 
of Hari, and takes a holy dip in the water erninanating fiom 
His feet (ie. the Ganges) becomes purged of all sins. This is 
the residence of the sages and birds. Fruits and roots are found 
here, A -controlled wind blows over the jurisdiction of this 
Ksetra. Though the location of this place is not obvious in the 
Sk. P. I propose to identify it with Badarikairama^. Because 
the temple of Nara-Narayaya, in Badarikairama, was built on 
the west bank of AlakanandA near the source of the Vhjju 
Ganga (Alakananda). Thi-? Hariksetra is equistant from the two 
holy mountains called Nara and Narayaaa. It is corroborated 
by the testimony of the Sk. P. N. L. Dey 3 refers to one Harikselra 
which he identifies with Harikantam sellar on the river Pennar, 
This place of pilgrimage was visited by Caitanya. 

Hariicandra VirJiyaka : According to the Sk. P. 4 this is one 
of the sub tirtha of VarSnasI. This image of Lord Geneva known 
as Hariicandra Vinayaka was installed by the celebrated 
PaurS^ic king Hariicandra himself 

Hastinnpura : It is same as Hastinfipur. The Sk. P. 15 has 
narrated that the king Parlksita., the son of Abhimanyu ruled 
over the earth residing in HastinSpura In other words Hastina- 
pura was the capital of the king Pariksita one of the descendants 
of the PSndavas, It was completely engulfed by the deluge of 
the Ganges. However, it was located twenty two miles north 
east of Merrut district of United Provices.and south west of 
Bijnaur on the right bank of the Ganges 13 . It is said to have 

been founded by the king HasH on the bank of the Bhaglrathl 7 , 

Even according to the MahabhSrata 8 it bears the designation 

Hastioapura, 

HaslipHletvara : This is the temple of the Phallus of Lord 

iva known as Hastipale^vara. It is situated to the south of Ugra 



1. SK.- Vat B. M. 1.38,41, 2. Geog. Die. p. 15. 

3. ibidp, H, 4. SK. Ka. 57.124-125. 

5. SK-. AJai. Veo, 11.6. 6. Geog. Die. p. 74. 

7, B, C- Law., p. 81. 8, Hiat. Dhs. IV- 



JAN.; 1973] HOLY PLAGES OF NORTti INDIA U; 

kuflda of Varanasl. 1 The worship of this god bestows the fruit 
which is normally obtained by making a gift of an elephant. 
Dr. Kane 2 has referred to this tirtha and has located it at 
Varapasi. But he has not adduced any ground to support his 
finding. 

Hatakc^altnga:-This, is one of the phalli of Lord Siva in 
VarSnasT. The phallus is associated with the Goddess known as 
Bhogavatl 3 . 

Hayagriva ttrtha .--This is a reservoir (pit) located opposite 
to the ^ankhamadhava 4 tirtha in Varapasi. There stands the 
image of the God known as Hayagrlva Keaava on the bank of this 
reservoir. This is a very auspicious place fit for oftering Piodas 
to the departed ancestors. 

Hayagrlvesvara : This is a place of pilgrimage in VSranasI. 6 
It is situated to the north of Lolarka tirtha. 

Hemakuta : According to the Sk. P. the three mountain 
namely Nisadha, Hemkuta and Himavan are situated to the south 
ofMeru. These three mountains 6 serve as the demarcation line 
of the earth. Hemakuta has been identified with KailSsa 
mountain by the modern researchers like Dr. Kane 8 , Dey and 
others. 

Hemakuta Sthana. : While describing the several Kgetras 
found in India, the Sk P." has made specific mention of it. But 
its location is wrapt in mystery. The Sk. P. appears to have 
identified it with the Hemakuta mountain. One who practises 
penance here becomes immune from the fear of re-birth. 1 

Heramba Vinlyaka :-~This is one of the temples of Gaoek 
inVaranast. 11 It is situated to the south east of Muotfa VmSyaka. 
It fulfills all the desires of the inhabitants of VaranasL 

Himalaya : According to the Sk-P. !S the host of Gods headed 
by Brhaspati went to the Himalayas in order to devise way* and 



1. SK. Ka. 97.1 U 133. * Hist. Dh,. IV. p- 756. 

3. Sk. Ka. 69. 149. * IMd S9. . 

5. ibid 70 80. 6. Sfc.Bfa.to.tMM* 

7. Hist. Dh 8 . IV. p. 756. * <** &*' 

9. Sk. MatA.C.M.U.2.61. *' **' 

11. Sk.Ka.V. 57.84. '* Sk. M* to 



118 JTrcp^-PURSlsJA. [VOL. XV. NO. 



means for destroying the demon Taraka. They sought the 
cooperation of the Lord of the mountains In the matter of achiev- 
ing their objects. Besides, they requested him to offer shelter to 
the ascetics. In this way the importance of the Himalayas has 
been high-lighted by the Sk, P. This Parana 1 holds that there are 
several rivers that have issued from the Himalayas : their names 
have been enumerated in the following order : (a) Gangs, (b) 
Yamuna, (c) SarasvatI, (d) DrsadvatI, (e) GomatI, (f , Tapi, (g) 
KaverioT, (h) Narmada, (ij S"irmada, (j)Godavarl, (k) Satadru, 
(I) Vindhya, (m) PayosnJ, (n) Varada, (o) Carmapvati, (p) arayu, 
(q) Gaodaki, (r) Candapapaha, (s) Candrabhaga, 't)Vipa&aid 
(u) 6ona. One who takes b^th in these rive s becomes liberated 
from sins and finds access to the heaven. In the Sk. P. s the 
Himalayas have been exalted to the rank of divinity. Even the 
members of the trinity approach them for succour during the 
period of emergency. It finds mention in the Vedic literature 
also. The Himalayan range extends from Assam to the Punjab s 
that is to say, it stretches from east to wesf, guarding the northern 
border of India. N. L. Dey s has given a very brief description 
of it. 

Himavftn : Same as Himalaya (q. v,). 

Is&natlrtha: This is one of the reservoir situated in VarSrias!. 1 
A pilgrim has been exhorted to take bath in it and offer tarpana 
to Gods, sages, and ancestors It has been stated that Monday 
is singularly auspicious for the purpose alluded to above. On the 
bank of this reservoir stands the temple of the Phallus that bears 
the name of Srllinga,' 1 According to the Sk. P. it is reputed at 
the neighbourhood of Bhavanl tirtha. There is a Phallus of Lord 
Siva carrying identical name (i.e. Isana). Dr. Kane 7 refers to a 
phallus called Kana linga at VaranasT. He has not, however, 
referred to the Sk. PurSna. 



: The divinity called IsSnesvara is said to have 
comeKedgra. The temple of the God is situated to the west of 
Pra&lSda Ke&wa. 8 



1. St.Pra.V.Kse. M 1.36-39. 2. Sk. Ma. KedSra Khandka. 

Dk p. 75. 4 . sk.Ka.33.4W3. " 

6 Ibid 61 139 , , 
Dha. IV p. 758 8< Sk. K a. 69.93-94, 



JAI*., 1973] HOLY PLACES OF NORTH INDIA 119 

Jalglsavyesvara : This is one of the SubtTrthas in VaranasT. 1 
It has been authoritatively laid down that its majesty should not 
be revealed to a heretic who fosters ill-will in his mind. An 
individual who has fallen a victijn to the incubons of the Kali-age 
should be treated as unworthey of getting an access to its shrine. 
The Lii'iga Puraoa 2 also has lent countenance to this prohibitory 
utterance, 

JanmasthZna: This is the place of pilgrimage 3 situated at 
Ayodhya, It is the birthplace of R.ama and as such is held in 
deep reverence by his devotees. The Skanda Purana states that 
this holy place is situated to the east of Vighneavara, to the 
north of Vasistha-tirtha and to the west of Laumas'a Hrtha. A 
mere visit to this place brings about cessation of rebirth. It 
dispenses with the necessity of bestowal of any gift, performance 
of any sacrifice, and observance of austerities for the achieve- 
ment of the objectives of human life 

Jalalinga : This is the phallus standing in the middle of 
the Ganges*. It is more auspicious than the others existing on 
the surface of the earth. It is made of different varieties of metals. 
Jat&kunda : This is a reservoir situated to the west of 
Bharata'Kun'da 6 in Nandigrama in Ayodhya. It was in this 
sacred place that Rama and others removed their matted hair. 
The images of Rama with Slta and Laksamana are worshipped 
here. A pilgrimage to this place is to be undertaken on the 
14th day of the first half of the month of Gaitra. Dr. Kane 
refers to one Jatakunda and has located it in Sanandura. He 
has again assigned its site to the south of mount Malaya and to 
the north of the Sea. Evidently this account is at variance with 
that of the Skanda PurEoa. 

Jayanteivara :-This is one of the Phalli of Lord Siva in 
VarSnasi. 7 It is situated on the bank of the Ganges. 

Jatldeva :-The deity called Jatldeva* is said to have come 
from Ra'meWa. It is situated to the north of Ekadanta Hrtha 
in VSr&oasI. 

1. Ibid 63 a5. 2. HiBt Dhs.IV p. 758. 

3, SK-Vai.Ayo 18-20 4. SK- Ka. 69 101-193, 

5. SK. Vai.A^o 9.5%57. 6. HiBt. Dhs. IV- p. 759. 

7. SK.Ka. 69.72. & 5k, Ka. 69.78 



120 yp*n PURXtfA [VOL. xv. NO, i 

Jfianoda tlrtha or Jnana Vspl : This is a sacred well 
situated in Varapasl. 1 It is one of the most important tirthas. 1 
of that place. According to the Skanda Purana it is said that 
when &iva saw the phallus of VisVebvara he wished to take bath 
with its cool water. Consequently he dug a pit (Kunda) with his 
trident to the south of the temple of Vi^veb'vara. He ultimately 
poured down its water on the Vibveivara Liuga. The diety 
granted him two distinct boons. By virtue of one of them this 
particular tlrtha became superior to all the tirthas to be found on 
the surface of the earth. And by virtue of another this holy 
place came to be known as JnSnoda or Jn'navapi. Obviously it 
has association with the. idea of iva as knowledge incarnate. 

Jyestha VmUyaka i The temple of Ganea known as Jye?ta- 
vin&yaka is situated to the south east of Gintamaoi Vinayata in 
Yar&oasl. It is to be worshipped on the 14th day of the second 
half of Jyestha. (To be continued) 



1. ibid 33.1- 

2. ibid chapter S3. 



[In the Bhagavata-PurSna III. 26. 19ff, we get a 
exposition, of the SEnkhya-Philosophy mixed with the 
concept of Caturvyuha, well-known in the Paficaratra- 
system. In the Sankhya-Philosophy, there it hardly 
any scope for bhakti (devotion). But this passage from 
the BhagavatapurSna introduces bhakti in the Sankhya- 
System with the help of Pancaratra. This mixture 
might have been done with the view of popularising 
the S&nkhya-System with the help of Paficaratra which 
is very popular particularly in South India.] 



: I ^ RcT ^^Tt sqTs ^TPT 



l 

(n^ 



16 



122 



SWH; PURSJilA [VOL. XV. NO. 1 



I TT ^T*renRTT cfFR ^R: *^ I 

) srrfer^: ( = sNnf^F: ) ^ ) ^srfr: ( = a^rcr: 



) i 



3TRTSPTT 



SRTf, 

5rer^rf?r (^-3 ) 
( ^ ? ) 



5r?n?ft STT^ i 



JAN, 1973] qiercmttr gfom 123 

srmm i OTT?T fcrei^PRRT sr^ro ^% : 

<pT I qt TO%5: spr Coffer: I OT <n3 



1 sraror ( = ^^r? = TT^T^R sra^Rra 1 ) 

s ^\ > ^>^' 



: TOT: " 



*r 



TWO LEGENDS FROM THE SKANTDA PUR&^A 
. A STUDY* 

BY 

R. N. MEHTA AND S. G, KANTAWALA 



: 3'TT: 
'rtfR'R 
^sraf ^c^r sTOfasErwzftfSnrfr!) 1 fearer 



Introduction 

The doctrine of transmigration is "one of the most funda- 
mental doctrines of Indian system of religion and philosophy." 1 
Its acceptance leads to a corrolary in the transmutation of the 
external morphs of the transmigrating souls. To illustrate and 
emphasize the magnitude of this doctrine numerous legends are 
recorded in Indian literature. This motif of metempsychosis is 
common enough in folk-tales. This motif is also utilised in classi- 
cal Sanskrit works, e g. Bana's Kadambarl, wherein the heroes 
and not the heroines undergo three rebirths each. * This doctrine 
has an interesting development into the depiction of a being with 
both the anthropomorphic and theriomorphic characteristics. 
The outstanding instances of such a composite character are 
Ganapati, Nrslmha, Nara-Varaha, Daksa etc. An inquiry into 
the origin of such forms and their appraisal e.g. of Gane^a, Daka 
fc. lead one to infer that the idea of transplantation of organs of 

* Tbc authors arc grateful to the University Grants Commission for 
the assistance they have received for the study of the Prabhaaa- 
khai^a. This pape: ia an outcome of the study of the Prabhasa- 
khan4a which ia undertaken under the auspices, of the project. 

1. Kane P. V , History O f Dharmasastra, Vol. V, Part II, p. 1 530. 

2. KWDgptS. N.andDc S. K., A History of Sanskrit Literature, 
Uwsucal Period, Vol. I, p . 232. f n . 1. For a study of these motifs as 
Utsrry devices rfi Gray L. H. W%KM XVIII, (1904), pp. 53-54. 



JAN., 1973] TWO LEGENDS FROM THE SKANDA PURfi^A 125 

two different beings was accepted as a common phenomenon in 
Indian mythology. But with reference to the form of Nara-varaha 
it may be said that it seems to develop as a consequence of the 
acceptance of the idea that forms of different beings can 
co-exist in one place; but the study under consideration seems to 
suggest that a different set of principles was operative also in the 
development of composite characters. The SP "is the.most extensive 
ofPuranas arid poses perplexing problems" 1 . It is found in two 
forms : (1) Khanda and (2) Samhitn. Its seven khandas are : 
(1) Mahesvara, (2) Vaisnava, (3) Brahma, (4) Kali, (5) Avantya, 
(6) Nagara and (7) Prabhasa. The Sarahitas are six : (1) Sanat- 
kumara, (2) Sfita, (3) &ankari, (4) Vaisnavl, (5) Brahml and 
(6) Saura.* 

In the present paper it is proposed to study two legends in 
which the main characters have therio-anthropomorphic features. 
One of them occurs in the KK, a part of the MK of the SP and 
the other one occurs in the VM of the PK of the SP 3 . 

Summary of the legends 

The legends from the KK and the VM are summarised as 
follows : 

KK : Chapter XXXIX 

Bharata had a son, SatasViga by name, who had a goat- 
faced daughter. The Puraaa tries to explain why she came to 
have a goat* face. 

In the region near the meeting of the Mahl river with the 
Gulf of Garabay there came once a herd of goats. One of them 
Btrayed away and got entangled into a thicket and it could not 
disentangle from it and ultimately it died of hunger and thirst 
With the passage of time the carcass disintegrated and parts 01 
its trunk were washed away, but its head remained dangling 
the thicket. 

1. Kane P. V., op. cit, p. 911. p ttr a*e-Vi*ri* 



ia the Nagarakha^a. (Op. Cit., p. 157). 
3 List of Abbreviations : 

' 



varaJ 
> Venkatcshvara ress edit* 



126 ^rm^ PURS^A fvoL. xV. NO. 1 



On account of the supernatural power of the holy place she 
was born as a beautiful daughter of the king Sata^rriga, the king 
of Simhala with the human body and the face of a she-goat. All 
were struck with wonder and sorrow at the unusual physical 
appearance of the royal daughter. With the passing of time she 
attained her youth and once she happened to look into a mirror 
and thereupon she remembered her previous birth, She consoled 
her grieved parents and narrated her birth. She requested them 
to go where her body in her former birth had perished. After 
making liberal gifts she embarked on a voyage to StambhatTrtha 
(modern Gambay). On earning there, after search, she found her 
own head there. She collected the bones, skin, etc. and burnt 
them there and then she threw the bones into the confluence of 
the river Mahl and the Gulf of Cambay. On account of the 
supernatural power of the holy place her face became moon-like 
and she came to have an excellent beautiful form. She practised 
severe penance there and at the end of one year Lord Isiva was 
pleased to grant her a boon. She begged Lord 6iva to reside 
there and Lord Ssiva, Barkaresvara by name, was consecrated 
where the h*ad of the she-goat was burnt. 
VM : Chapters VI & VII 

Near the Raivataka mountain is situated a holy place known 
as Mrglkunda which is to the west of the temple of BhavanStha. 

The following legend is given to explain the name of this 
tlrlhas : 

There was a righteous king Bhoja by name, in Kanyakubja 
(6-20). Once he went to a forest, where a forest-ranger happened 
to tell him that in the forest there lived a woman with the deer's 
face and moved in the herd of deer. 1 The king instituted a search 
for her and at last he happened to trace her and brought her to 
K&ftyakubja, She was received very warmly in the royal palace. 
The king asked her, once, in privacy what her name was and why 
shfl was reduced to such a strange form, but she replied nothing. 
Then he called for the ministers, astrologers and the best of the 
BraikOuns and asked them how she could utter the human speech 
with a human face There-upon the Brahmins told him that in 
Kurui$etra there lived the best of Brahmins, Sarasvata, by name,, 
^Qj^ctaed penance on the bank of the SarasvatI and also that 

I. Not* that sh<j is eallcd a narl in 6,23 and a. Vafa in 6.2*. 



JAN., 1973] TWO LEGENDS FROM THE SKANDA PURSfvlA 127 



being ordered by him she would tell everything. Accordingly the 
king approached Sarasvata who told him that she would tell him 
everything. That Brahmin came there and she bowed down to him 
and swooned. With due ritual she was brought back to conscious- 
ness and she narrated the past history of her seven births. The 
seven births are as follows : ^i) The king Bhoja is said to be the 
son of the lung of Kaliiiga in his previous seventh birth and the 
Mfgl (the doe) was the daughter of the king of Vanga. Both were 
married and she became the crown queen, (ii) Then both were born 
as Brahmins and she became his housewife, (iii) He was born as a 
svetasarpa and she was born as the daughter of a Brahmin and was 
married at the age of eight. The very svetasarpa bit her husband 
who, thereupon^ died. The svetasarpa was also killed then. 
(iv) He was born as a makara in the river Godavari at Bhimesvara 
and the above-mentioned widow was killed by the above- 
mentioned makara. She was consigned to fire and then immersed 
in water, (v) Later on he was born as a lubdhaka and she was 
born as a krauncl. The impassioned kraunca was killed by the 
lubdhaka during their dalliance. He was, therefore, cursed by a 
r$i. (vi) Later on, the lubdhaka was born as a siniha and she was 
born as a mjgT. who was killed by the very Hon. (vii) Later on 
he was born as the king Bhoja and she was born as a woman with 
the deer's face as the young one of a deer. 

The chapter VII tells us that once a doe happened to drink 
up the semen of the sage Uddalaka and this led to her such a 
birth. En passant she also said that she had burnt herself with 
the king, . . she had become a suttee. She, further, informed 
the king that if anyone let loose a head in the river Suvarnarekhn 
in VastrSpatha, she would assume a human form. When done 
accordingly, she was transformed into an exquisite beauty and 
the king Bhoja married her and she came to be renowned as 
mrgamukhl (7.32). 
Analysis 

The following points emerge from a comparative study of 

the above two legends : m ~t P mnsvchosis 

1. Both the legends accept the doctnne of metempsychoses 

as a basic point in their narration. 

2. Both the legends point out that the tailing 

of the corpse of the character concerned results mto a burth 
with a human body. 



128 3OTJ3C. PURStfA [VOL. XV. NO. 1 



3. In this cycle of rebirth the persistence of a theriomor- 
phic head is a result of the non-falling of the head of the character 
concerned in the holy waters of a tlrtha. 

4. The complete human from is gained by visiting the 
same tlrtha again and by immersing the remnants of the head 
of the character concerned in the tlrtha. 

These points of similarities indicate that the major frame- 
work of the two legends is similar in spite of the fact that the 
narrative in the VM is longer than the one in the KM- Hence 
it seems that they develop from a common ideological back- 
ground. But there are also points of dissimilarity which are 
significant to note : 

1. The KK mentions a group of goats, whereas the VM 
talks about a herd of doe. 

2. In the KK a grove of jS.ll (Guj-plladl] and other creepers 
are responsible for the death of the goat, whereas in the VM 
the bamboo thicket is the cause of the death of the doe. 

3. The KK brings the princess from Simhala via sea to 
Stambhatlrtha, whereas the sea does not figure in the VM. 

4. The KK talks of only one birth, whereas the VM talks 
of seven births. 

5. In both the legends the motif which leads to the kindl- 
ing of the memory of the past birth is different. The K.K. 
utilises the theme of reflection in a mirror, ' whereas the VM 
relies on the tantric powers of Sarasvata. 

6. In the KK the kumnrl does not marry, whereas the 
doe-faced woman marries the king after getting the human head. 

7. The tlrthas in both the legends are naturally different. 
The KK talks of the MahisHgarasatigama, whereas the VM 
talks of the Suvarnarekha river. 

Legend in the Jaina Work 

Legends with similar motifs are also found in the non-Brah- 
miaical literature also. It would be interesting to compare a 
similar legend from the Laghuprabandha sangraha which is a Jain 



J. ThatwJ.P. (Ed), Laghuprabandhasaagraha, p, 91. 



JAN., 1973] TWO LEGENDS FROM THE SKANDA PURStfA 129 

A goddess ^rlmats by name was the daughter of the king 
Srtpuflja, She was a monkey-faced woman. Once the children 
were singing the songs of Arbuda and thereupon she remembered 
her previons birth and told that on Arbuda there was a place 
called. K.5yakuijda where she was a she-monkey. Once on seeing a 
viper there, she jumped and got entangled in a bamboo-grove 
and died. Her body fell in the kunda and consequently it got 
the human form. But on the other side, her head was hanging 
in the bamboo grove. The king saw it and threw it in the 
kunda. And thereupon she came to gain a human head. She 
did not marry and performed penance on the mountain After 
her death she became the presiding goddess of the mountain 
near Rasivo-Valam. 

Discussion and Interpretation 

From the above analysis of the two legends the most obvious 
and the important point that emerges is the belief in metem- 
psychosis which is the corner-stone of the growth of extremely 
fascinating legends. They are used principally to eulogize the 
power and sanctity of a local tlrthal while doing this, many 
diverse elements seem to enter into the make-up of the details 
of the legends and they develop further significant local features 
during the course of the development of the legend. 

The legend in the KK relies on the local flora, migrating 
fauna and the local geographical features Around Starnbhattrtha 
migrating herds of cattle, sheep and goat are almost an annual 
phenomenon. After the rains the people from Saurashtra and 
Kutch begin to migrate towards Gujarat and Malwa in search 
of pasture lands for their cattle and animals. They return to their 
home-villages after the summer. In these annual migrations the 
track around this place is used. The straying animals are also 
the well-known features in this region of Stambhatlrtha. Heac* 
the motif of the goat is an outcome of the local peculuritw of 
this site. 

Cambay is a well-known medieval port. It to 
flooring ftL at iea,, 7.1.8* century A. 
activity of this r, g ion can be .raced back ,0 



activity and the continuous contact 
17 



130 S*nra; PURX^A [VOL. XV. NO. 1 

in the south the author of the KK. probably residing in this region 
would look naturally towards the Gulf of Gambay for some 
immigration in this region and therefore the goat-faced girl is 
brought to Gambay from Siinhala by the sea-route. The legend 
sings the praise of the Mahlsagarasangama and Lord siva. The 
latter trait indicates the ^aivite leaning of the author who 
glorifies also the confluence of the Mahj with the Gulf of Gatnbay, 
because the confluent site is believed to be very holy. He notes 
further that the goat-faced girl got rennovated many old temples. 
This significantly points to the fact that the wealth necessary for 
rennovation poured from immigrants through the sea-route and 
this has a direct indication to the flourishing sea-borne trade of 
Carnbay. 

In contrast to the KK the VM gives an elaborate legend of 
seven birth$ woven together. This motif of the relationship of 
two individuals through a series of births is a well-known, one 
in Indian literature and the author of the VM draws inspiration 
from this well-known motif for the legend in the VM. The event 
of the death of the deer by the attack of the lion indicates a 
well-known usual phenomenon in the Gir forests. The Gir is 
the lions' sanctury even today. Lions were and are found around 
Girnar and their natural food includes the deer also. A few 
varieties of deer were seen in this region and hence one will 
not be far wrong in concluding that the author of the VM 
utilises and weaves the local experience and happening in the 
narration of the legend. In this region bamboo-groves were 
well-known It may be mentioned that some of the strong solid 
bamboo is also collected from the Gir forests. The dangling 
of the head of the deer on a bamboo as given in the VM has 
pfa background of a common local phenomenon. The scene 
laid near the Myglkunda and the SuvarnarekhS river. Both 
T d* are near the Raivataka ,'. ,. Girnar. The Mrglkuoda 
pombly the small kunja near the temple of BhavanStha and 
P - y T PP rted b y thetext ' The river Suvaroarekhs is 
IT WMCh the fam US Syrians lake built by 
Maurya (324 BC- 300BC) and renvovated by the 
Rudradamau in c . 150/151 A. D. as well as by 



JAN., 1973] TWO LEGENDS FROM THE SKANDA PURAJsIA 13 1 

epigraphic record by Rudradaman the river is noted as Suvar- 
nasilcata. The second member of the vocable "Suvarnasikaia, 
in the epigraphic record is replaced by-rekkv. in the Puraga. 
This Suvarnarekha is identified with ^onrekh by Bhagavanlal 
Indraji. 1 

Locally the rivulet is known as Sonrekh even today. The vocable 
sonarekha is derivable from the vocable suvarnarekhz "and this 
indicates a local tradition of some longivity. If epigraphic 
reference preserves correctly one tradition, one can surmise that 
the other tradition was either consequent to or subsequent to the 
ephigraphical record. The Girnar and the location of the whole 
story are away from the sea and therefore naturally the sea is 
conspicuous by its absence in the legend in the VM. 

The mrgl discloses the knowledge of the previous births due 
to the intervention of a Sarasvata. This term i.e. stirasvata might 
refer to a tZntrika or it might refer to a Brahmin from the 
Sarasvata caste. Irrespective of the possible two interpretations 
of the word sftrasvala as mentioned above, one fact that emerges 
from the situation of the incident in the legend is a belief in the 
tnnlrika powers which would make an animal speak in human 
tongue, even though the human speech by animate and inanimate 
objects is a wide-spread motif in Indian literature. Here the 
motif is used to emphasise the power of a Sarasvata. Thus the 
legend from the VM betrays local colour which is distinct from 
that of the KK. Moreover, the semi-historical points in this 
legend are not bereft of interest. 

From the Indian view-point the first birth story which 
narrates the marriage of a prince from Vaftga and the pnncew 
from Kalinga seems to fall on the ancient traditions .which were 
accepted by the Mahavamia and the Dlpavanaba in Ceylon. But 
the other legends will require further work. But in this work the 
girl is killed all the time by her husband, when both were born 
fn different species. Probably this motif is introduced her* to 
signify the ideals of chastity and fidelity of a woman. 

1. Historical Inscription of Gujarat, Part I. dM *** <* 
2 Mehta R N-, Vijayant katKi 



132 S<W-FUHAyA {VOL. XV. No I 

At least the memory nf Bhoj.'i i K.iu.tu ; Hi AD .-SHO vn> 
seems to reflect the tvi\>n of Bhnj,, tfc 7th ; .jj * su {[, j, r ' 
dynasty ruling from K;umuj, He was rh> *>..-,! jtrnvfjiiil 
having the titles of ndivaFA/itt, mihit>i t ,-uul /"S*Wbir,j,i TI 
title { prabh?Lsa t associ;ites very well vvhh *j|. s ,, ,- ,,j' js, ( , ,, 
s. PrabhSsakh.'Uj^H. This i,iK-* ,!?. - ,vi,v { ; tl ,, ' 



, ,, . i- t- 1 . 

whether he was ahv<- for snrh ;t IORS- tuc-nliii t;.ii, . 
. . .... ' "*"nii 

it is sheer acciden*-. dujarai and Snin : ,r;,i u,,- it, i j 

i , ^ " '"sidor 

zones between the Pnuthlrai nf K i: IKSM; ,tJ ft.-uir.jkut is r 
Manyakhetti (8th to 10th rtmniry ,\S,h 1 ,,s .j*?y i},,- V,liti,^ S "r 
BhojaofDhar with his prat<m,igf tn i ,u,; t! .- \ t .'i ht } llt -uT 

. U.Ut,' l)t;(;[| 

mixed up also m the txtm<* ff ilii-* l.-- ..*! Jf,f pr.,, 
protecting forests by th forest r,iHi-r, h ,U 1 ,, MttSy *J,| 
Thus the whole logtmd is a mixture f J., ,,f , n v | ( . lt 
elements. ' 



The study of both the J^gi-nds in-Ji, UM i, k , t 
Indie legends were taken up by vvrit*"t* .} tliffn,.,, 
explain some local phenoniciu. Whii- ,!,.; , ,,,, , 
colour was given to the broad uttii*i irm .,,uli,,.., ,, Ilr j < hu , j, K 
ted the pattern of unity in tiivmiiy it* ih, M{? f af ,,," 
of India. -'tn 



The legend of SrtniSta frmn tl,,. /^ t!l/ , , 

easier is also interesting in ihJi turiniH'tJM,,. J f , tl ,!i,, IJt . s , ,, 
Jams also seem to fallow Uu- same jnvuJkv ^ ,j,,. |. W| ,- ty |kftf ,', 4ftd 
impart the local and sectarian u,J,m , rftf , 1|tl ttl - u ;,.; , ad 
moufs and legends. These Hfurts by v^rim,, , lM)<It u , lh) . ,' m| . , 
socaety appear to have been ndek,.,, li ^u 
pan-Indic interests as well 8S thdr cr,el,,.i,, Hi | WW ,. 
they may be, to local conditions, 



, . -, 

of the Skandapura oa , IHiarm-ira^yamrta and 

to poim tohe similar 



were given local colours, Th,.,< Hliirl* sewn fo 
forge an element of Unity in divmity i, l lldiiMJ , 



VEDIC &KHAS 

BY 
GANGA SAGAR RAT 



*irf: 

TT^IfJrTT: 
sps siTcf: 



I ] 

According to the PurSijas and other literary records origi- 
nally there was only one Veda 1 and later en it developed into 
many branches which were called as SikhaS For the sake of 
convenience in learning and performance of sacrifices this one 
original Veda a was arranged into four Vedas. Though the Vedic 
6akh5s originated first from the original Vedic Sarohitis, but later 
on other Vedic literature (such as Brahmayas, SQtras, etc.} aho 
caused the beginning of a new ^atha. For the word SftkhS otber 
equivalents are Garana and Bheda. 

The word akha stands for various sacred tradition! 
preserved in different families of the priests. Sakha* orig.nated 
from the original Vedas. Primarily the word S*kbf d-ao*! 
certain group of literary documents which farmed the subject * 
study. That is why we frequently meet with the m 
madhlt e) (he reads the Sakha). In this light it my to ** that 



cf. 





Matsya 143,10 ab etc; 

bhSgya; Bhatta 6hag ^ ^_ 

2. This traditional view is di86 ' rDfcd J^ H *!!l *,'tUi **M* 
Ancient Sanskrit Literature, p. * 
independent. 



t34 JftlnrH PURAlsIA. [VOL, XV. NO. 1 

within the 6akh5 the SaihhitS and allied literature was admitted 1 . 
Mahadeva, a commentator of Hiranyakes"in's Grhya Sutra, says 
that 6akha means a part of SvUdhycijia comprising of Mantras 
and Br&hmnas* . 

Besides the Sarhhitas, BrahmanaSj Aranyakas and Upanisads, 
the SakljS also includes within itself the Kalpasutras, . which 
were regarded as Vedangas, In this connection the commentator 
Mahsdeva says that as Veda means Sondhyaya along with the 
Ahgas t a Sakha may include Ahgas and as such becomes different 
from another Sakha owing to the difference in Angas s . 

Here Mahadeva pleads that Ahgas are to be included in 
the fold ofVedas as well as of the SakhSs. But contrary to his 
view Angas are not included in the Vedas. Whatever may be 
the argument it is certain that the Sutras were included in the 
akbas. 

From the evidence of PurSnas it is clear that the S"akh5s 
are the result of gradual development in the Vedic tradition. 
The Sarhhitas are the original literature and the Brahmanas, 
Aryanyakas and Upanisads are the later production Earlier the 
school of the Vedas contained the Vedic SamhitSs, but with the 
lapse of time the priests in Vedic schools also developed various 
treatises on the performance of sacrifices (the Brahmanas and 
Sutras) and the speculative thought on the ultimate reality 
(Upaniads). 

Besides the words khS 5 Caraga and Bheda, Puranas also 
refer to the name Anu^akha 4 . This shows that some S"akhas 
are developed from other Sakhas. These subsequent 6akhas 
are termed as Anu'akhSs or Upa&khSs. This is the view of 

Srldhara on the passage of Vis.nu PurSna. 5 
1. Mas MUller, op. cit, p, 64. 

S. franfo^ft T^ff^rareitit SrTtcg^ I Mahadeva on 
HiranyakesI stitra...,.., 



I KumSrila does not accept Kalpae^utraa among 
and clearly rema rka jf 5CT ' 



Vf ? nu P. III. 4.25 ab 
Srfdhara. 



VEDIC 



In short the word Sakha denotes the sacred Vedic traditions 
which were learnt and taught among the followers of a certain 
tradition. In this connection Max Muller observes ; Literary 
works, such as the akha s were, have assumed with us a much 
more tangible shape. They exist as a book and not merely 
as a body of thought handed down in schools or in families. To 
read a akha means not only to go over it but to take possession 
of it, to gaurd it into memory and to enable others to read it by 
repeating it to others". 1 Here, it is to be noted that there were 
no written texts at that time, so the sacred traditions were kept 
alive among the followers through oral transmission. And in 
this way the followers and the tradition or literary works were 
inseparable. This is the reason why the various names such as 
Sakha, Caraija, Bheda and Anu^akh^ were confused together. 



Carana : This -word is popularly used for Sakha But it a 
to be noted that originally this word was used in a different sense. 
Jagaddhara, the commentator of the Malatlmfidhava drama of 
Bhavabhuti. says that 'Carana means a group of persons who have 
pledged to the reading of a certain akha and have in this manner 
become one body. a This definition of 'Garaija" forwarded by 
Jagaddhara is ancient one and Jagaddhara has only adhered to 
it. Kasjiks also mentions that Carana means those persons who 
are related due to their adherence to one 6akhS s . Vftrtika also 
says that Caraoa means the students of &skha (Vartika on Pagini 
IV. 1.63 . It is to be noted that the Caranas were named after 
their first founders.- In this way the name of the Ssakha {sacred 
literary work), Carana and the first founder used to be one 4 . The 
other word Bheda used in the sense of skha has the simple 
meaning as division or part. This word is variously used in the 
Caranavyuhas. 



' History of Ancient 5kt Lit,, p 94. 

2- "cnuJTsrs?: OT^rfo^T?tf^it 

Jagaddhara on MalatJmddhava 



KSsikS II. 4.3 

4. For details see V. S. Agrawala, Idin As known 
B.N. Puri India in the Tims of PataBjaH, P- 
History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, p. 6*. 



136 gmtf^-PURXtfA [VL. xv. I 

Kinds of SakhSs 

It is clear that the s'akhss consist of Vedic literature. Hence, 
ihe difference in the literature will necessarily lead to the 
difference in Sskhas. Mahadeva, the commentator of Hiranyakebl 
Sfitra observes that any portion of the Svftdhyaya, consisting of 
Mantra and Brfthmana is called Sakha and any difference in either 
the Mantras or the Brnhmanas will lead in the Veda to a difference 
in subordinate Sakhas 1 . He also informs us about another clas of 
the Sakhas which was founded on the Sutras'^. In this way the 
S"skhSs may be of ihree kinds: (l)the SamhitS -jkkhas (2) theBrah- 
maija Sakhas and (3) the Sutra Sakhas : 

fl) The Sarrihita Sakhas are those which are founded 
on the Sarhhitas. These arose from the differences in 
Samhitas. The S'skala, the BSskala, the Katha etc. are the 
Samhita-S'akhas. We do not hear about the different 
Brahmanas of the akala and Baskala Sariihitas. However, it 
may be noted that peculiarities in Brahmanas and Sutras do not 
affect the origin of Sakhas from the Sarhhitas. (2) The difference 
in Brahmanas also leads to the establishment of a new skha 
or Carana. For instance, the KausTtaki and the Aitareya 
Sakhas which have no Sarhhitas of their own are separate 
Sakhas on the basis of their independent Brahmanas. Prof. 
Max Miiller sa>s that when a new ^kha was founded on the 
basis of its Brahmaijas the Samhita too was slightly modified 11 . 
But this argument is hardly convincing primarily because it is 
not possible to accept that Samhitas originated later than the 
Brahmanas, Moreover, various Brahmanas ar,e available which 
do not have their own Samhitas (3) There also exist various 
Sakhas which trace their origin to the KalpasQtras. Many 
branches of the Taittirlyas have neither their own Sathhitas 
nop Brahmanas but only the Sutras. Such Sakhas derive their 
origin from Sdtras and are calld Sutra-&ikh5s. The BharadvSja, 
the Apastamba and the Hiranyake:Hn are the Sutra-^akhas. 



^ I! Mahttdeva on 
Hira^yakcsl Sutra. 

2. 



ibid - 

. Max Miller,, History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, p. 98. 



VEDIC SXELSS 137 

The establishment of the SakhSs was for utilitarian purpose*. 
No sacrifice can be performed merely with the help of Samhins, so 
the BrShmanas and the Sutras were introduced to meet the 
practical needs. Kumarila observes that sacrifices can be perfor- 
med even without the help of SamhitSs but contrary to it the 
Mantras and the Brahmanas alone cannot serve the litual 
purposes. 1 However., Kumarila never gives that sanctity and 
authority to the Sutras which hangs round the Vedas*. He says 
that schools like Mas'aka and Apastamba are founded by human- 
beings and caanot be said as anndi (eternal) however long they 
may have been established.' Contrary to it, Mahldeva is ready 
to accept the eternity of the Sutra bakhas*. The number of the 
Sutra Sakhas is fairly large. 

Causes for the origin of different Sakhas 

The origin of the different &akhris was necessiatcd due to 
many reasons which may be summed up as follows : 

(i) The Veda belongs to the most remote age when people 
were unaware of writing or if they were aware they did not wiite 
for keeping their knowledge sacred and secret from others. But 
when this knowledge was turned into black and white some 
discrepancies were inevitable, for a work memorised by many 
people is bound to assume differences, (ii) Basically the Veda 
was used for utilitarian purposes, because Mantras were recited 
at the time of performance of sacrifices. The sacrificial ritt* 
differed slightly or widely from family to family and thui Ved* 



KumanU 

2 - Kumirila 

3. 



T II 



138 S*roj*-- PURSJilA [VOL. XV. NO. 1 



accordingly changed, (iii) Owing to individual peculiarities in 
vocal organs phonetic variations are unaviodable. Due to 
phonetic variations various Sakhss arose. In oral tradition no 
body can claim as to which was the most ancient and correct 
reading, (iv) Accentual differences constitute another ground 
for the establishment of new skhSs. Though in later period 
even the accents were counted but originally in hoary past no such 
consideration can be claimed, (v) The origin of Kalpastttras also 
caused the establishment of new l&akhSs. 1 

According to the Puranas the establish orient of different 
SskhSs was due to the confusion or error in knowledge. 



: 1 1 Matsya p. 143.1 1 . 

In Puranas it is stated that Brahma seeing the people (of 
Kali-age) short in age, power and mental strength directed 
Manu SvSyambhuva to divide single Veda into many : 

3 TTTf 3 



Vayu I. 61. 2, 8 

The reason given for this classification is the decay in the 
physical and mental power of human beings : 



: n 

BhSg. p. XII. 6 47 3 
and 

^f tsft ^f ^rw %$ 3fa snwrfo 1 1 vayu p. i.e i .5ab 

Extinction of Vedic Sakha's 

At present many Sakhas which are mentioned in the 
PiirSnas and other treatises dealing with the Vedic SSkhas are 

1. For elaborate diaeussion on these points see Suryakanta, IJ-ktantrann, 
Introduction, p 7-S; Bloocnfield : Religion of Veda, p. 21 ; Satyavrata 
Satnasrami, Trayi Paricaysa. 

*. ^rfdhara while commenting on this verse says : 3f?f : | 



VEDIG sXKXS 139 



not extant. Then what happened to those 6akhSs ? Are those 
lists not correct ? The lists referred to in those treatises cannot be 
regarded as wrong. Many of the akhas mentioned in the PurSnas 
disappeared in the course of time. Some jkkhSs however, 
mentioned in those treatises were extant at the time of the 
composition of the PurSnas and other texts and some were 
preserved in tradition only even at that time. Gradually many 
of the Sakha's prevalent at that time also were lost. The reasons 
behind the extinction of those &5khas may be summed up 
as follows : 

The original passages were lost due to negligence of the 
students of those Sakhas, 1 In this connection Kumarila observes 
that it cannot be said that their destruction is impossible for it 
takes place every day either by negligence or by idleness or death 
of the followers of that school. 8 He further says that even today 
books are lost and subjects are forgotten". If we consider how 
long the oral tradition which was the only means for preserving 
the Sakhas, continued in India, it is less surprising that many of 
these Sakhas should have been lost than that so many should still 
have survived. Probably due to these reasons a large number of 
the Vedic Sakhas were lost and even those available are in 
incomplete form. 

Injunctions for adherence to one's own Sakha 

Though the general rules for sacrifices and domestic rites 
were mostly common yet there were certain differences in 
different families and at the different places. In these domestic 
rites and especially in marriage rites every one was expected to 
observe his family and village customs. In the commentary of 
ParaSara's Grhya SQtra various authorities are cited who strongly 
recommend that it is wrong to give up the customs of one's own 



1. Haradatta, commenting upon 

stanta sutra Sec. 12) says 



2. 

""' r |j m 

3. 



140 gtrcnt PURSUE A [VOL. xv. NO. i 



&akha and adopt those of others.- 1 Vasis^ha says that a wise man 
should never perform the duties prescribed in other's Sakha ; if 
he does, he is traitor to his own Sakha (Sakhntanda}, In another 
law-book also it is said that who abandons his own &Skha and 
adheres to other's whether out of ignorance or greed falls and 
perishes, This is the opinion of the Chandoga Pariaista also. 
But where there is no specific prescriptions for certain rites in 
one's own family it is proper to adopt those of other's Sakhas. 3 
&svalayana Grhya sutra while narrating the general rules says 
that rules of countries (janapadas} and villages (gramas') are many- 
fold and one must know them as far as marriage is concerned. 5 * 
Here commentator of this Sutra says that if there Is contradiction 
between the rules prevalent in countries and those prescribed in 
the Grhya sutras one should follow the rules of the Grhya Sutra. 4 



3 

: TfcTcrJ' ^^ u 
3 T: 
H u 



^wrermt 



tl Asva. Sutra I. 7 

^ er 

I Com. on above 



"DID THE BHAGAVATA KNOW KALID&SA?" 

BY 
V. RAGHA.VAN 



In Parana 1 XIV. 2, pp. 137-40, Sri Sheo Shankar Prasad 
asks 'Did the Author of the BhSgavata know KalidSaa ?' and 
proceeds to show a few passages from the Parana which echo 
expressions from the poet. He cites two verses from th* 
Bhngavata bearing the impress of two verses of the Meghadm and 
adds that the sending of messages through the birds and the 
clouds to Krsna in X. 90 is also due to the influence of the same 



poem 

Scholars, including myself, have pointed out the influence 
ofKalidSsaon the PurSjjas. The BhUgamla being one of the 
late Puranas, there is no question of showing its posteriority to 
Kalidasa or its borrowing from or imitation of KslidSsa. A poet 
and exponent of Indian thought and culture of such I"f 
importance as Kalidasa should have naturally formed part of tne 
mental background of the author of the Bhtgavata. 

The writer of the above-mentioned article says 
episode of 6akuntal & as dealt with in the 



account and not the version m aS . ^ ^ *. 

naturaUy feels obliged to follow the ^^J^i^ #i 
main story. But is it completely innoo^t < **- 

the immortal play of Kalidasa ? 



, Fort, 



142 3W3; PURA^A [VOL. XV. NO 1 

In the Mahabharata text, as critically edited, Dusyanta asks 
akuntala whose daughter she was and Sakuntala -narrates the 
story of how she was born to MenakS and Visvamitra. Upon this, 
Dusyanta says she is fortunately a Ksatriya woman. The 
Bhilgavata however goes a little further and makes Du?yanta say 
that it is clear that she is a Ksatriya's daughtei% for the heart of a 
Paurava will not be set on an unrighteous object. IX. 20.12: 



T Fir % 

The additional words of Dusyanta in the Bkagavata will not 
fail to recall the lines in Kalidasa's Ab/iijnanaszkuntata : 



There is perhaps another place also in the Bhngavafa where 
too there is an echo of Kalidasa. In I. 19.8, the Bh&gwata speaks 
of the great souls who sanctify places by their visit and stay, and 
thereby contributing to the holiness of Tlrthas: 



This may be after Kalidasa's definition of Tlrtha in Kumnra- 
sambhava VI. 56 as the place where worthy souls had stayed : 



I. Tfa AS ahobKSrala text in- the additional passages of the Southern 
r**n8Son, rejected by the Critical Edition, has patent echoes from 
tie corrwjxmdingcontext in KSlidasa's play. 



THE DATE OF THE NARASI^IHA PUR&^A 
BY 

V. RAGHAVAN 



In his Studies in the Upapuriinas, Vol. I., (Calcutta Sanskrit 
College Research Series No. n), Dr. R. G. Hazra analyses the 
Narasimha Parana and discusses its date. In addition to the published 
text (Gopal Narayan and Co., Bombay, 2nd edn. 1911), he uses a 
number of manuscripts of the PurSna The Bombay edition is 
baaed only on three manuscripts and there is a clear case for a 
critical edition of the 



For arriving at a date for this Ptirapa, Hazra takes into 
account the contents of the Puraoa, its indebtedness to some texti, 
its citation in Sntrti-nibandhas and its mention by Alberuni. H* 
holds it to be one of the oldest and most important of the extant 
Vaisoava Puranas (pp. 219, 235). It 1 has been cited by a nambw 
ofNibandha writers which shows that it must have been well 
known by the first half of the llth cent. A. D. (pp. 235-7). The 
absence from it of Tantric orientation makes him take its date up 
to 700 A. D. and the absence of a regular account of theBuddk* 
among the ten incarnations of Visnu to a date not later than *bot 
500 A. D (pp. 238-9K He considers the PurJ^a also *o be earlier 
than the BhSgavata which he dates as early as the 6th cent. A D, 
(pp. 239-40) and later than the Visou and VSyu (pp. 241-2), *d 



Hazra mcationfl that the PurSija wa trta. 

* 1300 A. D. but it has been pointed m thatO* T^ *** 

has nothing to do with our PurEija aa ** it. t* in I* 



edn. See ParSn a IV. 2. (1962 July) PP- 
2 . See his Stedia'i* tto Pu^ic *, Dr 10. Vf. 



144 , gw^ puRSiviA [VOL. xv. NO. l 



concludes that the Narasirnha was written in the latter part of the 
5th cent. A. D. (p. 242) 

Hazra, however, points out (p. 243) that this date does not 
apply to all parts of the PurSna and that there are later interpola- 
tions in its text; and he proceeds to set forth a series of passages 
or sections of the Puratja not found in all the manuscripts of the 
PurSna. 

I may draw attention here to some passages in the PurSpa as 
presented in its Bombay edition mentioned above, which have a 
bearing on the date of the Pur ana in that edition, which would 
go down very much from the date Hazra has shown. I will take the 
chapter narrating the manifestation of Visnu as Rama (Rama- 
PrndurdhZva} , beginning with ch. 47. 

Cfa. 47, v. 82 in a longer metre : 'Udyataika-bhuja-yaftim 
ajtoilw 1 etc. is taken from KalidSsa's Raghuvarn^a, IX. 1 7. One of 
the three manuscripts used by the Bombay edition docs not have 
this verse, 



aham 
fromthe Raghuvaip ^ canto 



Hazra notes that the JfarasifpAa has some portions in prose. 
h ha= > also a portion which is in the drama-style. This is in ch. 52 

The In r u " gada ^ a laSt mInUte ^"nger to Rava^a. 

The Ime, here numbered 21-32 occur in the same sequence in the 

" 



ln Subhata ' s play > the y are 



THE DATE OF THE NARASl^HA PURS^IA 145 



Now, as has been pointed out, 1 the Datangada was staged in 
1243 A. D. at the court of Galukya Tribhuvanapala, in the celebra- 
tion in honour of the former king Kumarapala; also in the same 
period;, the former part of the 13th cent. A. D., Some^vara praised 
poet Subhata in his Kirti-Kaumudl. 

Assimilation of passages from the BhSgavata, which is usually 
not assigned to the high date that Hazra gives it, could also be 
shown, b\U this may be taken up on another occasion. 



1. Keith, Sanskrit Drama, p. 269, 
10 



ACTIVITIES OF THE ALL-INDIA KASH1RAJ TRUST 

(July-December, 1972) 

WORK ON THE PURANAS 

1. Releasing of the Karma Parana Volumes 

The Critical Edition of the Kurma PurSna with Appendices 
and Critical Notes had already been printed in June last as 
noted in the account of the activities of the Trust in Parana 
XIV - 2 (July, 1972). The two translation-Volumes of Hindi 
and English along with the constituted Sanskrit text and some 
important appendices (viz. name-index including the personal 
and geographical names, lists of flora and fauna, tlrthas, 
akhyanas, stotras, vratas etc.) were also completely printed by 
August (1972). 

The three volumes of the Karma-Purana, Critical Edition 
and the two translation Volumes were formally released at a 
public function by the Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh, (Pt. 
Kamalapati Tripathi) on September 2, 1972. The function was 
held in the Trust's Building Shivala Baradari, Varanasi, on the 
bank of the Ganga , and was attended by the invitees including 
the distinguished gentry of the city, the Professors of the 
three Universities of Varanasi and other Sanskrit scholars and also 
the Press. The function was presided by His Highness Maharaja 
Dr. Vibhuti Narain Singh, the Chairman of the Trust. After the 
mangaiaearana and the welcome speech by PC. Rajeshwar 
Shastri Dravid the copies of the three Volumes were presented 
to the Chief Minister by His Highness, and also to their 
editor and the translators by the Chief Minister, after which the 
(ftieral Sec r e *ary of the Trust, Sri Ramcsh Chandra D 6j read 
report of the literary and the cultural activities of the 
Trust. He also announced that the Trust proposes 
CMltre f Indian learnin g ^ Varanasi to guide specially 
h Scholars who come to India in quest of India's wisdom 

aas&rfaed in Ij er ancient literature. Pt. Kamalapati Tripathi 
, I ? peecfa stressed ^6 need of the study of the Puranas 
of the publication of their authentic editions. He praised 
tJ KUvftto of the Kashiraj Trust in this direction and 
to scholars and the Government to co-operate 
and sacred work undertaken by the Kashiraj 
Vibhuti Narain Singh in his concluding 



i snrar 



?TO 



tfrenr (m\ 



^rwt 



SrfwtlH*!":, 



148 3*Wff PUR^JilA [VOL. XV. NO. 1 

speech thanked the chief guest, Ft. Kamalapati Tripathi, and 
the audience. His Highness also explained various problems 
and the difficulties that are being faced in carrying out this work 
and expressed the hope that the Government and the scholars 
would both be coming forward to help the Trust in the important 
project, 

2. Varaha Purana 

For constituting the text of the Varaha-Puraria a number 
of manuscripts have been procured from different places, and 
efforts are being made to procure some more manuscripts, or 
their nhoto-copies. 

The following MSS of the Varaha Purapa have been 
collated. 

1. No 57/183 of the Sarasvati Bhandara Library, Fort 
Ramnagar, Varanasi, Devanagarl script. 

2. No. 58/1 83 of the same Library, Script DevanagarT. 

3. No. 15766 of the Sarasvati Bhavana Library, Varana- 
seya Sanskrit University, Script Devanagarl. 

4. No. 1197 of the Visveshvarananda Vedic Institute, 
Hoshiarpur (Punjab). Dn, 

5. No. 122 of 1881-82 of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research 
Institute, Poona. Script Dn. 

6. No. 86 of 1875-76 of the B O. R. I. Poona Script Dn. 

7. A Palm leaf MS from the S"rngerl Matha, Mysore. 
Script Nandinagarl. 

8 Microfilm of a Bengali MS, No. G2-42 from the Seram- 
pur College, W. Bengal. 

Tfee following MSS, are being collated : 

1, Transcript copy of the Devanagarl MS, No. D10130, 
from the T. M. S. Sarasvati Mahal Library, Tanjore. 

2. Transcript copy o f the Devanagarl MS No. D. 10134. 
from the same Library 

S, B^IM*. NT, ^, 0from theAsiaticSodety 



the Bengali MS. No. 1238, from the Sans- 
e, Calcutta. 



ACTIVITIES OF THE ALL-INDIA KASHIRAJ TRUST UQ 



v. 



1 : i 



150 2FRPT PURXlilA [VOL. XV. NO. 



Besides these, the microfilm copy of a Devanagari MS. No. 
1 1 1 from the British Museum, London, has also been received 
and will be collated shortly. Two DevanSgarl MSS. from 
Oriental Research Institute Jodhpur, two DevanSgari MSS. and 
one Grantha MS from India Office Library, London, and 
Devanagari transcript copies of one Telugu MS. from Govt. MS, 
Library, Madras are shortly to be procured. 

OTHER WORKS 
Purafla Patha and Pravacana 

From 11.8.72 to 19.8.72 the complete text of the Tripurn 
Rafiasya was recited in the morning in the BalSdevI temple, 
Ramnagar by Pt. Laksmaiia Pandey and discourses on it were 
given in the evening by Pt. Thakur Prasad Dvidvedi, Ramnagar, 

From 14.11.72 to 20.11.72 in the bright half of the Kartika 

month the text of the Visnu-dharmottara-PurStja was recited 

by Pt. Gopal Sharma Dogate, and the discourses on it were 
given by Pt, Vishwanath Shastri Datar. 

Ved a-par ay ana 

During the bright half of the Asadha Month from llth 
July to 26th July the whole text of the ukla Yajurved SarhhitS 
was recited from memory by Pt. Vinayak Bhatta Sharma Badala 
in the Siva-temple of the ivala Palace, Varanasi. On the con- 
clusion of the PSrSyana the daksjna and the ratna-kankaqa was 
given to the reciter. 

The scholars who were invited to the Purana gosthi on the 
25th July, IJgtened to the Veda recitation in the iva-temple. 
Stanzas from the S"atapatha Brahmana were also recited from 
memory by the three students of the Vidya Mandir who have been 
mh to mtmory the text of the S"atapatha Brahmana. 



On this occasion a Purana-gosthl was also arranged as usual 
M*p ^ W, July, 1972, which was presided by His Highness 
i N arain Singh and was attended em . nent 

?^ BUCh " Pt BaUeva Upadhyaya, retired 
of Samkrit, B. H. U.. Dr. Reva Pxasad Divedi, Head of 



ACTIVITIES OF THE ALL-INDIA KASHIRA] TRUST 151 



cr i 
i srp5zrfa!rreftRR'!n?r 



si. 



crrr 



: qj5: 






152 SCOTT PURX$A [VOL, XV. NO. I 

the Sahitya Dept., Sans. College, B. H. U , Dr. Raghunath Singh, 
etc. and a number of distinguished persons of the city. After 
the VySsa-vandana the VySsa Purnima number of the Pur&na 
Bulletin was presented to H. H. Dr, Vibhuti Narain Singh The 
VarsSsana (six monthly scholarship of Rs. 600) was also given to 
Pt. Krlshnamurti S"rautT, the Saroaveda scholar. He gave a 
demonstration of the various ganas of the mantras of Samaveda. 
The Editor then read the report of the work of the PurSna 
Department, placing certain problems of PurSnic text edition 
and inviting suggestions there-on, which were discussed by the 
scholars and suggestions were given by them. PrasSda was 
distributed at the end of the Gosthi, 

Celebration of the Sanskrit Day 

The Sanskrit Day, sponsored by the Ministry of Education, 
Government of India, was celebrated on 25 August, 1972 under the 
auspices of the Kashira] Trust and the Maharaja Banaras VidyS 
Mandir Trust. Dr. Reva Pd. Dwivedi of B.H.U., the scholars of the 
Purana Department of the Kashiraj Trust and the teachers and 
students of the Vidya Mandir and the local P. N. Intermediate 
College took part in the celebration, Antyaksarl-competition in 
Sanskrit was held in which the students of the Vidyamandir and of 
the P. N. Inter College took part. Prizes were awarded to the 
participants. A number of Sanskrit scholars from Ramnagar and 
students amongst the audience spoke in Sanskrit on the importance 
of Sa